|Publication number||US1446635 A|
|Publication date||Feb 27, 1923|
|Filing date||Nov 20, 1918|
|Priority date||Nov 20, 1918|
|Publication number||US 1446635 A, US 1446635A, US-A-1446635, US1446635 A, US1446635A|
|Inventors||Marie Berthier Andre Virgile P|
|Original Assignee||Us Machine Gun Company|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (5), Classifications (23)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Feb. 27, 1923.
A. V. P. ML BERTHIER FIREARM.
Filed Nov. 20, 1918 4 sheets-sheet '1 I If. 4;"; 3. by M,Bwd,
A. V. P. M. BERTHIER FIREARM sheets-sheet 2 Filed Nov.
9% a h aw w\ 3 B m H m mm om m6 Feb. 27, 1923.
A. v. P. M. BERTHIER FIREARM 4 sheets-sheet 3 F1 led Nov. 20, 1918 Feb. 27, 1923.
A. V. P. M. BERTHIER FIREARM 4 sheets-sheet 4 Filed NOV. 20, 1918 Patented Feb. 27,
Miran STATES PAT-ENTOFFICE.
ANDRE VIRGILE PAUL MARIE BERTHIER, OF NEUILLY-SUR-SEINE, FRANCE,
ASSIGNOR TO UNITEDZSTATES MACHINE GUN COMPANY, OF-BOSTON, MASSA- CHUSETTS, A CORPORATION OF MASSACHUSETTS.
address is 15 Rue Seine, France), have invented an Improvement in Firearms, of which the following in connection wlth the accomdescription,
panying drawings, is a specification, characters on the drawings representing like parts.
This invention relates to machine guns or automatic rifles and more particularly to those for use on air craft.
The objects and features of the invention will be best understood from the following description taken in connection with the accompanying drawings of a machine gun embodying one form of said invention, and selected for purposes of illustration, it being understood that the invention in its true scope is definitely set forth by the claims.
In the drawings:
Fig. 1 is a top plan View of a machine gun embodying one form of the invention;
Fig.2 is aside elevation of the machine gun shown in Fig. 1'
Fig. 3 is a longltudinal vertical section on line 3-3 of Fig. 1;
Fig. 4 is a longitudinal vertical section on line 44 of Fig. 1;
Fig. 5 is a rear elevation of the machine gun shown in Fig. 1, of the removable butt in section Fig. 6 is a vertical cross section on line 66 of Fig. 4;
Fig. 7 is a vertical cross-section on line 74 of Fig. 4;
Fig. 8 is a top plan view of the breechd-in disconnected posibolt and of its hea tion;
Fig. 9 is a side shown in Fig. 8;
Fig. 10 is a vertical cross-section on line 10-10 of Fig. 3;
Fig. 11 is a top operated piston and firing pin'carried thereby FIREARM.
Application filed November 20,1918. Serial No. 263,276.
shown in Fig. 11;
gun simultaneously; dOrlans, Neuilly-surof Fig. 13
showninFig. 7 like showing also the shank barrels.
elevation of the part barrels are received.
plan view of the gasa bracing-rod 22.
Fig. 1 1 is a cross-sec Fig. 13 is a detall of single means for operating all the firing mechanisms of the Fig. 15 1s a plan view of the connection Fig. 16 is a detail horizontal section of certain parts shown in Fig. 15.
In the embodiment of invention illustrated in the drawings. the br'eech-frame or receiver 2 is provided with a plurality of receiver chambers 4, herein four. each containing a breech-block and associated parts, 65. hereinafter more fully described. To each of these receiver chambers, there corresponds a barrel'6, screw-threaded into screw-threaded apertures provided in the front of the receiver, substantially as shown in Fig. 3. The receiver will preferably be made in a single piece, but may be cut away at 8 and 10 for the sake of lightness. At its front end, Fig. 1, the receiver 2 will preferably be provided with trunnions 12, 12, 76 one upon each side, formounting the gun upon any suitable or usual support, not herein shown. At their front ends, Figs. 1. 2 and 4,-the barrels are preferably connected by a cross brace 14, having openings 15 and 80 forwardly extending sleeve-like extensions 16, Fig. 4, to receive the front ends of the The cross-brace 14 is .removably secured to the barrels by a cylindrical locking bolt 18, received in a cylindrical opening extending throughout the length of said cross-brace and having its walls formed partly in said cross-brace and partly in the under side of each of the barrels where said cylindrical opening intersects the openings in said brace which the front ends of the To the under side of the receiver are preferably secured in any suitable manner two handles or pistol grips 20, 20, the free ends of said grips being preferably connected by The front sight 24 may be provided in the Fig. 12 is a side elevation of the parts 60 tion on line 14-14 65 middle of the cross-brace 14 upon the upper surface of the latter, in which case the rear sight 26 will preferably be provided upon the rear web portion 28. of the receiver 2.
