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Publication numberUS1447865 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMar 6, 1923
Filing dateSep 13, 1920
Priority dateSep 13, 1920
Publication numberUS 1447865 A, US 1447865A, US-A-1447865, US1447865 A, US1447865A
InventorsFrank Kihm
Original AssigneeAlbert M Hoffheimer
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
US 1447865 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

-KIH LOCK 2 sheet gheet 2 Filed Sept. 15, 1920 iilll moving, opening or dismantling the lock.

Patented Mar. 6, 1923.




Application filed September 13, 1920.. Serial lam-410,040.

To all whom it may concern.

Be it known that I, FRANK-1111111, a subject of Austria-Hungary, and residing at Cincinnati, in the county of Hamilton and State of Ohio, have invented a new anduseful Improvement in Locks, of which the following specification is a full disclosure.

My invention relates to a key operated tumbler lock in which the tumblers are each capable of being set coordinately to a notch depth or gauge cutting of a selected key so as to be operated thereby for releasing or throwing the lock bolt and adapting a tumbler setting combination to be readily changed for' each of-a variety of different depth or gauge cut ofkeys.

The advantages of a lock of such type aside from a manufacturingcapacity can best be comprehended from a particularutility, in that a user can readily make a change from a givenkey setting to a second different key setting at "any time a change becomes pertinent, so as to prevent any unwarranted possessor of a key from; opening the lock, or in the event the-key or keys are lost by the owners, others can be substituted without special key cutting or filing. Several-different methods'may lie-employed for'making a change or tumbler setting combination from one key setting to a 'second or difierjent key, and within the concept of this invention, although the disclosure is moreparticularly directed to a multiple key operated class of lock largely used for bank safety deposit boxes, where a master key and a regular or individual key are both required for operating the lock,wand .in which. the tumbler setting change is made for the regu-; lar or individual key-by change keys, enabling a key'change to be made withoutre- Other objects and advantages will appear in the description, and special reference is made to the. drawings, which form a part of thisspecification, in'which:

Fig. 1; is an interior face'viewof my-improved lock showing the positionof its parts after the initial operation of releasing the latch plate' by meansiof the change-key.

Fig. 2 is aview similar t'oFig, 1, showing the parts. set to; allow the bolt 'tC-be thrown to "unlocked position.

Fig. 3 illustrates the positionof the parts after the bolt has been thrown tounlocked position.

Fig. 4 shows the locking tumblers in the act of being set for anew general-key with the lug of the latch=plate engaging the teeth of the locking tumblers.

Fig. 5 is a longitudinal section on line 5-5, Fig. 4. I Fig. 6 is a detail view'of the locking bolt.

' Figs. 7 and 8 arerespectively detailiviews of the locking and changegtumblers.

Figs. 9, 10,11 and 12 are respectivelyface views of the change, master, blank and substituted general key. I 1 Fig. 13 is an enlarged-vertical. transverse section on the line 1313 of Fig. 1, showing the change-tumblers set and the latch-plate lug within the aligned slots of the same.

Fig. let is a view similarto Fig. 13, onthe line 1414 of Fig.- 3, showing themastertumblers set, and the locking-bolt lug within the aligned slots.

Fig. 15 is a View ,similarto Fig. 13, on the line 15-15 of Fig; 4c, showing the,pivotlug engaging the teeth of the lockingtumblers. I I Fig. 16 is an enlarged plan showing the relation of the pivot-lug to the teethofthe two locking-tumblers, the keylbeing shown in positionto properly align the spaces bespaced --apart for slidably sustaining the lock bol't 5 within the-casing-and serving as pivots for the tumblersof the lock. The lock-bolt 5. isprovided With awheavyqhead end 6 sliding through an opening in anFend wall of the casing;agt-keyenotch 7'gfor 1the regular key 1 and bolt throwing rarms, @1011- gated. slots 9+9ythroughwhich; tlieacasing guide-posts 3 and A; are respectively engaged, and clearance notch 10 for themastefrrkey. Thelockebolt 5 isfurther provided witha forward finor lug 12 projecting: at mil-angle to the plane of the bolt and adapted to cooperate with the regular key operated tumbler and a second fin or lug 11 adapted to cooperate with the master-key operated tumblers. The, lock parts within the casing are sealed therein by a cover-plate 13 engaged into the open side of the casing 1 and secured in place by screws threaded into the lugs 14-141: formed integral with and within the casing. The cover-plate is provided with a pair of hub extensions 1515 for guiding and housing the key-spindles 17-18 for the master and change keys, and regular keys respectively, the key-spindle projecting into the casing 1 and respectively engaged through openings inthe bore of the casing for joining the lower ends of the spindles.

