US 1441564 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jan. 9, 1923, 1,441,564.
A. D. EBERLY.
FLUID TESTING DEVICE.
FILED JUNE 1. 1920.
awe/whim Aushn EJ576 19 Patented Jan, 9:192:39
v u ht eusrin in.
EBEBLY, or sroizelvn, m
rirnerrorn FLUID-TESTING DEVICE.
- Application filed June 1,
Testing Devices of which the following is a specification.
My invention relatesto improvements in fluid testing devices and has for one of its objects to providea i'neans tordeterinining and indicating the relative adhesive and cohesive proper; es of fluids, by wliieh theluhrieating value of tlie'tluids'nniy be judged.- A further object is to provide a device of the class described which shall indicate thedegree 0;? resistance ditlerent fluids offer to forces tending to drive them out from between two surfaces separatedby such fluid. I; still flf'lll'lillel' objectis to provide a de: vice olittlie described, wherein the adhesive and cohesive quality and hence the lubricatin value ottluids may be determined by the thickness of film ot the fluid placed between a lit-zed base and a movable head after a certain pressure has been brought to bringsaid base and saidhead into'contact, and means for n "in: the ten perature of the fluid o deterin he the effect ot heat on the adheruve and cohesive erties of the fluid;
A still further object is to urm'ide a do vice of the class described wherenn 1n aodn tion to the novel means for detern'iining and comparing the cohesive and adhesive pro; erties o'lithe fluid, the usual dash and fire point tests may be made, i j
Uther objects and features of novelty will be described in connection With theeccon panying drawings and specification and will be more fully pointed out inand by the appended claims.
In the drawings; t
Figure 1 is a side elevation of my device, shown partly in section,
l ip ui'e 2 is an enhnjred section on line El -2 0t l i e'ure l. I l
Figure 3 is an enlarged section on line 3-2l of Figure 1.
Figure lis an enlarged section on line l-tot Figure 1.
Figure 5 is an 5-5 of Figure 1. Like numerals same part througzl'iout the various the drawing.
enlarged sertion on line of reference designate the rures of c: i v lever, which lever hand or POIHtGl' 33.
1920. s riarno. 385,583.
Upon the vertical standardll which supported by the base 10. is slidably mounted the sleeveor collar to Whichis secured the cu'p supporting 12. v Ring 12 may be held in fixed position on thestandard 11 by thumb screvv rt. Supported by ring 12' is the cup 1%vrhieh inny contain sand, or the like, 1.5; withinivhich is set the fluid container 16.
A post 17 carries in offset relation thereto,
a sleeve 18slidably mounted on stande rd 11.
ltivill be seen that post 17 and all elements curried therebyniay be raised or lowered in substantially parallel relation to standard" 11 by loosening thumb screw 19. Post 1'? may be l1ll11l lined relation to s ndard '11 "and fluid container 16 bytightening thuznb'sorew 19. Carried by the lower extrennty of post 17 1s the fixed base 20" orranged'in a substantially horizontal plane.
with the smooth, substantially plane upper surface 21. i l
The level of the fluid 22, to be testel is indicated etEfi-i and it will he noted that Base 20 is preferably in the form of a round dual; of a suitable dian'ieter and is fashioned by loosening: screw 19 and raising or loweia to hearing 97 by screws 31 serveas keepers to prevent accidental removal oi bar 29 from it bearino 27, Bar 29 is carried by lever32; bea rin. 27 fori'i'iing the fulcrum 'i'or said also supports the dia Pointer 33 is adapted. to register with scale 26' and is counterbalanced 33'. i
tllid: v mounted on oneend oi lever is the Weight 34 which may he set in fixed [position by set screw 35. The opposite ent W is Forked to form arms 36 and are provided with for the kn" the nuns 36 t lever 3-3) which ernis grooves 38 toi'orni bearing edu'e block 39 whi h hriclloges and 37a Bloel; 39 is centrally at i0 to allou the tree passe e Wire All Whiclris threaded treniity for threaded engagement Wvitli bore of and lock of the rod or its upper er:-
the nut the lnnirled iniit 1-1 epertnred as 43, the lower face of nut 42 resting on the i upper face of block 39.