Each of the barrels may be providedwith' a close fitting jacket, extending from adjacent the front end of the receiver forward to the cross-brace 14, as shown at 30 in Fig.
3, said jacket being provided with longitudi- 7 some other material, possessing a high coefficient of thermal conductivity.
Herein the invention is shown in its application to an explosion operated gun, the illustrative embodiment shown being gasoperated, and the invention comprises common means to regulate or control the gas pressure for all the barrels for different altitudes. As one form of means to this end the cross-brace 14 is provided upon its under side with four downwardly extending bosses 34, one directly under each barrel. Each of these bosses is provided with :1 cylindrical chamber 36, one of which is shown in Fig. 4, and in which the head of a piston 38 has a sliding fit. Each of the chambers 36 communicates with its barrel by means of a. forwardly inclined passage 40 extending through the wall of the boss 34 and the wall of the barrel. The bosses 34 are each also provided with a transversely extending circular perforation 42 and with a passage 44, leading from said perforation to the chamber 36. The perforations 42, provided in the four bosses 34, are all in alignment and in said perforations if fitted for rotaary movement a cylindrical pressure-controlling or regulating member 46, having an axial opening 48 extending throughout its length.
The member 46, Figs. 4 and 6, is screwthreaded at 50 for screw-threaded connection with the left-hand boss 34, Fig. 6, and is provided with a head 52 to limit its inward movement. That part of the member 46 contained within each of the bosses'34 is provided with a series of radial perforations, herein eight, (1, b, c, d, e', f, g and 71, of different diameters, leading from its periphery into its axial opening 48. The perforations of each series are disposed in a helical line, in the member 46, the pitch of thehelical line corresponding substantially to that of the screw-thread 50, so that by turning, said member 46, any one of the perforations of a series may be brought into coincidence with the passage 44 in the boss 34. The perforations of each series are so arranged that, when a perforation of a. certain diameter of one of the series coincides with its cooperating passage 44, the perforation of the same diameter in each of the other series will also coincide with its cooperating passage 44. To maintain the member '46 in adjusted position, there is mounted in the lefthand boss 34, Fig. 6, a spring-pressed pin 54, adapted to engage any one of eight grooves provided on the periphery of the head 52, in alignment with the different perforations a, I), 0, d, e, f, g, and h. These grooves may be provided with numbers or other marks to indicate which of the perforations a, I), 0, d, e, f, y, or it, of each of the series is incoincidence with the passages 44. The arrangement is preferably such that, when the member 46 is screwed en- 4 tirely home, none of said perforations will coincide with the passages 44.
The four pistons 38 are guided at their rear ends in cylinders 56 in the'breechmasing, and intermediate said cylinders and the bosses 34, in guide-bosses 58, remova-bly secured to downwardly projecting portions 60, integral with the barrel-jackets 30, Figs. 4 and 7. For removably securing the guide bosses 58 to the parts 60, any suitable means maybe employed, but I preferably employ the arrangement herein shown, see Figs. 7 and 15, wherein the downwardly projecting parts 60 of the barrel-casings 30 are each provided with "a central horizontal T-shaped slot 62 adapted to be engaged by a T-shaped projection 61 upon the upper face of the guide-bosses 58. The Vertical portion of the T-shaped slot is continued beyond the horizontal portion thereof, as shown at 63 in Fig. 15, said continuous portion 63'being engaged by a forwardly extending portion of the vertical part 64 of the T-shaped projection. For firmly v securing the guidebosses in place upon the downwardly projecting parts 60, the walls of said projections, at either side of the slots 62, and the parts 64 of the guide-bosses 58 that engagesaid slots 62 are pierced by a circular opening 66, which is rovided in one of said walls, as shown in ig. 4, with a vertical extension 68 that communicates with a recess 70 upon the inner side of said wall. Pins 72, having handles 74 and tongues 76 to engage the extensions 68 of the circular openings 66, are introduced into said openings 66, whereupon the pins 72 are given a quarter turn to cause the projections 76 to enter the recesses 70, thus locking the pins 72 in place. Upon their inside faces the handles 74 of the pins are preferably provided with projections which are adapted to snap into depressions of the guide boss 58 when the pin 72 is in looking position.