The master-key tumblers 20 in this instance there being three in number, (see Fig. 3) are superposed relatively and upon the locking-bolt, and pivoted at 21 upon the pin or post 3. Each tumbler 20 is provided with a lock-bolt releasing notch 22, the notch of one tumbler laterally displaced relatively to the corresponding notch of a second, whereby the key engaging edges 24 are normally offset relatively when the notches 22 of all of the tumblers of the series are in registration. The degrees of offset corresponding with the depth gauge of the keynotches, and defining the cutting of the key necessary for bringing the lock-bolt releasing notches 22 into registration.

The tumblers 20 are each provided with a spring 23, for normally holding the surfaces 24 of the same in contact with the keyspindle 17, or with the master-key, when the same is inserted into the spindle and turned. When the notches 22, of the masterkey tumblers 20, have been brought into registration by the master-key M, the notches are aligned with the lug 11 of the lock-bolt, releasing the lock-bolt 5 and receiving the lug 11 when the lock is thrown in its open position. When the lug 11 of the lock-bolt is engaged into the tumbler-notches 22, the tumblers are sustained in their key adjusted positions by the lug 11 when the master-key is removed as long as the lock-bolt remains in its open position. As soon as the lockbolt is slid or thrown to its forward or looking position, the lug 11 releases the tumblers, which snap forwardly under the tension of their respective springs 23, bringing the shoulders or latch-portion 22 of each tumbler across the path of the bolt-lug 11 having the bolt against movement to its rearward or open position.

Pivoted upon the pin 3, and superposed upon the master-key tumblers 20, are changetumblers 25, (in this instance, two in number), the same being provided with openings 26, and slots 27 collateral with said openings, the opening and slot of each tumbler naazeea 25 having a lateral placement, differing from any other, as in the case of the tumblers 20. These tumblers 25 are operated by a changekey C, for controlling and actuating a slidemember to be hereinafter described. The bolt-lug 11 is approximately of a length corresponding to the combined thickness of the master-key tumblers and therefor has no cooperation with the change-tumblers, likewise the master-key is notched so that it has no cooperation with the change-tumblers, and the change-key C is notched so that it has no cooperation with the master -key tumblers. This enables a single key slot to serve for the two types of keys, providing compactness and reduction of parts. It is obvious, however, that a separate key-slot could be employed for each type of key for performing the individual and separate function to be hereinafter fully explained.

Regular lrey controlled tumblers.

A third set of tumblers, which I will refer to as the regular-key tumblers 30, are superposed upon one another and upon the upper surface of the lock-bolt 5. These lockingtumblers 30 are of duplicate construction, each provided with a slot 31, engaged around the pin t, a plurality of teeth 32 projecting from one side of an opening 33, a lock-notch 34 for the reception of the fin or forward bolt-lug 12 of the bolt 5, and a spring 35, for pressing the tumbler against the keyspindle or key. The key-spindle 18 is longitudinally grooved to receive the shank of the key for keying the key and spindle to gether when the key is inserted in the spindle-groove. The spindle, at its lower or base end, has an arm 18 fixed thereon for engaging into the key-notch 7 of the lockbolt 5 for throwing the lock-bolt when the tumblers release the lock-bolt. The arm alternately engages the opposite edge or shoulders of the loclebolt, formed by the notch 7 for throwing the lock-bolt either to the right or left.

