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Publication numberUS1436384 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateNov 21, 1922
Filing dateApr 7, 1922
Priority dateApr 7, 1922
Publication numberUS 1436384 A, US 1436384A, US-A-1436384, US1436384 A, US1436384A
InventorsWilliam F Craddick, Charles M Uhlig
Original AssigneeVit O Net Mfg Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Electrical pad and the like
US 1436384 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)



1,436,384. Patented Nov. 2P, 1922.

Patented Nov. zi, i922.




Application led April 7, 1922. Serial No. 550,448.

To all whom t may concern.'

Be it known that we, WXLLIAM I". CRAD- nloi, a citizen of the United States, and CHARLES M. UHLIG, 'a citizen of Austria l` (having declared my intention of becoming a citizen of the United States), bothresiding at Chicago, Cook County, Illinois, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Electrical Pads and the like, of which the following is a specification.

This invention has todo with certain improvements in electrical pads or the like, that is,pads or like articles which are heated electrically by an electric current passed 1,5 through them. We will state'in the first lace that the features of the invention here- -1n disclosed maybe used either in connection with articles of relatively small size such as pads, or articles of relatively large size, such as blankets, and certain of said features may also be used to advantage in connection with electrically warmed robes, dressing gowns,'etc. For purposes of conveniencein description and explanation however, and in order to simplify the specification, drawing and claims, we have herein illustratedand will describe the features of our invention as being incorporated within a pad, but in so doing we wish it clearly understood'that we do not intend to limit the application or usefulness of the features of our inventionto pads or any other particular article of manufacture except as we may do so in the claims.

l5 `Bearing the foregoing-v. in mind, .we will heat. By so doing also the vsmoothness and uniformity and regularity of the completed fabric is 4greatlyfimpro'ved, since the creation of double thicknesses and other objection- I able elements is practically eliminated."

In connection with the foregoing, it is to.` be observed that in' order to be ableto weaye' the pads in the most satisfactory and edo nomical manner, it should be possible to' .weave `there Yby a, Acontinuous. weavmg process in which the warp threads are continuously drawn through, the weft threads being thrown back and forth in the proper weave. In order, therefore, to make it vpossible to produce the pads to the best advantage, the weaving process should be so conducted that during the weaving operation the wire will be properly woven into the fabric along with the regular weft threads, the use of the wire in this process being so conducted that after a proper amount of material has been woven to constitute one pad, there will be a pause in the weaving of the wire so as to weave. a certain section without wire, after which the in weaving of the wire may be resumed and carried forward during the weaving of lthe next pad section. In this way the weaving operation may proceed practically continuously, and when a long section has been fabricated it may be cut up into the proper lengths for the individual pads.

One of the objects yof the present invention is to provide a weaving process in' which the foregoing operation and desirable results may be conducted and secured.v

Another feature of the invention relates to the manner in which the weaving of the wire is conducted for each of the individual pad sections. In this connection, it is to be remarked that the presence of sharp bends of wire at the very edges of the pad is objectionable, since these edges are naturally subjected to more or less wear and hard service and therefore the insulation on the wire ,would rapidly become Worn and possibly broken through, thus subjecting the user of the pad to. dangerand also so increasing re hazards. Furthermore, the presence of the sharp bends of wire at the very edge of .the pad is 4also objectionable since the tendency vfor the wire conductor to become 4broken is thus enhanced, with corresponding danger'of opening the circuit and thus not only making'the pad useless, but also someftimes bringing about sparks .or shortcirfcuits with the attendant dangers and


One of the objects ofxtheinvention is to` provide a weave for they wire and other elements of fabric such that the cross weaving of the wireitself stops short of the edge of the fabric, the weaving of the weft and warp threads themselves continuing to the edges of the pad, so lthat in the completed work there will remain at each side a strip of fabric adjacent to the selvage within which however there is no wire but only threads or the 4 lates. to the provision of a weave in which there shall beprovided all 'the way around the pad a section of wireless fabric, the wires being confined to the space inside of said section, so that the completely woven article may be sewed or stitched clear around its edge without meeting or crossing any wires whatsoever. rlhis will make it possible to apply to one or both faces of the pad suitable facing ofcloth or other material so as'to give the pad a completed and finished appearance and condition, such facing being sewed all the way around the edge of the pad without any interference by the presence of the wires. ln this connection, another object is to produce a completed pad of this type having the aforesaid facings on one or both faces.