It will be seen that by the above described construction means are provided for firmlv securing the guide-bosses 58 to the barrels while permitting their quick removal or replacement when necessary.
Each of the barrels has its own operating mechanism, contained in the receiver chamber behind the barrel and operated by the piston under the barrel. Each operating mechanism comprises a breech block, extractor, ejector and locking means. One of said operating mechanisms with its piston and mode of operation by the latter will now be described, it being understood that all four operating mechanisms, their pistons and modes of operation by the latter are exactly alike, so that a description of more than one is unnecessary- Referring to Fig. 3, in which one of the barrels with its operating mechanism and operating piston are shown in section, the rearward movement of said piston 38 iseffected, as is well known, by a portion of the gases caused by the explosion, passing down from the bore 56 of the barrel through the passage 40 into the cylinder chamber 36 and there acting upon the forward end of the piston 38, while the forward movement of said piston is effected by a spring. Heretofore, so far as I am aware, springs acting by expansion have been used for this pur-- pose, but I prefer to use a spring that acts by contraction. To this end I use a spring 81, as shown in Figs.- 3 and 4, having one end screwed on to the .threaded part 82 of piston, with its inturned end engaging a hole 84 in the latter, and its opposite end screwed into a threaded sleeve 86, extending rearwardly from the boss 58 (Fig. 4). When the piston is driven backwardly by the gas pressure the spring will be extended and tensioned, and when permitted to do so, therefore contract and drive the piston. forward.
Adjacent its rear end the piston is provided with a cocking grip 88 upon its underside, and upon its upper side it carries a block 90, to the front face of which is secured the firing pin 92. Underneath and at its rear end the piston carries a tooth 94, adapted to be engaged by the sear 96, when the latter is in raised position, and thus retains the piston in its rearward position. At 98 the piston is provided with a longitudinal opening extending vertically through said piston and which, when the piston is in its rearward position, registers with the open underside of the receiver chamber, thus enabling the exploded cartridge to be ejected downwardly from the un.
he breech-block, shown in detail in Figs. 8 and 9, is mounted for longitudinally sliding reciprocating movement in the receiver chamber 4, and herein said breech-block consists of a rear part 100 and a forepart or head 102. The rear part 100 of the breech-block is guided laterally by the lat eral walls of the receiver chamber, butis free to move vertically, while the head 102 of the breech-block is confined to a rectilinear movement by the lateral walls of the receiver chamber and top and bottom guide ribs 104, 104 and 106, 106, projecting inwardly from the latter, Fig. 10. To enable the rear part 100 to swing vertically,
the head 102, to which it is connected, being, as stated, held against such movement, the latter is connected to said rear part by a tongue 108 projecting from the rear of the head-102, and fitting within a slot 110, provided in the front end of said rear part, said tongue 108 having laterally projecting ture of the ribs 112, 112, and fitting the correspondingly convexly curved surface 118 of the rear part 100 of the breech-block.
The surfaces 117 at the rear of the head 102 are curved to fit the concentric surfaces 119 on the front end of the rear part 100 of; the breech-block.
At its front end the head 102 is provided on top;with two wedge-shaped ribs 120, 120 separated by a slot 122, for a purpose hereinafter more fully described, and at its rear end the rear part 100 of the breech-block has projecting from its upper surface a locking-dog '124, and in front thereof a recess 126 to receive the cartridge shell-ejector 128 when the part 108 is in raised position.