A sliding-plate 40 provided with elongated slots 4tl42, through which the pins or posts 3-4L respectively engage for slidably sustaining the plate, is mounted adjacent the change and general tumbler. This plate is provided wi h a key-notch 43 into which the change-key (l is engaged for reciprocating the plate. A lock-lug 44 extends at an angle from the slide-plate and normally engages into the openings 26 of the change-tumblers, and is adapted to move into the slots 27 of the tumblers when these slots have been adjusted into registration by the change-key to permit the slide-plate to be actuated. In a normal position of the change-tumblers the lug 44 engages the shoulder-edge 46 of the change-tumblers, locking the slide-plate against motion. The slots 27 of the several change-tumblers are be actuated. The change-tumblers 25 there cut to occupy positions laterally offset from' one another to define the gauge of key the key-tumbler to bring their latch or slide plate Clearance notches 27 into registration for releasing the slide-plate so that it can fore may be regarded a's locking andcon trolling tumblers for the slide-plate.

A second lug 01" tooth 45 extends at an angle from the slide-plate adapted to meet or engage into one of the notches forming the teeth 32 of the general-tumblers and provide a fulcrum for all the general-tumbl'ers of the set or'series. The notch or tooth spacing of the general-tumblers, providing variable fulcrum points to which each tumbler may be changed for altering the relative setting of the tumblers for changing the tumbler combination from one degree or gauge of key cutting to another.

Thus each tumbler notch engagement with the slide-plate tooth provides for a different depth of key-notch cut to adapt a general-key to properly actuate the tumbler so that its lock-bolt releasing notch 34: can be brought into alignment and registration with the lock-bolt lug 12. The step or pitch degree of the notches or teeth may be uniform, and regulated to provide for a uniform and regulated degree of key-notch depth cutting for each step, so as to elim-' inate special key cutting for each tumbler setting. Each tooth or notch step, of the tumbler, when engaged with the slide-tooth 45, requires a different depth of key-notch in the key in order that the key will, when engaging the tumbler and rotated, rock the tumbler to a position to bring its lock-bolt releasing notch 34 into registration with corresponding lock-bolt releasing notches of the tumbler of a set and with the lock-bolt lug 12.

To exemplify this. further reference'is made to Figs. 16 and 1? of the drawings. Each of the general-tumblers is provided with five fulcrum notches a, b, 0, d e, designating five fulcrum positions to which the tumblers may be adjusted forsivingi'ng about the'fulcrum-tooth 45 extending from the slide-plate 40. This establishes five variations in degrees of arc, each tumbler-plate can be swung to bring its lockbolt clearance notch into alignment of accessibility for the lock-bolt lug'l2 for effecting atumbler to lock-bolt release for a free reciprocation of the lock-bolt. Each change necessitates a different depth of key depth cut for each respective tumbler.

As shown-in Fig. 16, the fulcrum-tooth 45 is engaged in not ch b oftheupper tum bler and in notch e of the seconclior tumbler beneath the upper tumbler. For the key shown in Figs. 15 and 17 the notchrange depths for each tumbler correspond inn'um ber'tothe notches a, b, 0, etc.'o'f the tumblers and areindicated in dottedandfull lines and marked a", b, 0, cl and e,'s'o that the key, to properly operate the tumblers F igs-16 for th'e'uppe'r tumblers, would have to'be cut to aga'uge depth 6, and for-the second tumbler to a gauge depth a, and likewisecorresponding varieties of tumbler fulcrum. 1

' The'fgeneral-tun'iblers, therefore, provide for a key change setting for each particular cut'of key havin a uniform gauge depth cut range in coordinate degrees'to-the defi nite fulcrum varieties of'tlie tumblers. This enables a standard die cutting or'maki'ng Thisffo'r five fulcrum notch cuts for each tumbler and'five turnblersto a set, allows for a'treinendous and almost inconceivable number of combination changes within the trade requirements, which can be multiplied or decreased according to the number of tumblers-employed for a set and the number' of fulcrum changes for-each tumbler.

The general-tumblers and lock-bolts may be used for one" type of lock construction, independent of and without the master and change'tumblers', with a particular tumbler setting made for a given out of keyin assembling the, lock parts as a permanent setting, within" the concept of this invention.

