US 1453516 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
May 1, 1923,
J. R. PAYsoN 04s HOLDER PatentedA Mayv 1, .1923.
UNITED sTaTas 1,453,516 PATENT orifice.
JOSEPH n. PAYsoN', or cmcaeo, ILLINOIS.
Application led February To all 'whom it may concern Be it known that I, JOSEPH R. PAvsoN, a citizen of thev United States. residln at Chicago, in the county of Cook and 'tate' of Illinois, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in a Gas Holder, of which the following is a specification.
This invention relates to that class of gas holders which is Y) designed forVA holding or storing high pressure gases ina 'practically4 ternal pressure. To this end my invention' CFI consists in a gas container which is constructed partly 'oftempered or heat treated alloy steel ofjhigh tensile strength. This is accomplished by constructing the container in two practically concentric receptacles, an inner oneof weaker material which is gas tight, and an outer one which need not be gas tight, but. is very strong..l lThe main `reason for this double construction is that steel of high tensile strength .which is tempered to obtain this quality renders the steel comparativelybrittle, making it almost impossible to rivet plates together in order to render them gas tight or to prevent them from cracking. In fact, any hard blow to g such tempering is apt to cause' fractures or mlnute cracks which may cause the contamer to leak, and 1f 1t contains gas', to'
. While a double container is particularly desirable, a somewhat cheaper construction for lower pressure may be produced by dispensing with the inner container. In this case, the plates may be 'united in. any one of theordinary methods, such as by riveting them together. then welding the plates at as low a temperaturev as possible, and Wherever possible, by brazing them', as this latter method can be accomplished with less heat and without drawing the temper from the plates. If high pressures are employed, the Welding maybe by the acetylene torch, after which the finished container is heatedv to the required temperature, plunged in oil or water, and the temper drawn to the desred point by any ol the well-known heat` treat-mentmethods. l
In a double container of this kind it is 14, 1920. serial No. 358,722.
practically impossible tol construct two substantially concentric containers without c rey ating spaces between the walls. This causes the inner or Wea-ker one to expand und'er'the internal pressure in order to fit these cracks orspaces.- This is almost certain to crack or to weaken the inner container, and in.
order to obviate this difliculty, a suitable cement is ,introduced between the walls to fill or cover the cracks or ,interstices Provision is also made for preventing ,the containers fromV rusting or corroding when certain materials are stored therein. and thusV destroying the inner container. Safety devices are provided to prevent air, from entering and for rendering the hdlder more practicable. .The invention 4consists in the novel construction, combination and arrangement of theV several parts.
In the accompanylng drawing, Fig. -1 is.'
asectional view of a gas holder constructed in accordance with the principles of my invention; Fig. 2 is a sectional view of one end of such a holder; Fig. 3 is an enlarged fragmental detail showing two walls and a tilling cement between them; Fig. 4 is a 'sectionalview of a variation'o'f the joint between theplates of the outer container; Fig. 5 is a sectional view of another plate j'oint modification taken on the line 5 5 of Fig. 8;'A Fig. 6 is a section taken 'on the line 6-'-6 of Fig-4 showing one of the jointng nuts; Fig. 7 is a sectional View takenon the line 7-7' of Fig. 8; Fig. 8 is a plan View of the jointmalso shown by Figs. 5 and 7; Fig.-
9 is a View simi-1arte Fig. 3, but showing e the shell of lthe outer container made ofv laminations; Fig. 10 is a view partly in sec-l tion of my invention applied to a rallway tankca-r; and Fig. 11 is'a View partly in section showing-the invention applied to a,
InA Fig. l1 an outside shell 2 is'formedby plates which' are lapped and fastened together by boltsand nuts 7 and en .inside container may be substantially seamless or made of plates Welded, brazed, or otherwise fastened together, so as to be gas tight. The inner container is intended to fit closely within the outer one, but any interstices or inequalities between the walls thereof are filled with y a 1cement .4 which preferably hardens in place, as indicated more clearly in Fig. 3. In some places there will be little .or none of this filling on account of the close fitting of the shells. The cement 430. geous to have the cement .fusible so as to be or filling is made of materials whose coefficient of expansion is practically the same as that of the steel walls ofthe container, as for example, Portland cement alone or mixed with zinc or other metal filings. lt may also consist of sand or other loose material.
a further object of this cement 4 is that it precludes the necessity of'making the in terior shell of` very great thickness as it attaches or binds the two shells together, preventing to a considerable extent the escape of gas from the inner one. 0f greater importance than this is the fact that the cement prevents the collapse of the inner receptacle when a partial vacuum is created .therein as for example. when air ispumped out of the container when first the latter is to be filled with gas. The cement prevents air pressure entering through the joints of the outer shell 2 and exerting inward atmospheric pressure, and also from becoming detached from the outer shell 2 at any point, thus preserving the spherical form of the inner shell.