A movablehead 42 is provided with the centrally disposed lug 43 which is centrally recessed at 44 to receive the end 45 of rod 41. Fingers 46 extend upwardly from'lug 43 and are bent 'inwardlyfat 47 -toengage the shoulder 48 on rod 41 when said rod is drawn upwardly. The combined weight of rod 41, block 39, and nuts 42 and 43 is sufficient to Overcome the leverage exerted .on lever 32by weight 34 and consequently,
' 20 and surface 21be slightly out oflevel; The lower substantially plane face 42 of under certain conditions.
as long as red 41 is suspended ,fromlever 32 the pointer 33 will be swung in a clock-- wise direction until head 42 contacts with base 20 or a film of fluid between said head and said base. When head 42 comes to rest on base 20 or a fluid film thereon, the weight of rod 41 will carry said rod downwardly until end 45 bears on. the bottom of recess.
44, j at which, time shoulder 48 will be slightly out ofcontact with the bentportions 47 of fingers 46,, thereby allowing head 42a freedom of movement to accommodate the level of its lower surface 42 to the level ofthe surface 21, the bearing of recess 44 j and end45 centering head 42 with respect to base 20 but allowing for a slight rocking movement of he ad 42 in alldirections. The
provision of the joint just described a will render the device operable even though base head 42 superposes face 21 and is fashioned smooth an true and is complementary to face 21;.
Means such as Bunsen burner 49 maybe provided to raise the temperature of fluid 22, while thermometer 50may beimmersed in fluid 22 to indicate the temperature thereof.
As is common knowledge, the office of a lubricating fluid is to interpose a film be tween opposed surfaces to separate and lessen the friction between them. Therefore,
the comparative value oflubricants lies in the comparative amount'of cohesion among its own particles and their comparative powers of adhesion to surfaces, as it is these properties which determine how well'they will retain afllin between opposed surfaces When heated, the body of a lubricant ismore or less broken up, accordingto its quality, and this breaking up, while makingthelubricant more freely flowing by lessas in Figure 1.
ening its" cohesive property, causes it to lose to a greater or less extent its most i'mportant' quality of adhesion to surfaces. Thus, when heated, lubricants lose somewhat oftheir lubricating value. Since, for most purposes, a lubricant as actually used is raised to a considerable temperature either by friction or externally applied heat,
it 1s important that the lubricant to be tested shouldbe raised to such ateinperature as will approximate actual conditions under-which the lubricant is expected to. work. i
In a lubricant or fluid the relative powers ofadhesion and amount of cohesion may be determined by the degree of resistance the lubricant or fluid offers to a forcetending' to drive itoutfrom between two surfaces separated byv such lubricant or fluid. 'As will be seen, my device registers this degree of resistance at different temperatures ofthe lubricant or fluid'and thereby enables" one to comparethe relative adhesive and cohesive properties of different lubricants and fluids,
. r i In setting up the apparatus for use, container 16 isfirstemptied and'the surfaces 21 and 42 are wiped thoroiighly dry and clean.
Rod 41 and all, members secured theretoinay be separated from'the rest of the apparatus by lifting block 39 upwardly and drawing it clear of fork arms 36 and 37. 46 so that head .42 may be drawn upwardly with rod 41. By adjusting nut 19 and sliding post 17 upwardly or downwardly, base 20 may be positioned within container 1.6 Head 42 is then lowered into the container 16 until it rests on base 20, whereupon block 39is placed in the position of Figure 1 so that its knife edge Shoulder 48 will contact with fingers bears on the bottom of groove 38. By then properly adjusting nuts 42 and 43, lever 32 will be swung in aclockwise or counterclockwise direction (caused by pressure broughtto bear on block 39 downwardly with respect to lever 32, or by the downward action of weight 34', respectively) until pointer 33 exactly registers with the zero mark or any other pointon scale26 which the operator desires to use as a. starting ,point for the pointer in the test tobe made.
