US 1442625 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jun. 1G, 1923. LM-RZE. J. 1. LYTH.
ROOF LEADER AND ROOF VENT.
/z We 74C Patented dan. i6, 1923.
NETE STATES J' OHN J'. LYTE, OF VALLEYFIELD, QUEBEC, CANADA..
ROOF LEADER AND ROOF VENT.
Application filed October 6, 1919. Serial No. 328,868.
To all whom t may concern.'
Be it known that l, JOHN J. LYTH, a subject of the King of Great Britain, and resident of the city of Valleyfield, in the Province of Quebec and Dominion of Canada, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Roof Leaders and Roof Vents, of which the following is a full, clear, and exact description.
This invention relates to improvements in roof connection and expansion joints for use in connection with roof drains, Ventilating stacks and the like, and the object is ,to provide means for connecting drain pipes and the like to a roof in such a manner that the movement of the roof due to weather yconditions does not have the effect of breaking the joint betweenlthe roof and pipe and thus causing leaking around the pipe.
At the present time, the usual method of l connecting a drain pipe to a roof is to provide a section of pipe which is clamped tightly to the roof and which connects Vwith Vthe remaining portion of the pipe by means of a slip joint, so that the vertical movement of the roofvcdue to atmospheric changes is compensated forvwithoutvcausing a buckling of the drain pipe or a tearing out of the part which is clamped to the roof. lt has been found, however, that in course of time the slip joints become corroded, so that the sections of the pipe are eventually torn apart or buckled or the clamp torn out of the roof sufficiently to cause leakage'. lt has also been found that the clamps which have been used and which are rigid structures are insecurely mounted in the roof and that leaks occur as a result of the expansion and contraction of the roof within ythe clamp and entirely distinct from the leaks due to roof movement. Considerable difficulty has also been experienced in connecting the clamps to different types of roofs.
According to the present invention, a roof drain is provided in which the clamping member is rigid with respect to the roof at all times, regardless of the expansion and contraction of the roof proper. Flexible means are provided for connecting the clamp with the drain pipe proper, which will allow for the movement of the roof Iwithout un-v duly stressing either the clamp or the drain pipe. The device is so constructed that all thev parts with one exception are standard for the different types of roof, so that the device may be very easily manufactured for use in all types of roofs.
The device consists briefly of a. tubular member adapted to pass through the thickness ofthe roof and flanged on its outer end to bear against the roof. The inner end of the member is provided with a fastening nut and a resilient washer located between the roof and nut to compensate for expansion and contraction. The inner end of this tubular member is connected with the upper end of the rigid drain pipe by a suitable length of thin-walled metal tube, which is circumferentially corrugated to have great flexibility. The topmost section of the rigid drain pipe is a special nipple designed for connection at one end to the flexible pipe and at the opposite end to the.rigid drain pipe.
In the drawings which illustrate the inventionz- Fig. 1 is a view of one form Aof the device half in elevation and half in section.
Figs. 2 and 3 are fragmentary sectional views illustrating different forms of the device for use with different types of roofs.
Fig. 4 is a fragmentary sectional view illustrating the application of the invention to a Ventilating pipe or stack.
Referring more particularly to the drawings, 11 designates a roof of any suitable construction having weatherproofing mate-Y rial 12 on the upper surface thereof and provided with an aperture 13 through which the drain pipe passes.
According to this invention, the connection between the roof and the drain pipe proper comprises broadly speaking a clamping tube 14- passing through the roof, a nipple 15 for connection with the drain pipe proper and a flexible connection 16 between the nipple and clamping tube. The formation of the upper end of the tube 14 differs according to the style of roof and according to the purpose of the pipe. ln Figures 1, 2 and 3, the arrangement is shown adapted for the connection of a drain pipe, while in Figure 4,5the device is shown arranged for the connection of a Ventilating stack or the like. In Figure 1, the upper end of the tube 14 is provided with an outwardly projecting truste-conical flange 17, and the roof is prepared for the reception of the fiange by chamfering the edge of the aperture 13, asv
at 18, so that the tube 14 is sufficiently countersunk to bring the edge of its flange at or below the level of the upper surface of the roof, in order that all water will drain into the tube and none will be held back and lie on the roof, as would be the case if the flange of this ring is smoothly rounded as at 20, so
that Vtherefwill be no sharp edge over which the roofing paper or other surfacing material l12 may be broken or cut. This form of the device is suitable for use in a roof 'covered with roofing paper or the like, and the paper iscaught between the seat ring 18 and `the flange 17 and compressed, so that the roofing paper is held by the flange 17 and in turn forms a gasket under the flange. If low grade roofing paper which tears readily is used, small radial cuts may bel provided at intervals around the tube 14 to localize -any tearing when the paper is stretched by forcing it tothe frusto-conical form. These cuts in the various layers of the paper are staggered. so that a perfectly water-tight joint results. Obviously, the various layers of paper are laid in tar or other cementing material.