In a recess provided in the underside of the breech-block head 102, at its forward end is mounted the spring-pressed cartridge shell-extractor 130, as shown in Fig. 3, said extractor being held in place by the retaining part 132 on said head, and at its rear by engagement of the end of its shank 134 in an opening provided in the wall of said head, said shank being surrounded by the spring136.
The breech-block head 102 is provided with a forwardly tapering perforation 138, Fig. 3, extending throughout its length to receive the firing-pin, and the rear part 100 of the breech-block is provided with a rectangular recess 140, Fig. 10, extending throughout the greater part of its length and being open at the bottom. The lateral walls of the recess140 are each provided with a guide-way 142, inclined downwardly toward the front of said rear part 100 and widened at the top of their rear ends to form the shoulders 144, 144, one of which is shown in Fig. 3. The lower walls 146 of the guide-ways 142 are shorter than the upper walls 148 thereof, to enable the block on the piston to be inserted into the recess 140,
as shown in Fig. 3. Upon each side of the block 90, Figs. 3, 10, 11, 12, is provided a nipple 150.
When the piston is in place inthe gun. the block 90 projects upwardly into the receiver-chamber through a slotextending throughout the length of the bottom of said chamber, the firing pin 92 is received in the perforation 138 provided for that purpose in the head 102 of the breech-block and the nipples 150, 150 are in position to cooperate with the guide-ways 142. 142 on the in ner walls of the rear part 100 of the breechblock.
Herein the rear wall of the receiver is shown at 152, Fig. 5. The four sears 96 are carried by the wall 152. said sears being formed on arms 156, one of which is shown in Fig. EL it being understood that the other three are similar. These arms project forwardly from sleeves 158. 158. 158, 158, Fig. 5, pivoted. two upon a stud 160 mounted in ears 162 projecting rearwardly from the wall 152, and two upon a similar stud mounted in ears 164 projecting rearwardly from said wall, the arms 156 being extended through openings provided at the base of said wall 152. Each of the sleeves 158, 158, 158, 158 carries a trigger, herein consisting of a thumb piece 166 projecting upwardly from its sleeve. A spring- 168, mounted at one end in a recess in the front face of the triggeigand the other end in the rear wall of the part carrying the trigger, tends to push the trigger outwardly and thus to maintain the corresponding sear in raised position to be engaged by the tooth 94 on the corresponding piston 38. Only one of the four springs 168 is shown in Fig.
3, it being understood that a similar spring, similarly mounted, is provided for each of the other three triggers.
Four buffers for cushioning the rearward movement of the four breech blocks are also mounted in the rear wall 152. Only one of these bufi'ers is shown in Fig. 3, but it is understood that all four are constructed and operate alike. They each consist of a cupped disli 170, having a sliding fit in a recess 172 provided in the rear wall of the receiver, said disk having a central shank 174, extending rearwardly into an opening 176 in the rear wall of said recess and in which it has a sliding fit, a transverse pin 178, mounted in the walls of said recess and extending through a longitudinal slot 179 in said shank, serving to retain the buffer in place. A cushioning spring 180 surrounds the shank 174 between'the disk 170 and the rear wall of the recess 172. 7
The rear wall 152 of'the receiver is preferably hinged at its top by studs 182. 182 extending through ears 184 on said wall 152, and ears 186 on the rear edge of the top wall 188 of the receiver, and provided at one end with beads 190 and cotter pins 192 at the other ends. The wall 152 is held in closed position by studs 194, 194 extending through ears 196 at the base of said wall 152, and bosses 198, 198 at the rear edge of the bottom plate 200 of the. receiver to which the handies 20 are secured, said studs 194, 194 having at their inner ends 202 screw-threaded engagement with the ears 196 engaged by said ends, and carry at their outer ends handles 204 for screwing them home and unscrewing them. By removing the studs 194 the rear wall 152 may be swung upwardly, thus giving ready access to the receiver chambers closed thereby, and to the parts thereincontained. The breech-blocks can then be readily withdrawn and also the pistons, by first disconnecting the springs 81 from the sleeves .58.