In the class of lock illustrated, that for bank safety deposit boxes, the utility of the changeable tumbler combination is more, readily susceptible and highly advantageous, as it enables a quick and convenient change in genera'l-l'rey combination from one key cutting'gauge to a second, without cost, or removin'gor dismantling the lock. For bank safety deposit boxes, a key-change is made for every subscriber change made for a given deposit box and whenever a key is lost by a subscriber, for precautionary purposes, and which is quite a factor in banks that have a large number of box subscribers.

I Under; the prevailing "construction of safety deposit box locks it is necessary to calltli'e services of a locksmithforeach keychangegand necessitates special key filing and changingof locks from one box to a second so as to change its key number.

Thenor'mn Qperation 'of thelock is substantially'the same as for any multiple key hole lock. The inasftei key, incharge of a key cu's'to'clia'n; is" inserted in its appropriate key h oleor key-spindle 17 and rotated therein the required degree to bring the masterbolt releasing position and actuate the lockbolt to its open position, making it necessary to insert into the lock and use two differently cut keys for a lock operation.

Now, assuming that it is desired to make a tumbler setting for a second cut of key and the lock-bolt is in its closed position in engagement with its keeper, the change-key C is inserted in the master-key spindle 17 and turned to the left through an arc of 360, the resultant action being to swing the tumblers 25 to set their slots 27, to aligned position to allow the latch-plate 40 and its lug 43 to be moved to the right by the change-key, such movement acting to disengage the pivot-lug 45 from the teeth 32, of the locking-tumblers 30, allowing the said tumblers to move to a position shown in Fig. 1, in which the teeth 32 and latch-notches 34 of all are in alignment and registry and against the key-spindles or stop.

When the general-key tumblers have thus been released, by the movement of the latchplate, the change-key C is removed, and the master-key M inserted into the key-spindle 17, (as shown in Figs. 2 and 3), and turned to the right through an arc of 90 to align the notches 22 of the master-tumblers, in order that the lug 11, of the locking-bolt 5, may enter them and allow the locking-bolt to be moved to the left to disengage the same from its keeper.

When the master-tumblers have been set, as above described, the blank-key B is in serted into the key-spindle 18 and turned through an arc of 180 to move the lockingbolt to unlocked position, this movement being accomplished by the engagement of the arm 18 of the key-spindle 18, with the keynotch 7. The movement of the blank-key B, through an arc of 90 brings the notches 34, of the general-key tumblers 30, into alignment and so position the same relative to the fin 12, (see Fig. 2), that the fin enters the said notches upon the continued movement of the locking-bolt, after which movement the locking-tumblers 30 assume the position seen in Fig. 3.

After the lockingbolt 5 has been re tracted, as above described. the blank-key 3 is removed and the second general substituted key is inserted into the key-spindle 18 and turned to the leftthrough an arc of 90, to set the locking-tumblers 30 to a position shown in Fig. 4. This position of the tumblers 30, and the relation of their teeth 32 to one another represents one of the many combinations in which the tumblers may be arranged to conform to the cutting of new keys.

After the tumblers 30 have been set, as above described, to correspond to the new or substituted key. the master-key is turned to the left through an arc of 90, to allow the master-tumblers 20 to assume the positions shown in Fig. 1, upon their subsequent release by the mOVCll'lGZlll of the lug 11 to the right when the bolt is moved to its locked position.

The change-key is then inserted (the new key remaining set as shown in Fig. 4) and turned to the right through an arc of 180 to move the latch-plate to the left in order to bring the pivot-lug 44 into engagement between the teeth 32, of the locking-tumblers 30, to form a pivot about which the said tumblers pivot when subsequently operated by the new or substituted key.

The movement of the latch-plate to the left also releases the change-tumblers, by withdrawing the lug 43, from the slots 27. As the bolt 5 is thrown to locked position by the new key, the master-tumblers are re leased and assume the position shown in Fig. 1, in which position the bolt5 cannot be released from its keeper by the owner unless the master-key be used to align the notches of the master-tumblers, as before mentioned.