Still another` feature of the invention relates to the provision of pads in commercial form which shall be properly related and designed for the attainment and main tenance of a proper temperature in their normal operation and use. ln this connection, it is to be remembered vthat as long yas an electric current is passed through the wire heat is generated at a substantially constant rate, and the temperature which the pad will ultimately attain will be that temperature at which the heat is'being radiated or otherwise given oft at the-same rate as new heat is being generated. Naturally, for an article of this kind to be safe in use, it must be so arranged that it will never ordinarily exceed more than a certain desired temperature when used in the proper manner.

These pads may be used 1n any convenient manner largely according to the wishes of the patient, but they will frequently be placed'under the covers of the bed or under the garments of the patient, so that theradiatipn of heat is correspondingly impeded.y

As aresult of this fact there will frequently be times when the heat generated by the electric current is not dissipated as rapidly as it is generated, so that the temperature will continue. to rise and might reach a point beyond a safe limit.

@ne of the objects of the invention is to provide one or more thermostats in conjunction with -the pad which will serve to-limit the rise of temperature by opening the circuit asisoon as the desired limit is reached.

- Another object in this connection is to make provision in the original weaving of the pad,

lincluding the Weaving Vof the wire there- `construction and combinations of .inafter described and claimed.

such as may be use v12, 1s, 14 and i5.

intoi, for the satisfactory accommodation of such thermostat or thermostats without the necessity of substantially rearranging the wiring after the weaving operation is completed.

In conjunction with the use of thermostatsvanother feature of the invention relates -to the provision of two or more thermostats so connected into the circuit that either or both of them may be made operative for limiting the temperature. ln this connection, a further o'bject is to provide two or more thermostats operable at different temperatures, and to so connect them into the circuits that the electric current will be cut olf either at a low temperature or at a high temperature according to the position into which the user may throw the switch. u

Still another object of the invention is to provide a weave offsuch character that the maximum strength thereof will be provided in those portions which are normally subjected to thev most severe usage and the greatest strains.

@ther objects and uses of the invention will appear from a detailed description of the same, which consists in the features of parts hereln the drawing:

Figure shows a fragmentary face view of a portion of a pad weave embodying certain of the features of the present invention, the section of weave illustrated in this ligure having its central portion cut away so as to make the figure narrower;

Fig. 2 shows a face view of a section of completed weave as the same comes 0H of the loom, illustrating a section of weave containing five complete pads joined together;

Fig. 3 shows a face view of a completed pad on enlarged scale as compared to Fig. 2, the pad of Fig. 8, however, not being prrivided with any coveringof facing materia v Fig. et shows a'section taken on the line ll-4f of Fig. 3, looking inthe direction ofl the arrows; and

Fig. 5 shows a typical wiring diagram in conjunction. with lll@ two thermostats adaptedI to cut out at the `saine or different temperatures.

Referring first to Fig. 2, we will state that the strip of pad material in its entirety is designated by thenumeral 6. lt may be woven as a continuous strip so as to provide a series of consecutive pads 7, 8, 9, l0 and 1'1 between them being the spaces Each of the padshas woven into it a conductor wire through which the electric currenty lt will be understood that the warp threads extend lengthwise of Fig. 2', and the weft may be passed.


threads extend across the same, the material traveling lengthwise of. Fig. 2 as it comesI off the loom.

Referring now to Fig. 1, we will explain more in detail the weave illustrated. The same includesv three groups of warps designated respectively. 17, 18, and 19. The warp threads 17 are for the body-of the pad and the groups of warp threads 18 and 19 are for the two borders respectively..

The weft thread is designated by the numeral 20. It extends back and forth with respect to the warp threads, over and under the different ones as desired and as dictated during the weaving operation. The wire is designated by the numeral 21. It likewise is woven back and forth, through the fabric, over and under certain of the warp threads in the proper and desired manner.

Examining Fig. 1 more in detail, it will be noted that in the lower portion of said figure the weft thread commencing at the point A weaves over and' under the various warps from one edge of the fabric to the other until the point B is reached at the right-hand side of the weave. When this stage of the operation is reached, the wire is run through the body portion of the fabric, over and under the various body warps 17 from the point() to the point D and then the wire is held at the left-hand side of the weave, while the weft thread is run through to the left hand side without shifting the warps. As a consequence, the wire and the weft thread lie side by side during their passage through the body portion of the pad, as is clearly indicated in Fig. 1, thevweave in the border portions18 and 19 being regular, except that a somewhat enlarged space is created in the border portions oppositev to the position ofthe wire as is clearly indicatedin Fig. 1. Thereafter the weft thread is run back and forth through the body and border warps va desirable number of ,times to establish the weave of fabric which it is desired yto make, and during this time thel wire is held at the lefthand side of the weave.