When the drain is to be used in connection with a gravel roof, a tube 14 shown in Figure` 2 is substituted for thetube 14. The flange 17a of this tube is disposed in or substantially in a horizontal plane and is provided at its circumference with an upstanding rim 21. The flat flange 17 a presses down on the roofing paper and holds the paper against the flat roof surface, the paper also forming a gasket underl the flange. The rim 21 projects' above the flange a distance equal to the thickness of the tar and gravel layer above the paper and serves to make a sharply defined termination for the gravel and tar, and to keep the same fromrv oozing into the drain in warm weather'. Obviously, the rim 21 must not project above the level ofthe roof surface, otherwise water will be retainedr on the roof. Y
,Y In Figure 3, a slightly different form is shown suitable for use either on aroof covered with roofing paper or on a metal roof. In this form, the tube 14" is provided with a horizontally disposed outturned flange 17b without an rim, as in Figure 2. The roof is prepare by cutting from the surface an amount equal to the thickness of the flange 17", so that the flange will not project above the finished surface of the roof. The covering of felt paper or metal is now laid and the Y any suitable form offlange 17c and theftube is continued above the flange to form a spigot or other type of joint 22 with further sections of pipe 23, which may be necessary to carry av Ventilating stack orthe like a necessary distance above the roof level. In the form shown in Figure 4, where drainage through the tube does not occur, it will obviously be unnecessary to provide means for getting the upper surface of the flange level with or below the roof surface. The flange 17v may serve to support any weight of pipe above the roof and vrelieve the pipe below of this weight, thereby protecting it against buckling, etc.
In the arrangement of the device fora roof drain, the flange may be provided with apertured lugs 24 or their equivalent for the attachment of a straining cage.
The construction of the remainder of the device is exactly the same in all types re- 'gardlessofr the particular flange formation.
The lower part of the tube is externally threaded and a clamping nut 25is screwed on to hold the tube in place in the roof. Between the roof and the nut, there is located a plain washer 26 bearing against the roof and a resilient means, such as the radially 'corrugated spring washer shown inA Figure 1. In applying the tube to the roof, the nut 1s t1ghtened up until the resilient means 27 is partly compressed. l'It will thus be seen that if the material of the roof either swells or shrinks, the' resilient means 27 will op- 4tion with the pipe `to which 'it -is attached,
and. threaded at its upper end, as at 29. The flexible connection 16 is a suitable length of thm tube, preferably copper, which is cir- 30 being of considerable depth andY being formed of greater diameter than the bore of the tube proper in order that the bore, which is the same as the bore of the parts 14 and 15,v will not be restricted or-obstructed in `any way. At each end of the tube 16 is a plain cylindrical portion -31 terminating in an out-turned flange 32 adapted to seat against the ends of the members 14 and 15. Revolubly mounted on the ends of the tube 16' are coupling nuts 33 and 34. which screw on to or into the parts 14 and 15. As the tube 14-is already externally threaded for the nut 25, the obvious method is to thread the nut 33 internally and provide the same with an internally projecting flange 35, which will engage the flange' 32 of the tube 16. The same-construction may vcumferentiallyl corrugated, the lcorrugations -be resorted to to connectthe nipple 15 and tube 16, but for the purpose of having the nut 34 as small as possible and of the same diameter as the .nuts 25 and 33, it is preferred to have this nut externally threaded and co-operating with an internally threaded portion of the nipple, so as to bind the tube flange 32 against a seat 36 formed at the bottom of the threads 29. While the nipple 15 has been shown as formed .at its lower end to make a spigot joint, it Will be understood that the form of joint by which 'it connects to the drain pipe proper is immaterial.
The operation of the device is extremely simple. The clamping tube 14 is secured to the ropf proper by means of the nut 25 and expansions and contractions of the roof are taken care of by-the resilient member'27, so that the joint between the clamping tube and the roof remains always perfect. The nipple is connected to a drain pipe of any suitable construction. If the roof moves as large roofs always do, the flexible corrugated pipe 16 yields readily to the movement withoutv disturbing either the clamping tube 14 or the nipple 15 or pipe below it. With expansion and contraction a given point on a roof Will move laterally and this movement merely serves to bend the tube 16 into a reversely curved form, the bending being readily accomplished owing to the circumferential corrugations and the softness and thin- Walled character of the tube. If the movement of the roof is vertical, as would be caused by the application or removal of snow load, the corrugated tube is lengthened or shortened in the same manner as an accordion. Obviously, the resilient member 27 must be much stiffer than the tube 16, so
that it Will hold the tube 14 rigidly in the roof and compel all movement to take place in the length of the tube 16.