A separate magazine will be used for each of the receiver chambers. Any suitable magazine may be used, that herein shown being of well known construction and need not therefore be described in detail. Briefly 4 said magazine consists of a sheet metal receptacle 206 only the lower portion of which is shown in Figs. 2 and 3, said receptacle being closed at the top and open at the bottom and of a height suflicient to receive the number of cartridges desired. Its. width and thickness are slightly greater than the length and thickness, respectively, of a. cartridge, and the cartridges are inserted in said magazine, one above the other, in staggered and slightly overlapping relation, and are pressed toward the open end of the magazine by a spring pressed follower acted upon by a fan-shaped bent flat spring. The lower end of the magazine fits within a correspondingly shaped opening provided in the top of the receiver, as shown in Fig. 3, a 111g 208 upon the front lower end of the magazine engaging a recess 210 provided in the front wall of the receiver and a rib 212 near the bottom of the rear face of said magazine being engaged bya plate 214 adapted to slide in guideways 216, 218 provided in the receiver wall at the rear of the opening into which the magazine is introduced. This plate 214 securely locks the magazine in place and by removing it the magazine may be readily withdrawn, as will be readily understood. There are preferably provided two such plates, each of which serves to lock two magazines in place.
The magazine is described in detail in my earlier Patent No. 1,083,872 of January 6, 1914, and reference is made to Said patent for a more detailed description thereof.
Preferably means will be provided to catch the empty cartridge shells as they are ejected from the gun. Said means may consist of a suitable receptacle, such as a bag. not shown, which may be secured in any suitable manner to the under side of the gun, so as to receive the discharged cartridge shells as they are ejected from the receiver.
While not absolutely necessary the gun may be provided with a butt or shoulder brace, not shown, to be held against the shoulder to assist in steadying the gun in other three operating mechanisms is the same.
Referring more particularly to Fig. 3, and assunung a loaded magazine to be in place i in the receiver chamber there shown and the arm to be uncooked, the piston and breechblock being in their forward position. the rifleman Seizes the cocking handle 88 and draws the piston 98 rearwardly against the action of the spring 81 until the tooth 94.0n said piston engages behind the sear 96.
In this rearward movement of the piston the breech-block is also retracted, but its rearward movement does not begin immediately. During the first part of the rearward movement, of the piston the block 90 with its firing pin'92 moves rearwardly with the piston relatively to the breech-block, which latter is held against rearward movement by engagement of its locking lug 124 with the recess 220 rovided in the top wall of the receiver. hen, however, in this rearward movement of the block 90, the nipples 150 enter the upwardly inclined rear portion of the guide-ways 142 in the rear part of the P breech-block, said nipples acting upon the lower edges of said guideways will cause the rear art of thebreech-block to swing downward y about its pivotal connection with the breech-block head, thus disengaging said locking lug 124 from the recess 220, whereupon in the continued rearward movement of the piston and bloc k 90, the breech-block will also be retracted until its rear end rests substantially against the buffer 170, andv will be held in this position by engagement of the tooth 94 upon the piston with the sear 96. Y
The breech or receiver chamber is now open and to fire the charge the rifleman presses the trigger 166 inwardly, thus throwing the sear 96 downwardly andreleasing the piston which is immediately thrown forward by the contraction of the spring 81.
During the first part of the forward movement of the piston, the nipples 150 on the block 90 being in engagement with the shoulders 144 at the upper ends of the guide- Ways 142, and the rear end of the breechblock being held against upward movement, by engagement of the upper surface of the lug 124 with the top wall of the receiver chamber, the breech-block is carried forward with the piston 98, untilthe breechblock reaches its extreme forward position shown in Fig. 3 and is arrested by contact of its front end with the front wall of the loading chamber, the breech being thus completely closed. In this forward movement rear end of the lowermost cartridge in the magazine and drive said cartridge ahead of the breech-block into the'cartridge chamher.
The lug 124 on the rear end of the breechblock has now arrived under the recess 220 so that the rear end of the breech-block is no longer held from upward movement, and in the continued forward movement of the piston 98 the nipples 150 on the block 90 acting against the shoulder 144 and entering the guideways 142 swing the rear end of the breech-block upwardly, thus causing the'locking lug 124 to enter the recess 220 and thus locking the breech-block against rearward movement. The piston 98 now completes its forward movement, thus causing the front end of the firing pin 92 to protrude from the front end of the head of the breech-block to explode the cartridge in the cartridge chamber.