The operation above described is preliminarily employed when the lock holds a door sealed, the lock bolt being thrown to its door locking position and the general-key for throwing the general-key tumblers is not at command, as having been lost and it is desirable to throw the bolt to its door unlocking position for opening the door and re setting the tumblers for a second generalkey. The directions, therefor, may be summarized as follows:

First, insert the change-key G into the master-key spindle, turn-one-half revolution, to bring the change-key tumblers into slidable releasing position and move the slide-plate forwardly, disengaging the general-tumbler pivot carried thereby from the general-tumblers. This general-tumbler release permits them to automatically snap to a common position of registration with each other as shown in Fig. 1.

Second, remove the change-key G and insert the master-key M therefor and turn onequarter turn to bring its cooperative tumblers to a lock-bolt releasing position by aligning its lock-bolt releasing notches with the lock-bolt lug tumblers.

Third, insert the blank-key B into the general-key spindle and by a half turn of the blank-key bodily moves all. of the generalkey tumblers in their respective registry to a position aligning the lock-bolt releasing notches with the lock-bolt fin or lug 12 and throwing the lock-bolt rearwardly to its unlocked position shown in Fig. 3.

Fourth, remove the blank-key B and insert therefor a second general-key and turn the same one-quarter turn, this will swing the general-key tumblers each to a degree coordinately to the depth or gauge out of the key for each respective tumbler of the set or series, bringing their pivot or rear ends into either concentric or eccentric positions, depending upon the key out and a respective fulcrum notch to an aligning position to receive the fulcrum pin or to'be carried by the slide-plate, allowing the general-key to remain in such position until the pivot tooth has been moved and; locked into a re-set position'with the tumblers,.which is accomplished by removing the master-key M and inserting therefor the changeekey .C' for actuating the slide-plate, thereby to move'the same into its normal rearward position and allowing the change-key or slide-plate looking tumblers to snap to their key released position, latching, the, slide-plate lug 4A, whereupon the changer-key C is; again removed and the lock set ready :for use.

The blank-key B, however, is not necessary for a general-key change setting when the lock-bolt is in its unlocked or rearward position as when it is desirable to change the general-key tumbler setting for one key combination to a second key combination, as, for instance, when the safety deposit box is turned over to a new subscriber after the old subscriber has turned in his key. Under such condition the general-key tumblers will automatically move to a common position after their common pivot post has been disengaged therefrom. In such instances the general-key tumblers, being engaged with the lock-bolt lug 12, can only move to a common registering position as shown in Fig. 3 and therefor need not be re-aligned or brought to such position. The operation'or, vdirections follow substantially as heretofore described eX- cept that the use of the blank-key B and its resultant operations are eliminated. Further, where it is desired to omit equipping the lock with a master-key as for an ordinary single key lock, the master-key tumblers may be omitted and the setting operations for the general-key tumblers with the lock-bolt in either its locked position or unlocked position following the directions above described except those enumerated for the master-key M. It is also obvious that the lock of another class could have both the master-key tumblers and change-key tumblers omitted and the slide-plate manually reciprocated without the use of the key in which instance only two keys would be required for a re-setting of the general-key tumblers after the bolt has been thrown to its locking position and if in its unlocking position could be set from one key-setting to a second without the use of the blank-key B, the blank-key B being only required when the lock parts are inaccessible and the lockbolt thrown in its locked position. It will therefore be obvious that the lock-bolt can be thrown by a blank-key whenever the pivot tooth is disengaged from the tumblers, which permits all of the tumblers to come to a common position of registry in which only a blank-key will beeffeoted forthro, ing the tumblers to bring their lock-bolt releasing notches in alignment with the lockbolt lug or fin 12 positioning the tumblers to a lock-bolt released position, and, if engaged by the pivot tooth in such position, the blank-key will provide the regular-key for the lock1and any change of any one of the plungers from a common or registering position to an offset or eccentric position at their fulcrum, requires a key cutting or the de ree of varying adjustment so made. The

sli able pivottooth-and the plurality of fulcrum points interchangeable; with the pivot accommodates for a convenient tumbler-key setting change to meet a particular depth cut of key with the special key cutting for each tumbler setting, the tumblers being set coordinately vwith the key cutting and a tumbler setting change made by merely shifting its fulcrum position from one point to a second to changeits key throwing arc, required for bringing its lockbolt releasing notch into alignment with the lock-bolt lug 12. This provides-a material advantage in the lock manufacture and a reduction in cost, as the tumblers are all duplicate of each other, offering a convenience in assembling and setting for any out of key after assembled. It is also obvious that in a single key lock that the change-key tumblers-could be mounted and the slide-plate separated'by a key inserted in the generalkey spindle, the arrangement shownbeing merely typical of a particular arrangement of multiple key operated look.