In order to compensatefor thev low expansibilty of cementit should .be made flexible by a small content of rubber, varnish or the like. In some cases-it is also advanta-i easily removed by heat should a leak occur in the inner shell, necessitating a removal of the latter for repairs. The inner container may -be made of aluminum, brass, vhard rubber, or any non-corrosive, but sufficiently durable material. A vulcanized rubber bag maybe used if desirable if it is made with cloth fibre incorporated'therein, such as is used for garden hose. Where the nozzle pipe entersthis bag, instead of a plug of aluminum or metal 14 (Fig. 1), a plug or extra thickness of rubber can be used with possibly a metal plate vulcanized upon the interior of the container. A rubber bag is not as good as metal as the cost is greater, and it has a shorter life. Furthemore, any small opening around the joint of the outside shell' may cause the rubber to blow out unless the latter is very thick and strong. Some gases will also cause the rubber to deteriorate, but for other purposes it may answer as well as a metal container.
- In the preferred form of my invention an ingress pipe 12. is for supplying any gas to` be compressed m the container by any suitable compressing means as represented diagrammatically by a pump cylinder 5, and a plunger 10, which receives the gas from supply pipe 11.
An egrfs'sv pipe 14 permits gas to escape from the inner receptacle 3 into a chamber 6. and from there through a cock 18 and a pipe 15 to any device such as an engine or a lamp for using the gas. A piston 16 in the chamber 6 opposes the escape of gas by reason of' the spring 17. but allows the gas to enter the pipe'l when the pressure withinl the inner receptacle does not fall below a predetermined minimum. Then the pressure becomes too low, the spring 1T forces the pist0n 16 to cover the opening for the pipe 15 so that no more gas can escape.
'lihe ends of the outer receptacle each coniprise a dished head 8 with a bent edge which is secured to the outer shell-2 by means of bolts 9, as shown more clearly in Fig. 2.
A plug 14 of sufficient size and thickness is usually welded or attached to the inner container '3 to provide suliicient material so that the pipes 12 and 14 may be attached thereto.
Instead of bolting the plates ofthe outer shell together, as shown in Fig. 1. or in the manner shown by Fig. 2. the ends 24 of the outer shell may be formed with abend 25, as
and it will be obviolisthat the inore pressure I that is applied from the inside of the container, the more tightly the edges will be clamped and engaged.
Another form of joint lock is shown in4 Figs. 5, 7 and 8, in which the extremities 19 of two adjacent plates are formed with upset ends 20, having outer undercut projections 23 adapted to be engaged by a slidable locking nut 21 with a corresponding under cut groove to tightly engage the projections 23.
In this construction the locking nuts 2l may be moved up close together as indicated in Fig. 6, or they may be spaced apart as shown in Fig. 8, since the plates abut, and the under cut projections 23 may be omitted at intervals leaving a space 24 for applying and removing the nuts. In this case a strengthening strap 22 is applied over the shells and bolted thereto by nuts and bolts 28.
It will be seen that this invention is read ily applicable to a railway tank car. as indicated, for exalnple, in Fig. 10. A\n outer shell A comprises a plurality' of o\"er-lapA ping plates which are fastened together by bolts 7, and at the ends by suitable fastening bolts9. An inner shell or receptacle B is provided, and the spaces between the two shells are filled with a cement filler. A high pressure tank car may he thus constructed with an outer shell'of great strength, which as previously explained. need not he absolutely gas or fluid-tight.
This same idea maybe utilized in pipe ESO lines as illustrated in Fig. ll, in which the outer pipe sections 29 are bolted together at the lianges 30, and a continuous inner tube 31 has its sections brazed or Welded together to make a fluid and gas tight connection. A cement or other su-itable material 4 may be introduced between the shells for the purpose previously explained.
While several methods of uniting the abutting edges of the outer container plates have been described, it is obvious that other devices may be used. A laminated shell as shown for example in Fig. 9 may consist of a number of layers 32 of heat treated sheet material Wound in circular form upon each other With the inner uand outer endsV 33 thereof brazed or Welded to the adjacent laminations. The edges only of these ends'33 may be providedvwith a filler 34 such as solder or the like in order vto make the container gas tight.` The friction of the -lamina- Ations upon each other, helps to prevent their separation under pressure from within so that the attachment of the ends only is suf-4 ficient to hold the laminations`together, and the laminations maker' a shell of great strength and comparatively light Weight,
particularly if they are of high tensile'l strength steel. Of course, the head may also be formed of laminated sheets and attached to the shell as shown in Fig. 2.
