US 1454283 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
May 8, 1923 i,
M. HULL-AMBER AERIAL mwmmma APPARATUS Filed April. 12. 192;; 2 shesm-she' 1 M. HOL AgRIAL NAVIGATING APPARATUS Filed April 12 1920 2 waste-Smut the water.
Patented May 8, 1223.
nearer, navrea'rmo APPARATUS.
' Application filed April 12, 1920. Serial No. 373,168.
To aZZ whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, MARCUS HOLLANDER, a citizen of the United States, residing at Brooklyn, Kings County, New York State, have invented certain new and useful Improvements inAerial Navigating Apparatus, of which the following'is'a specification.
This invention relates to apparatus for aerial navigation and more especially to the class of helicopters which are adapted to rise vertically from the ground and be held in suspension and directed in a horizontal course while afloat in the air, and it is also adapted for travel on land or navigation in The object of the invention isto. reduce the atmospheric pressure from one side of the device, preferably the upper side, while the reverse side continues under normal atmespheric action, so thatfthe apparatus with its car is buoyed or floated by pressure from beneath. lVieans are also provided to prevent the apparatus from being overturned by placing the lifting apparatus above the car andboth'are thereby balanced b gravity and the device is readily adaptab e at'all I times as an air ship, or boat or a vehicle.
These and other objects and details of the invention are more fully describeddn the following specification, set forth in the appended claims and illustrated in the accompanying drawings, wherein:
Fig. 1 is a .verticalsectional view of the apparatus and the car, the latter being'partly inelevation on the line 0ca: of Fig. 2.
Fig. 2 is a horizontal sectional view through the fans and on the line 22 of ig. 3 is a vertical sectional view, on the .Fig. 5 is a vertical sectional view of the steering'means. I 4
The elevating part of the apparatus consists of a shell having at its top the fan chamber 10, open at its sides and having lateral passages 11, at two sides and an openv ing 12, at its bottom which communicates with a lower chamber 13,-that is divided into aplurality of radial compartments 14,
shown in Figs. 1 and 2.. Both the passages 11 and-the compartments 14:, are normally closed at their outer ends by the spring actuated doors 15 and 16, respectively, the former operating circumferentially and in ahousing 17, as will be seen in Fig. 2 'and closed by the spring 1'8, and retracted when the air is rarifie'd'in the passages 11,]and
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drawn fromthe housings through'the 19, the inner ends or the doors 15, fitting closely in the housing and followingi' tlie vacuum created therein. I
The rarlficatlon of the air in the passages 11. is produced by the fans 20 and '21, ,re-
volving in reverse directions and one being mounted on the shaft 22, while the fan 21,"
is carried at the upper end of the sleeve 23, and the latter and the shaft 22, are rotated irpareverse direction by the bevelledfgear wheels 24 and 25, which are actuated bylthe performing their function and are also normally'in a closed position andas the air cir-i culatcs outward. from the fan, chamberv lO,
and over the doors 16 and is drawn inward through the opening 12, the outer endspf the compartments 1-1,.aredenuded'ofjair 0 and a vacuum or partial vacuum is created therein. v a
Thedoors 16 are also adaptedto recede into housings 29, when rarificationdraws the; air from the bottom of the housing through the pipes 30:.
There are openings 14c at the inner end of each of the compartments .14, in 'ordento communicate with the chamber 13, and allow the air to escape from the compartments and through the opening 12, when the, -fans;.
20 and 21, are set in motion and partitions l0 'form side walls for the lateral compartments 11. The air is also driven out ofthe openings 35, the'supply for thefans being provided both above and below but is driven;
over the variouscompiutments 14, oncurved lines but collected therein and directed fradially towards the openings 14:, thus creatas long as the door 16, is elevated.
means by the chain 37, and may be ofg-any ing a rapidly moving ourrentthat rarities the air in the bottom of each compartment Ii preferred construction, but carries the steer- 'ing device 38, at one end andjwhich consists [of two concentric shells secured to each other The two shells 40 and etl, are 0 enat each."
side, a motor 42, and the fan she 43, being through the space of air will be face of compartment 14 and from housing springs will keep the doors 16,
located in one of these openings and" as the fan operates, it circulates a currentbof air between the shells and in the direction of the. ai'rows through the openings and drawing thi? air from the inner ed 'es of the shell. 1
his device is mounted on a stand 43, and has the steering wheel e4, for shifting it on' a shaft 4:5, connected with the axle of the. rear wheels 46, so that these two motive parts move in unison to direct the car while resting on the earth or in the air while afloat. When vacuums are produced in the spaces 47 of the steering shell 40, atmospheric pressure is exerted. on the right hand side of the shell and the whole apparatus impelled towards the left.
The car 34, may be constructed to act as a boat in case the device should descend into the water and has the wheels 46, to enable it to travel on land and a door 50, that is made water tight when necessary.