In the form of my invention herein illustrated and described, the change and master keys may be considered only as convenient mechanical means for setting the pivot-lug 45, after the spaces between the teeth of the locking-tumblers have been aligned. The lug may be manually set, in certain forms of locks, and it is my intention to so set the said lug.

The locking-tumblers 30 are similar, and as a result of their duplicate configuration, are adapted to be set by any out of key, it being only necessary to use a key gauge in the cutting of the same, of which the depths and widths correspond respectively to the spaces between the teeth of the lockingtumblers, and the thickness of the same.

Heretofor'e it has been necessary to cut the keys to fit the tumblers, but my invention eliminates that necessity, and keys may be cut in large number and of great variety, and the tumblers set to fit them.

I contemplate other simple forms of locks in which the master and change tumblers are eliminated and in which a latch-plate with its tooth engaging lug, only is 'employed, the latch-plate to be set to position before the lock casing is applied, in -which case it will be necessary to remove the casing when a change of the tumblers to fit a new key is necessary.

I also contemplate the use of openings instead of teeth, in which instance, a pin, instead of a latch-plate and lug, will be used as a pivot for the locking tumblers.

Having described my invention, I claim:

1. In a device of the class described, a locking bolt adapted for sliding movement Within a casing, a pin traversing a slot in said bolt, tumblers superimposed upon said bolt, a slot in each of said tumblers surrounding said pin, an opening in each of said tumblers, a plurality of teeth projecting from one edge of said opening, a pivot lug engaged between the said teeth, notches at one extremity of the said tumblers, a fin of said bolt engaging the sides of said notches, a key engaging said tumblers at their mid portions, and sp -ings pressing the said tumblers to operative position in a tumbler setting operation.

2. In a device of the class described, a lock casing having a bolt adapted for sliding movement therein, a pin stepped in said casing and traversing a slot in said bolt, a plurality of similar tumblers superimposed upon said bolt, each tumbler having an elongated slot engaging said pin, openings in each of said tumblers, a plurality of teeth projecting from one side of each of said openings, a notch at one end of each tumbler, a fin on said bolt adapted to enter said o notches when the same are aligned, a spring carried by each tumbler and abutting the said casing, means for setting the teeth of each tumbler at various lateral positions in respect to one another, to align the spaces between said teeth, and means for holding said spaces so aligned, the setting of said teeth and spaces being accomplished by keys of various cuts.

3. In a tumbler look, a lock casing, a locking bolt mounted for sliding movement therein, a guide pin stepped in said lock casing and traversing a slot in said locklng bolt, a plurality of similar tumblers superimposed upon said locking bolt, each tumbler having a laterally disposed slot traversed by said guide pin, an opening having teeth projecting from one of its sides adjacent said laterally disposed slot, a second slot at the end opposite the said laterally disposed slot, a fulcrum fin mounted upon said locking bolt, means for throwing said fin into engagement with said second slot, key means for setting the said teeth to various lateral positions in respect to each other, and means -for engaging the aligned spaces between said teeth to form a pivot about which the tumblers are swung to align said second slots, and a spring attached to each tumbler and abutting said casing to press said tumblers to operative positions.

In witness whereof, I hereunto subscribe my name, as attested by the two subscribing witness-es.

FRANK KIHlVL W'itnesses:


Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4072032 *Jun 1, 1976Feb 7, 1978Klaus GartnerKey changeable lock
US4516417 *Dec 13, 1982May 14, 1985American Standard Inc.Changeable keylock having tumblers with shiftable pivot seats
U.S. Classification70/385
International ClassificationE05B55/02, E05B55/00, E05B35/00, E05B35/08
Cooperative ClassificationE05B35/083
European ClassificationE05B35/08B