By judiciously proport-'ioning the length of the corrugated tube 16 to the maximum movement of the roof, the movement in any .part of the tube 16 will be so slight that no damage will be done to the tube itself, even if the movement is quite sudden. Any water which may lodge in the corrugations and freeze will neither burst the tube nor ent'irely destroy its operativeness. Danger from bursting is guarded against by the expansible form of the tube and its operativeness is retained by the presence of the external grooves between the corrugations. which of course do not gather water and freeze. In any event, freezing of roof drains is vextremely rare even in the coldest weather, owing to the comparatively warm air rising from the sewers to which they connect and, in this particular instance, freezing is further guarded against by the thinness of the tube wall and by the large heat absorbing surface arising from the corrugated construction. This feature of the device further operates to prevent the outrush of heat from the main body of the pipe to the clamping tube 14, which is of course constantly cooled. The device has no moving parts, such as exist in the slip joints ordinarily provided, and thereis consequently no possibility of `corrosion and consequent sticking of the slip joint as frequently occurswith disastrous results. The device is simple and durable and its cost is no great-er than some expansion joints and less than many.
ll/Vhile the device has been described solely in its connection to roof drains and ventilating stacks, it will be understood that the same principle and in part the same construction may be applied to any pipe line where an expansion joint is desired. For example, the device may be used as shown in Figure 1 with practically no change as an outboard connect-ion for a wooden vessel, tank or the like.
Having thus described my invention, what I claim is 1. In a device of the class described', the combination with a roof, of a pipe passing therethrough, afixed flange onY the pipe, a loose flange on. the pipe adapted for engagement with the roof, said flanges being adapted to grip between them roof material, said loose flange being chamfered on its outer roof material engaging edge to compel a gradually easier bending of roof material such as will avoid cutting or breaking of the roof material.
2. A rof connection for drainage and vent pipes, comprising a pair of substantially rigid tubular members, one for attachment to the roof and the other for attachment to the pipe, and a flexible connection between said members comprising a circumferentially corrugated tube, the radial depths of the corrugations being greater than the axial depth thereof, whereby the external surface of the tube in corrugated portion is so great in proportion to the internal volume of the corrugations that freezing of water in the corrugations which would affect the flexibility of the tube is substantially prevented.
3. A roof connection for drainage and vent pipes, comprising a pair of tubular members one to be attached to the roof and the other to the drainage or vent pipe, a flexible pipe connecting said members and means to resiliently clamp the first of said members to the roof, whereby the member will follow all bodily movements of the roof and by its resiliency will compensate forexpansion and contraction in the thickness of the roof and' maintain weather-tight connection with the roof.
4. A roof connection for drainage and vent pipes, comprising a pair of tubular members one for connection to a roof and the other for connection to a drainage or vent pipe, the roof engaging member including a flange to overlie theupper surface of the roof, a threaded collar to underlie the roof and resilientl means to be interposed in compression between said collar and the roof to compensate for expansion and contraction in the thickness of the roof and maintain the flange'permanently in water-tight connection with the upper surface of the roof.
5. A roof connection for drainage and vent pipes, conprising a pair of tubular members one for attachment to a roof and the other for attachment to the drainage or ventpipe, a tubular flexible connection between saidi members and resilient means connecting the first of said tubular members to the roof and adapted to compensate for variations in roof thickness and to maintain 'Water-tight connection between the member and roof, said resilient connection being materially stiffer than the flexible connection between the tubular members, whereby upon bodily movement of the roof' relatively to the pipe the flexible connection will yield and the resilient connection remains unaffected.
6. A roof connection for drainage and vent pipes, comprising a pair of tubular members one to be att-ached to the roof and the other to the drainage or vent pipe, a. flexible circumferentially corrugated pipe connecting said members and means to resiliently clamp the first of said members to the roof, whereby the member will follow all bodily movements of the roof and said means by its resiliency will compensate for expansion and contraction in the thickness of the roof and maint-ain weather-tight connection with the roof, said clamping means being materially stiffer than the corrugated pipe, whereby upon bodily movement of the roof relatively to the drain or vent pipe the corrugated pipe will yield and the clamping means will remain unaffected.
7. A roof connection for drainage and vent pipes, comprising a pair of tubular members one for connection to a roof and the other for connection to a drainage or vent pipe, the roof engaging member including a flange to overlie the upper surface of the roof, a threaded collar to underlie the roof and resilient means to be interposed in compression between said collar and the roof to compensate for expansion and contraction in the thickness of the roof and maintain the flange permanently in water-tight connection with the upper surface of the roof, and a flexible circuf'erentially corrugated pipe connected between the tubular members and rigidly to each, said resilient means being materially stiller than the corrugated pipe, whereby upon bodily movement of the roof relatively to the drain or vent pipe the corrugated pipe will yield and the resilient means and joint at the surface of the roof will remain unaffected.
8. A roof connection for drainage and vent pipes including a pair of flexible elements, the one having greater flexibility than the other, said members being designed to yield independently, the one to variations in roof thickness and the other to roof movement.
In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand.
JOHN J. LYTH.'