Head 42cis then removed from container ispoured therein. Head 42 is then immersed in fluid 22 and allowed 42 and rod 41 being constant, gravity will tween it and the base 20. ,The fluid which covers face 21 willprevent head 42 from con? tacting with face 21. The distance faces 21 and 42' are held apart by the film offluid is indicative of the fluids power to resist the to sink through such fluidas' far as gravity will carry it. The size and weightof head 'cause a constant pressure 'to be exerted by such head on any fluid which may he be-- force or pressure gravityfin this'case) tench two surfaces.
watch the movement of pointer 33 over scale ing to drivei't from between two surfaces (21 and t2) and the degree of cohesion and ad hesion possessed by the fluid. It'follm'vs that head 42being' raisedwith respect toits initial position of reston base 20, rode'l will also be. raised withrespect to its position when head42 is contacting with base 20, and
that by this raised position weight 34 is allowed to swing lever 32 and pointer 33 in a counter clockwise direction. Due to the comparative distance of bearing 38 and the end of pointer 33 from the commonfulcrum 29, a very slight movement of rod 41 will erator to observe, by watching the movement of pointer 33 over scale 26, very slight movements of rod41. It will be seen that the change in position of pointer 33 from its position whenhead 42 was contacting with base 20 is a means of indicating'the thickness of the fluidfllmseparating surfaces 21 and 42.
Burner d9 may then be lighted to apply heat to cup 14; which heat will be distributed evenly to container '16 through sand 15. In turn, the fluid 22 will be heated. As fluid 22 is heated, its body is more or less broken up, and it thereby loses a certain degree of its cohesive and adhesive qualities, allowing the head el2to drive out a portion of the fluid film from between faces 21 and 42 with a consequent lowering of head 42, which lowering and the amount thereof will be registered by a corresponding movement of pointer 33 towards its initial position.
Therefore, by applying the same degree of. heat todifferentlubricating fluids, the operator may observe the comparative power of resistancesuch fluids offer to the same force exerted. to drive them from between The operator may either 26 through the heating of fluid 22, or he may observe therelative position thereof only at certain predetermined temperatures or at theflash and fire point, it being especially desirabl to ascertain the cohesive and adhesive qualities of lubricants at the flash point, the wellknown tests for flash and fire points being readily made without disturbing the apparatus. i
By calibrating scale 26 in any convenient unit of measure or with reference to units applied'to other known qualitiesof fluids, I
have provided a means for indicating the comparative cohesive and adhesive qualities of different fluids at the same or different temperatures.
lclaim: i i 1. In a fluid testing device a post, a base fixed on said post, a movable'head, means adapted to suspendsaid head above said base, said suspension means comprising a atively connected to said head at one extremity 'and having an adjustable connection with said lever. at its' other extremity.
A testing levice comprising a fluid containeij a' base mmersed insaid fluid, means for-raising and lowering said btSE Wlilll re spent to the level of said fluid, a movable head immersed 1n said fluid, and superposed with respect to said base, said. movable head being held apart from said base by said fluid, and indicating means operatively contation, said means comprising a rod suspended from said lever and'a movable head suspended from said rod to superpose said base and adapted toygravltate towards $21161 base, means for varying the length of said rod between said lever and said head, and
means for swinging said lever in the op: posite direction of rotation.
t. The method of determining the degree of cohesion possessed by a fluid, and its adhesive qualities with respect to given surfaces, comprising the introduction of a film of the fluid between the complementary surfaces of a fixed base and a head movable to- 1' wards said base, and measuring the thicle ness of the fluid separating said surfaces after a given pressure has exerted its full force in moving said head toward said base. 5. The method of determining the degree of cohesion possessed by a gfluid i and its adhesive qualities with respect to given surfaces, comprising the introduction of a film of the fluid between the complementary surfaces of a fixed base and a head movable by. gravity toward said base, and measuring the thickness of the fluid separating said surfaces after gravity .has exerted its full. force in moving said head toward said base.
6. The method of determining the degree of cohesion possessed by a fluid and its adhesive qualities with respect to given surfaces, comprising the introduction of a fllm of the fluld between the complementary sur-,
faces of a fixed base and a head movable toof said fluid, and measuring the thickness of the fluidbetween said surfaces after the heat and after a given aressurehas exerted its full force in moving said head towards said base.
7. A testing device comprising a fixed base, a lever pivotally supported above said fluid has'reached a predetermined degree of loosely co nn ectgdi with" Said rod, and: in said rod,therethrough, nut bearing on said counterbalance on said le ver, n
v superposed relation with said base, and a blbck andlmving thi'adfl engagemeflli withilq said I661, 3 nd a movable Head connected "tq' base; a levenpivotally;supported above said Inftestjmopy whereof l hereby I base, a ,pQinter mounted on said lelvep, a rod, signature. v I v v ablock in'bearing engagement with said I v Y V Clever and apertured for thefrge; passage f I v