US 1436193 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
H. POHLMANN AND P. FRANK.
CONSTRUCTION OF BUILDINGS AND PARTS OF THE SAME WHICH ARE HEAT AND COLD INSULATING. APPLICATION FILED JULY 22, I920.
- ITASG, l 93. T Patented Nov. 21, 1922..
3 SHEETS$HEET 1.
H. POHLMANN AND P. FRANK.
CONSTRUCTION OF BUILDINGS AND PARTS OF THE SAME WHICH ARE HEA APPLICATION FILED JULY 22, 1920. 1,436,193..
T AND COLD INSULATING.
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H. POHLMANN AND P. FRANK.
ND PARTS OF THE SAME WHICH ARE HEAT APPLICATION FILED .IULY 22,1920.
CONSTRUCTION OF BUILDINGS A AND COLD INSULATING.
Patented Nov. 21, 1922.
3 SHEETS-SHEET 3- Patented Nov, 21, 19212.,
HANS POI-ILMANN, 0 VTAN-DSBEK, AND
PAUL FRANK, OF HAMBURG, GERLEANY.
oousrzancrron or BUILDINGS AND rears or rem saris 'wnron nan HEAT AND corn nvsurarrue.
1 Application filed July 22,
' have filed applications in Germany Auu'ust 4, 1917, August 26, 1918; Netherlands May 23, 1919) and we do hereby declare the following to be a full, clear, and exact description of the same.
This invention relates to built-up structures, such as houses, parts and other buildings of any kind and for any purpose havingwalls, floors and ceilings constructed in a manner to afford a, very efficient insulation against heat, cold and sound.
The employment of concrete and the like is contemplated, though concrete is a comparatively good conductor of heat for the construction of columns, girders, and those supporting parts of the building, which have to carry loads, while the other parts, such as walls, are constructed from hollow bodies made of materials which possess little heat-conducting capacity.- But the said columns, girders, etc., are separated from the adjacent parts of the building by air spaces. Both these air spaces and the free spaces of the aforesaid hollow bodies, however, may just as well be filled with a material of little heat-conductive properties, such as cork-meal, infusorial earth or the like.
In order that the said invention may be clearly understood and readily carried into effect, it now will be described more fully with reference to the accompanying drawinns, in which Figure 1 is a perspective elevation of part of a building embodying this invention, part-ly'in section or broken away,
Figure 2 is a sectional plan view of a wall,
Figure 3 is a sectional plan view of a cornerof the building,
Figure 4 is a sectional plan view, of'a modified construction of the Wall,
1920. $erial No. 398,304.
Figure 5 is a sectional elevation of part of a wall and ceiling,
'Figure 6 is a sectional elevation of a part of a roof structure with adjacent parts,
Figure 7 is a sectional elevation of part of a wall in a modified construction,
Figure 8 isa perspective view of part of the wall structure,
Figure 9 represents one of the reinforcinp; members shown in Figure 8,
Figure 10 is a sectional elevation of part of a wall in a modified construction,
Figures 11 and 12 represent each a reinforcing member adapted for use in the modification shown in Figure 10.
In Figure l a part of a building constructed in accordance with the invention s: illustrated. All supporting parts of the same, that have to carry loads or are subject to strains are made of concrete, reinforced concrete or brick-work, or of a solid iron and wood construction. The walls, floors, ceilings and eventually the roof,'however, are 7 constructed of hollow bodies 1 in the shap of boxes, cases or similar structures. Such a hollow body represents in itself compact unity, it being of advantage in most cases to give the body a length of the double of its width.
The hollow bodies 1 are closed on the front and back and these two sides ,or faces may be coated with, a layer of ordinary mortar, vconcrete or cement-mortar either before or 5 after theyhave been assembled to constitute a wall, ceiling", etc, whereas those sides that come in contact with other hollow bodies of the same kind or with insulated parts of the building are open.
To produce a ceilingor a wall, the hollow bodies are placed side by side and the joints are filled. with mortar as usuallyvdone in a wall, made of ordinary tiles. At the ends of the building and other places, where supporting structures must be provided, solid columns 3 and girders 4: made of concrete, reinforced concrete or brick-work, are lo cated. j
The columns 3 made of concrete are provided with reinforcements in the shape of iron bars or rods 5, or wires. The rods 5 are, if necessary, connected with each other by steadying cross-wires 6 or the like. The
or frames and door-frames are preferably also constructedof concrete or reinforced concrete and where it is necessary, ironbeams are embedded.
The construction of. a building is caried on in sucha way, that the bottom layer of hollow bodies is made first by placing the latter .as required side by side and Filling the joints with mortar. Thereafter the colums or the like, if any, are built up, preterably only to the height of the adjacent layer or layers of hollow bodies 1. 1 some cases, however, it may be of advantage to erect right away the columns or other loadcarrying concreteeposts to the full of their height or up "to the floor of the following upper story.
After one layer has been produced, the next one aboveis started lay-placing the hollow bodies 1 again side by side and filling their joints with mortar, whereupon the column orcolumns are continued to be erected to the height of the second layer, provided they have not been built up from the beginning tothe full height of: the story. This mode of construction is continued. until the walls are erected up to those points, where the horizontally or otherwise arranged supporting parts, such as floorbeams or girders 4'. or the like are to be placed. the wall of the ,next story is erected by means of hollow bodies 1 as before.