In the forward movement of the breechblock above described, the hooked end of the extractor 130 has snapped over the rim or collar at the rear end of the cartridge and is in position to extract the latter upon rearward movement of the breech-block.
Upon the explosion of the cartridge a art of the explosion gases enter the plston chamber 36 through the passage 40 and acting on the piston drive it rearw'ardly. During the first part of this rearward movement of the piston, the breech-block is held against rearward movement by engagementof the locking lug 124 with the recess 220, so that the firing pin is retracted into the breech-block head and the nipples 150 on the block 90 move along'the guideways 142 of the breech block. In this movement, they act on the lower edges of said guideways, thus lowering the rear end of the breechblock until the locking lug 124 is disengaged from said recess 220, whereupon the breechblock with the extractor is carried rearwardly with the piston by engagement of wall of the breech-block until the rear end of the breech-block abuts against thebuffer 170.
In this rearward movement of the breechblock, the extractor extracts the exploded cartridge shell from the cartridge chamber and carries it along with it until the,upper edge of the rear end of the cartridge shell strikes the ejector 128, which is in sliding engagement with the groove 126 and its continuation 122 in the top wall of the breechblock, and the exploded cartridge shell is thus snapped downwardly, released from the extractor and ejected from the gun through the opening in the lower wall of the receiver chamber and the opening 98 in the piston, which then register with each other. If the rifleman continues his pressure upon the trigger 166 the operation above de scribed will be repeated without interruption until all the cartridges in the magazine have been fired, but the firing can be stopped at any time by releasing said trigger, the tooth 94 on the piston engaging behind the sear 96 on the next rearward movement of the piston after the trigger has been released, the piston being thus arrested in its rearward position. To start firing again it 'is only necessary to press the trigger.
'It will be noticed that the tour triggers 166 are disposed in pairs, the two triggers of each pair. being so close together that both triggers may be operated simultaneously by one thumb of the operator. The operator may thus by using one hand operate one trigger of a pair alone or both triggers of said pair simultaneously, or by using both hands he can operate one trigger of each pair simultaneously, or two triggers of one pair and one trigger of the other simultaneously, or all four triggers simultaneously, thus bringing into operation the operating mechanisms singly in succession, or two.
three or four simultaneously.
The triggers are preferably so disposed that the operator can operate them as above described while grasping the handles 20 to aim the gun.
In Figs. 13 and 14 is shown unitary means for operating all of the triggers simultaneously and consequently all of the operating mechanisms. Herein said means comprises a shaft 222mounted in'bearings 223, secured to the frame in any suitable manner under the triggers 166, which latter are each provided with a downwardly directed extension 224. Upon the shaft 222 are rigidly secured in any suitable manner four collars 226 each provided with an'upwardly extending tooth 228. These four teeth are adapted to cooperate, respectively with the downward extensions 224 of the triggers. Rigidly secured to the shaft 223 in any suitable manner is a trigger or thumb piece 230, said thumb piece being preferably located sufficiently close. to the right grip 20 to be readily operable by the thumb of the right hand of the operator as the latter grasps said grip. From the above description it will be readily understood that by pressing the thumb piece 230 in a contraclockwise direction, Fig. 14:, all four sears 96 will be simultaneously swung downward about their fulcrums, thus releasing all four pistons and setting all four operating mechanisms in operation.
over machine guns heretofore made. In aeroplane fighting. and particularly in-figlitlng between aeroplanes, the openings or opportunities for successfully attacking an adversary may be of infrequent 'ccurrence and when they do occur they are of short duration, as will be readily understood, owing to the constant movement and manoeuvering for position. It is, therefore, most important for the aviator that he be able to take advantage to the fullest extent of such openings for attack as present themselves to him and that he do as much execution as is possible in the short time that the opening continues. This my invention enables him to do in that, for one thing, the gun embodying my invention, having for exampl four operating mechanisms, as in the example herein illustrated, an aviator can deliver, in the same space of time four times the weight of metal that can be delivered by the ordinary machine gun possessing but a single operating mechanism. Fur thermore. it is well known that machine guns not infrequently jam or are otherwise rendered temporarily useless. When this happens to an aviator armed with the ordinary single barrel gun, he not only may lose the only opportunity afforded him for successfully attacking the enemy, but he is himself at the enemys mercy, until the trouble is remedied. This difiiculty is completely overcome by my invention, for should one or even more than one of the operating mechanisms become ammed, the others are imme nisms simultaneously, should one or more of' said operating mechanisms cease to operate on account of jamming or for any other cause this will in no wise affect the operation of the others, the operation of which will continue unimpeded, so that the operator can continue his attack without interruption, He need not stop to remedy the trouble while in action but can put this off until some more convenient opportunity.