After .the desired length of Weave has -been made and the weft thread has been run through to thev right hand side, it is hel/d at the point E while the wire is sent throughthe body warps to the point F. *The warpsare then held withoutv shifting andy the weft thread is sentback to the left hand side at the point G, after which the weaving of the weft thread back and forth from side to side is continued in regular fashion.

After a complete pad has been woven, 'the wire is heldA at the initial side while thefweft threadA is woven back and forth in a regular.- fashion through'the body and border warpsl until a length of fabric has been produced suflicient to provide thespaces 12, 13, 14 or 15, as the case may be, between two consecu-A thermostat.

with the weft thread then proceeds in the proper manner to weave another pad. It will be noted, however, that a substantial length'of wire 22 is left at the front end of Examination of Fig. 3 in articular shows that there is a continuous order of fabric material around the entire periphery of each pad within which there are no wires. This border serves not only toprotect the end portions of the wires, but also provides a fabric section to which the facings maybe readily secured. by sewing or otherwise without interference from the wires themselves and without danger of injuring either the. wires or the insulating covering onthem. As shown in Fig. Lithe faoings 23V and 24 may be placed at the two sides'of-the woven pad. These facings are sewed-ronto the border portions ofthe pad by the' line of stitching 25 which extends entirely around the periphery ofthe article.

, It was previously explainedthat one of the features of the inventionhas reference to the provision of suitable thermostatswithin the pad for limiting-the temperature by cutting off the :electric current when .'28 of the wire. woven into the fabricleads directly to the terminal connection 29. The terminal wire 30 'of the wire woven into the fabric leads directly to the terminal connection 31. The `high temperature thermostat 26 is perinanentlyconnected into the wire circuit of the wirewoven into the fabric so that the current always flows through this The low temperature thermostat I27 'is connected to the terminal wire 28 and also to a special low temper ture connection 32. Consequently, when current is passed Aonly through the terminal connections 29 and 31, the high temperature ther; g, mostat only is in circuit and will allow the temperature of the pad to rise to a relatively high temperature at which it fcuts out. On

the other 'hand when current yis vpassed through the terminal connection's'31 and 32 the thermostat 27 Ywill open at the lower temperature for which it is set, and thus preventthe pad from'attaining the relatively highertemperature,I A convenient' setl of tivepads. The weaving of the wire together i titi circuits for these cut outs is shown in Fig. 5

in which there is indicated diagrammatif In order to simplify the wiring withinthe pad itself, and in order to most conveniently accommodate the thermostats when the same are used, the wire may be so woven as to establish the proper places for the natural accommodation of the thermostats. lin Fig. 2 the pads 9 and 10 are shown as being woven continuously without any special provision being made for the reception of thermostats. The pad l1 is shown as being woven with a space 36 for the accommodation of4 a single thermostat. This space may be established during the weaving of the wire by either providing a certain amount of slack in the wire at this point, which slack will provide enough free wire for conveniently establishing the thermostat connections. Or, the wire may be woven at this point 'so as to skip a number of body war threads thus establishing a space within w ich the wire is free from the warps, so that upon cutting the wire the thermostat may be set into place and connected to the wire ends so established.

'llhe pad shown at 8 in Fig. 2 is provided with a space 8.7 for the accommodation of one-thermostat to be connected directly into wire circuit, being a high temperature thermostat, and also with a space 38 where another low temperature thermostat may be set without interference from the weave, of the wire. 'llhe space 38 may be conveniently established by stopping the wire relatively short during its weave through the body "warps instead of carrying it clear over to the right hand border warps. ln the pad 7 we have shown two spaces 39 and 'a0 for the accommodation of two thermosta'ts, said spaces being provided by stopping the wire short of the right hand border warps at two distinct points.