If desired, either a single or double construction inay be used in a Aboiler for generatingI steam, especially for steam automobiles Where light weight' and high pressure are particularly desirable. The cooling ef# fects of the enclosed IWater would prevent the outer tempered clamps or Walls from being so greatly heated as to destroy their temper and their tensile strength.
Although a double gascontainer is preferable, it is evident that for certain uses the yinner container may be dispensed with, for
instance, if the joint lock or fastening shown in Figs.l 4 and 5 is brazed or Welded at the points 24 -before the container is tempered or heat treated, it will be gas tight when it is later tempered to the proper degree, or the laps may be Welded at. 7 as-shown in Fig. 1, and the nuts or rivets 7 may be Welded and the Whole container tempered.
This construction is not considered as good as the double construction, but for reduced pressures it may answer very well and limit the construction expense.
The invention is, therefore, considered to include a tempered clamp or shell that completely or substantially covers a container, and especially when the outer container is made of special or alloy steel. It is more properly described as a separate `non-gas tight, extremely high tensile strength guard boiler, superimposed upon a Weak non-pressure resisting container which vin reality. is an interior gas tight envelope. This distinguishes the invention from being called simply a double boiler in the common interpretation of the term; nor isthe'outer container the metal now used for high pressure coni tainers and with the consequent freedom from leakage or repairs, 1t will be`found advantageous to store many gases under high pressure, especially oil and coal gases which do not separate too much o"r condense under high pressure, when they are to-he used for lighting purposes, for household use, for cooking, and the like.
Containersof this kind are intended for relatively high pressures, 2000 pounds or more, and if the ordinary container were used, with the normal factor of safety the thickness of the metal required would make the Weight prohibitive; By having the outer shell of tempered heat treated steel of high tensile strength, the holder is safe and strong, and is light enough to be -easily handled.
I claim 1. A- holder for uid under pressure, com.
prising a fluid tight inner receptacle, and an out'er receptacle having a Wall composed of layers of tempered steel.
2. A holderfor gas under pressure, comprisingtwo substantially concentric shells, the inner one of Which is gas tight and eX- pansible under pressure but `incapable of alone withstanding the gas pressure, and the outer one fitting closely over the inner one and being formed of comparatively nonexpansible tempered steel with vjoints that 'are not gas tight.
3. A holder for gas under pressure, comprising an inner eontalner of relatlvely weaker material which is gas tight, in com` bination with a close fitting and nony1eld` ingl outer receptacle, havingr a heat treated shell comprising plates which are connected with welded ljoints.
4. In a holder for gas under pressure, an inner container expansible and contractable under pressure, an outer container which fits y closely over the inner one relatively unyielding under pressure, and aMement which fills the space between the receptacles and attaches the outer @all of the inner one to theinner Wall of the outer receptacle to prevent the inner one from collapsing when a partial vacuum is made therein.
5. In a holder for gas under pressure, an outer receptacle comprising plates of high tensile strength overlapping and connected together, but not necessarily gas tight, in combination with a gas tight expansible receptacle which fits closely within the outer receptacle, means for introducing a gas under 'pressure Within the-inner container, and
an outlet therefor comprising a valve ,which prevents the outliow Aof gas under pressure 'from the inner container when the pressure separate means ito'r admitting and discharg'A ing fluid under pressure to and from the inner receptacle, and a thickening block of material attached to a portion of the interior Wall of the entire receptacle so that the said means for admitting and discharging fluid under pressure may be attached thereto.
7. In a holder for gas under pressure, the" combination, with an outer receptacle formed of overlapping heat treated laminae secured together and not necessarily making a fluid tig-ht joint, but substantially inflexible under pressure, of an inner Huid tight receptacle composed of material adapted to eX- pand under pressure, and tending to fill all the cracks and crevices in the interior of the outer receptacle, and means applied to the interior of the outer receptacle and lling the spaces between the two receptacles so that the inner one will not be weakened or blown out under pressure by the interstices and inequalities of the outer receptacle.
8. A gas holder comprising an outer reccptacle formed of laminations of treated steel of high tensile strength, the innerand outer edges of the laminations being attached to the adjacentlaniinations, and a gas tight but relatively weaker receptacle fitting closely Within the outer one.
' JOSEPH R. PAYSUVN.