Guns embodying my invention have relatively few parts. are easy to manipulate. compact, strong and extremely efiicient. Other advantages than those specifically pointed out will readily suggest themselves to those skilled in the art.
So far as I am aware, my invention is the first automatic or machine gun comprising a plurality of operating mechanisms, or in other words it is so far as I know the first multiple machine gun.
It will be apparent to those skilled in the art that it is not indispensable that all of the features ofthe invention be used conjointly. since some of, them may be used to advantage separately in various combinations and sub-combinations. It is also to be under- My invention possesses many advantages stood that while the invention is herein described as embodied in the details illustrated, the invention is not to be considered as circumscribed by or limited to these details or any of them. but that the said details may be variously modified Within the true scope of the invention which is definitely set forth by the claims.
1. In a multibarrel explosion operated machine gun, in combination, a plurality of independently operable operating mechanisms. a controlling handle for the gun, and unitary mechanical means apart from said handle for rendering said operating mechanisms jointly operative so positioned that it can be operated by the hand grasping said controlling handle.
2. In a multibarrel explosion-operated machine gun, in combination, a plurality of operating mechanisms, one for each barrel and mounted in a common receiver; an actuator for each operating mechanism; a passage to conduct a portion of the explosion gases from each barrel to the actuator of its corresponding operating mechanism; and means simultaneously to adjust or regulate the amount of explosion gases passing from said barrels to said actuators.
3. In a machine gun, in combination. a receiver; a plurality of receiver chambers in said receiver: a barrel corresponding to each receiver chamber: an operating mechanism contained in each receiver chamber; a piston for operating each operating mechanism and moved in one direction by a portion of the explosion gases from the corresponding barrel: intermediate connections between each operating mechanism and its operating piston: a spring to move each piston in the direction opposite to that in which it is moved by the explosion gases; a tooth upon each piston; a separate sear to cooperate with the tooth of each piston; and unitary means to operate all of said sears.
4. In a machine gun, in'combin-ation, a receiver; a plurality off-receiver chambers in said receiver; a barrel corresponding to each receiver chamber: an operating mechanism contained in each receiver chamber; a piston for operating each operating mechanism and moved in one direction by a portion of the explosion gases from the corresponding barrel; intermediate connections between each operating mechanism and its .operating piston: a spring to move each piston in the direction opposite to that in which it is moved by the explosion gases; a tooth upon each piston; a separate sear to cooperate with the tooth of each piston; and means constructed and arranged for operating said sears singly or a plurality thereof jointly.
In a machine gun. in combination, a receiver: a plurality of receiver chambers in said receiver: a barrel corresponding to each receiver chamber: an operating mechanism contained in each receiver chamber; a piston for operating each operating mechanism and moved in one direction by a portion of the explosion gases from the corresponding barrel; controlling means for varying the amount of the explosion gases acting upon each piston: unitary means simultaneously to adjust all of said controlling means: each operating mechanism and its operating piston; a spring to move each piston in the direction opposite to that in which it is moved by the explosion gases; a tooth upon each piston; a separate sear to-. cooperate with the tooth of each piston; and unitary means to operate all of said sears.
6. In a machine gun. in combination. a receiver: a plurality of receiver chambers in said receiver: a barrel corresponding to each receiver chamber: an operating mechanism contained in each receiver chamber: a piston for operating each operating mechanism and moved in one direction by a portion of the explosion gases from the corresponding barrel: controlling means for varying the amount of the explosion gases acting upon each piston; unitary means simultaneously to adjust all of said controlling means; intermediate connections between each operating mechanism and its operating piston; a spring to move each piston in the direction opposite to that in which it is moved by the explosion gases; a tooth upon each piston: a'separate sear to cooperate with the tooth of each piston; and means constructed and arranged for operating said sears singly or a plurality thereof jointly.