The'connection of the columns with their adjacent parts is, according to this invention, carried out so, that .a free space or clearance is formed at the places, where the hollow bodies-or other parts meet the said columns so that the latter are separated by an air-volume, which may act as heat-co r ducting bodies. This is the leading idea of the invention. The free spaces surrounding the columns may .be produced by correspondinglyshaping the hollow bodies 1 ad.-
r jacent to the column .or in lieu of such free spaces insulating bodies may be arranged between the columns and the adjacent of the construction.
Figure 2 shows a horizontal section of the wall. The hollow bodies 1 comprise wooden frames covered with cardboard or similar sheets preferably connected thereto by nails.
The sheets preferably consisting ofwaterproof material, are placed parallel to each other so that air-spaces are formed @by said sheets, which are separated from each other.
F ach hollow body comprises two parallel, right angular frames .8 made of wood, which when thehollow bodies are assembled in the construction oi a wall, stand wertically.
These frames extend fromthe center of the one column to thecenter of the other column. The hollow body 1 further comprises wooden parts 9, which preferably likewise On top of such supporting means parts.
wit-h a thick plate of concerete 12 and with a coat of mortar 2. y
igure 3 is a horizontal section through the corner of a buildinghaving walls alike to that shown in Fig. 2.
In the modification shown in Fig. 14: the columns are of oblong CTOSSTSClilOIl while the cross-section in Figs. 2 and 3 square. Besides'this, only one sheet 10 is provided in thecenter OfGflCll hollow body 1 and the hollow body 1 is so shaped, that-it surrounds the column 3 on oneside with a projecting frame 6, so, that the joints are not in a straight line but in staggered relation.
Fig. 5 is a sectional elevation of part of a wall. The frame 6 is here enforced by a central ledge 13. The straight line joints 14;, between twoliollow bodiesl arefil'led with mortar 15 onlyto connectth'e concrete or mortar plates 12 below the mortar coat 2.
They are, in order to .obtain the desired .in-
sulation within their reach, subdivided. by card-board strips bent over to have acertain resilience. I a
.a Figure 6 isa similar sectional View of part of a roof andthe adjacent parts of the building.
Below the lat'hs 1'6 hollow bodies 1/ are in sorted whereby an ex ellent insulation is obtained.
Figure 7 is a sectionalelevation of a wall made from, hollow bodies, whichare very narrow, as they only consist of wooden frames 17 with a central .or medium ledge or stay 18 and two. insulating card-boards 19, nailed upon the frame 17 or otherwise fastened thereto. Upon the outer cardboards 17, very thick layers of concrete or mortar are placed preferably in the shape of plates 20, and :tree spaces 21 are provided therebetween.,, i
As .a wall so far constructed would not be at sufficient strength, reinforcing or steadying irons 22 are embedded in the joints between each two adjacent hollow bodies. The ends 23 of said irons are split and bent sideways to aflordfa firm grip for holding the structure in rigid connection.
Figure 8 illustrates part. of the wallin a perspective View and Figure 9 shows a .sin- 'gle iron or anchor 22 provided with holes 24 through which nails or bolts may be passed for fastening purposes.
In the vertical section illustrated in Fig. reinforcing irons or anchors of a different shape are shown, which are separately represented in Figures 11 and 12, and have a single or two gripping ends 26 and 27 respectively.
In Figure 10 the hollow bodies similar to those in Figure 8 are likewise held together by irons or anchors 22. The other anchors 25 serve the special purpose of supporting boards 28 which co-operate with the inside faces of the Wall bodies to constitute the mould for the girder 4.
In Figure 7 the frames 17 are, as already mentioned, reinforced by ledges or stays 18.
This is however, not always necessary. Simple square or rectangular frames with out any such reinforcements may be used.
Having now described and ascertained the nature of our invention and the manner in which the same is to be performed we now declare what we claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United States 1. A building comprising walls made of single superposed hollow bodies, solid supporting members made of concrete and erected at the end of said superposed bodies to form pillars or columns, and facing covers or plates made of concrete and spaced from the two opposite faces of said pillars or columns to ensure a continuous air insulating space around the latter and over the said bodies.
2. A building comprising walls made of single superposed hollow bodies, solid supporting pillars or columns made of concrete and erected at the end of said superposed bodies, ceilings or floors extending between said walls and said columns, girders or joists made of concrete within said walls, and facing covers or plates made of concrete and spaced from the two opposite faces of said columns and from the adjacent faces of the other stated supporting members to afford a continuous insulating air space in front thereof.
3. A building comprising walls made of single superposed. hollow bodies, solid supporting pillars or columns made of concrete and erected. at the end of said superposed bodies, facing covers or plates made of concrete and spaced from the two opposite faces of said pillars or columns, and reinforcing irons or anchors extending across through the hollow bodies and the facing plates and having split and bent ends to grip over the facings.
4. A building comprising walls made of single superposed hollow bodies, solid sup porting pillars or columns made of concrete and erected at the end of said superposec. bodies, ceilings or floors extending between said walls and said columns, girders or joists made of concrete within said walls, facing plates made of concrete and spaced from the two opposite faces of the said columns and from the adjacent faces of the other stated supporting members, and reinforcing irons or anchors extending across through the hollow bodies and the facing plates and having split and bent up ends to grip over the facing. I
In testimony whereof, we have signed our names to this specification in the presence of two subscribing witnesses.
HANS POHLMANN. PAUL FRANK. Witnesses:
Ronow, ALFRED GREsI, Jr.