We wish to point outparticularly the fact' that in yweaving the pads herein disclosed the wire is left entirely out of the entire border portion of the pad, so as to establish a very convenient and perfect border section to which the facings may beattached without interference from the wires, and to also protect the wires themselves against abrasion of their insulation or breakage of their conductors. Wp wish to also point out that we have madespecial provision in the weaving of the wire for the accommodation of the thermostats at the vproper points without interference from the woven wire, and without the necessityof settingjthe thermostats down-onto the wires woven into the fabric.

While we have herein shown and (ile-vY side, substantially as described.

scribed only certain embodiments of the features of our present invention, still we do not limit ourselves to the same except as we may d0 so in the claims.

We clalm: f

l. As a new article of manufacture an electric pad or the like comprising a fabric and facings therefor, said fabric consisting of body warps, border warps at each side,

wefts, and an insulated wire, the wefts being woven throughout the entire width of the fabric from one extreme end to the other and from one extreme selvage to the other eX- tremeselvage, and the wire being woven only within the body warps and in the same passes with the wefts, and terminating at points within both ends of the fabric, whereby there is produced a fabric consisting-of a central portion containing insulated wire woven into the fabric together with an integral contiguous border of wireless fabric completely surrounding the wire containingI body portion, the sheets of facing material lying against the faces of the fabric and reaching over the border portion, and a line of stitching joining 'the sheets of facing material to the wireless border portion, substantially as described.

2. As a new article of manufacture an electric-pad or the like comprising a fabric and a facing therefor, said fabric consisting of body warps, border warps at each side, wefts, and an insulated wire, the wefts being woven through the entire width of the fabric from one extreme end to the other and from one extreme salvage to the other extreme selvage, the wirebeing woven only within the body warps and in the same passes with the wefts and terminating at points within both ends of the fabric, whereby there is provided f a fabric consisting of a central portion containing insulated wire woven into the fabric,

'together with an integral contiguous border `of wireless fabric completely surrounding the wire containing body portion, the sheet -warps at each side, wefts, and an insulated wire, the wefts being woven throughout the entire width of the fabric from one eXtreme selvage to the other extreme salvage, and the wire being woven only within thebody warps andv in the same passes with the wefts,

whereby there is produced a fabric consisting of a central portion containing insulated wire woven into the fabric, together with an integralborder of wireless fabric a. as a new article of 'manufacture an itl@ dit

at each to the other extreme selvage with a regular weave, and the wire being woven with a regular weave during the same `passes as the i Wefts, whereby there is produced a fabric consisting of a central portion containing insulated wire woven into the fabric together with an integral border of' wireless fabric at each side, all portions of the fabric being established by a regular weave andy with a maximum of strength and uniformity, substantiaily as described.

5. As a new article of manufacture an electric pad or the like consisting of a fabric comprising body warps, border Warps at cach side.; wefts, and an insulated Wire, the Wefts being Woven throughout the entire Width of the fabric from one extreme selvage to the other extreme selvage, and the Wire being interwoven with the wefts but onlyin the body7 portion, and there being spaces in the body portion within which the weave of the wire is omitted to thereby establish suitable locations for thermostats or the like, substantially as described.

6. As a new article of manufacture an electric pad or the like consisting of a fabric comprising body warps, border warps at each side, Wefts, and an insulated wire the wefts being woven throughout the entire width of the fabric from one extreme selvage to the other eXtreme selvage, and the Wire bein interwoven in an appropriate secm tion of tie weave, there 'being locations where the wire is not interwoven for the pui'A pose of accommodating thermostats or the E.

like, substantiallyas described.


Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2439892 *Aug 29, 1944Apr 20, 1948Knapp Monarch CoHeating blanket or the like and method of fabricating same
US2458801 *Aug 22, 1944Jan 11, 1949Knapp Monarch CoElectrically energizable fabric
US2582341 *Jun 3, 1947Jan 15, 1952Celanese CorpElectrical device
US2678993 *Mar 13, 1952May 18, 1954De Boer Gerard WWoven resistance or heater device
US2933804 *May 11, 1956Apr 26, 1960Math FritzElectrical wire resistors and method of manufacturing the same
US6787740 *Aug 23, 2002Sep 7, 2004United Technologies CorporationIntegrally bladed rotor airfoil fabrication and repair techniques
U.S. Classification219/545, 338/208, 219/212, 219/510
International ClassificationH05B3/34
Cooperative ClassificationH05B2203/015, H05B2203/003, H05B2203/017, H05B3/342
European ClassificationH05B3/34B