'7. In a machine gun or automatic rifle. in combination. operating mechanism: an actuator therefor; a spring operating by contraction to move said actuator in one direction; and removable means to which one end of said spring is secured. said means also constituting a guide for said act-uator.
8. In a multibarrel explosion-operated machine gun. in combination, av plurality of independently operable operating mecha nisms mounted in a single receiver. and means for simultaneously rendering opera tive all or any number of said operating mechanisms. i 9. In an explosion-operated machine gun having more than two barrels, in combination. a plurality of independently operable operating and firing mechanisms. separate operating means for each operating and tiring mechanism. and means operable by one hand of the operator for rendering all said operating mechanisms simultaneously operative andenabling the simultaneous operation of any number less than all.
10. In a multibarrel explosion operated gun. in combination. a receiver. a plurality of pairs of independently operable operating mechanisms in said receiver. and means for rendering said operating mechanisms operative singly. simultanwiusly or all simultaneously.
intermediate connections between lift 11. In a mult-ibarrel explosion-operated gun, in combination, a plurality of operating mechanisms, one for each barrel and mounted in a common receiver; an actuator for each operating mechanism; a passage to conduct a portion of the explosion gases from each barrel to the actuator of its corresponding operating mechanism; and means to adjust or regulate the amount of explosion gases passing from said barrels to said actuators.
12. In an explosion operated machine-gun having more than two barrels, in combination, independently operable operating and firing mechanism for each barrel; separate operating means for each operating and firing mechanism, the operating means of two operating and firing mechanisms being so positioned that they can be operated independently or simultaneously by one hand of the operator;-and single mechanical operating means for operating all 'of the operating and firing mechanisms at the same time.
13. In an explosion operated machine gun having more than two barrels, in combination, independently operable operating and firingmechanism for each barrel: a controlling handle for the gun; separate me chanical operating means for each operating and firing mechanism, the operating means of at least two operating and firing mechanisms being so positioned with respect to each other and with respect to said controlling handle, that they can be operated independently or simultaneously by the same hand which grasps the controlling handle.
l-L. In an explosion operated machine gun having more than two barrels, in combination, a common receiver, a plurality of i n dependently operable operating and firing mechanisms in said receiver, separate op Certificate of Correction.-
It is hereby certified that in Letters Patent No. 1,44():,635,'granted February 27, 1923, upon the application of Andr Virgile Paul Marie Berthier, of Nemlly-sur- Seine, France, for an improvement in Firearms, an error appears in the rinted specification requiring correction as follows: Page llDC 129. claim 10, a ter the Word simultaneously, first occurrence,'1nsert the words in paws;- and that the said Letters Patent should be read with this correction therein that the same may conform to the record of the case in the Patent Signed and sealed this 3d day of April, A.
[smart] Ofiice. 1)., 1923.
KARL FENNING, Acting Oommissioner of Patents.
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US2440381 *||Mar 10, 1944||Apr 27, 1948||United Shoe Machinery Corp||Firing mechanism for guns|
|US2449545 *||Jan 25, 1945||Sep 21, 1948||Balleisen Charles E||Breech block return means for the browning machine gun|
|US2453830 *||Dec 21, 1932||Nov 16, 1948||Burk Paul W||Machine gun|
|US2783685 *||Mar 2, 1951||Mar 5, 1957||Green Samuel G||Regulating plug for gas operated firearm|
|US4967642 *||Sep 8, 1989||Nov 6, 1990||Ion Mihaita||Machine gun|
|U.S. Classification||89/126, 89/37.3, 89/33.1, 89/198, 89/193, 89/127, 89/9|
|International Classification||F41A3/40, F41F1/00, F41A5/18, F41A5/00, F41A19/18, F41A19/00, F41A3/00, F41F1/08|
|Cooperative Classification||F41A19/18, F41A3/40, F41A5/18, F41F1/08|
|European Classification||F41A3/40, F41F1/08, F41A19/18, F41A5/18|