By creating the vacuums in the compartments 14, the atmospheric pressure is exerted from below and tends to elevate the wall 36, and raise the-whole deviceand it is then directed by the wheel 44, as desired.
At one side of the entrances to the pas sageways 11, are walls 48, which in conjunction with the doors 15', form a pocket in that half of the said passageway, and as the air current from the fans pass through the same,-the air is rarified or vacuum produced therein. When suilicient force is created by this vacuum, the air is drawn out of the door casing 17, and the latter opened as shown at the right hand passageway in Fig. 2.
The action of the device is as follows:
When the fans 20, 21 in chamber 10, are rotating by the action of motor 27, a current drawn through the openings 35, and pass between the extended side walls 10 in the direction of arrow Normally the closed so that the current of air passing over the open sur- 14, will slightly touch the curved edges of doors 16. Simultane. ously the air from within the compartments 29, will be sucked out through pipes 30, openings 14, and central opening 12, by the action of the fans forming a partial vacuum inthe compartments 14 and under the heads of doors 16, in the housing 29. It is to be understood that when the, air in the compartments 14, is rarified, the pressure of the atmosphere from above will deflect the current from the fans and will cause to move in a parabolic line as indicated by arrow a, pressing thereby on the curved edges of doors 16, which will slide down due to the rarification of the air below. The current of air will serve as a cover to prevent the surrounding air from into the evacuated compartment penetrating supporting arc to susand will also act as a .turn to the right anes tain the pressure of the atmosphere so that the bottom'of the interior of the compartment will ;.be practically devoid of atmosends, while thelatter are open at the top.
As above described, the current of air b its momentum will reduce the pressure 0 the atmosphere from the bottom in the interior of the compartments 14, so that the atmosphere on the opposite side'will' tend to raise the apparatus vertically, while in chamber 11, the air is reduced'at the sideo ning, and the action of the atmosphered'n t e opposite side is exerted horizontally to steer the device from right to left. Air is permitted into the left chamber by opening the valve 31, breaking thereby the vacuum therein, so the right chamber will turn the apparatus to the left, while by breaking the vacu'um in the right chamber, the apparatus will by the action or the left chamber. It is understood that by breakin the vacuum in both chambers, the horizonta motion will cease and the compartments acts ing in a vertical direction will sustain the apparatus motionlessin the air.
To increase the efliciency of the horizontal motion of the apparatus and also to pro the car on land or water, propelling 38, with a separate motor 42, are provided and serves also as a lifting device in an emergency case.
Sliding doors with the deflected current moving up an down in accordance with the change of the deflection, so the compartments are kept closed from all sides and the vacuum inside is maintained d'iiring the operation.
In order to reduce the resistance of the fans, which is due to the vacuum formed behind when at a .high speed of rotation, they are shaped in a form of a V, this will increase the efliciency of the current of air generated by said fans. It is understood that instead of fans, the current of air can be supplied by other means as an air compressor operated by the motor, etc. lit is 15-16 are in constant touch also understood that the same principle can be applied to propel ships in water where in place of a'current of air, water willserve the same purpose.
It is obvious that the parts may be otherwise arranged and modified without depart;
device Til rec
- rections an partitions and adapted to prevent rotation. Y
3. In an aerial apparatus, the combination of a frame, substantially radial partitions to form com artments around the "outer 1,454,289 v p i and havingcentral openings and fans between the openings-and adapted to deliver currents of air through and over the compartments.
2. In an aerial apparatus, the combination of a frame having central openings, substantially radial partitions, automatibally operating doors and fans rotating in reverse did producingvacuums between the edges of the rame, fans within the frame and adapted to draw air currents through a portion 'of the compartments to produce vacuums therein, automatically operated doors to the compartments, and a car hung from the frame.
4. In an aerial apparatus, the combination of a frame, substantially radial partitions to I form outer compartments, fans adapted to receive air at their axes and create a current through the compartments to form vacuums therein to elevate the frame, and means operated by a vacuum, and adapted to steer the apparatus.
5. u an aerial apparatus, the combination of a frame divided about its'outer edge into compartments, fans at the inner ends of the compartments and adapted to drivecurrents of air through the same, a shaft carrying one of the fans, a sleeve carrying the other fan, a motor, and gear wheels connecting the fans with the motor. 6. In an aerial apparatus, the combination of a frame having central openings; substantially radial compartments, with automatically operated doors attheir outer ends and communicating with the central openings,
I fans, and a motor with means for rotating its sides, top and bottom, a plurality of compartments radially located around said chamber, and a passageway over said'compartments,jand means for creating a continuous current of air directed through said pas sageway and adapted to serve as'a cover on the open side of said compartments, to pre vent the air above from evacuated compartments.
9. Inan aerial navigating apparatus, compenetrating the 'prising a chamber open at its top and hottomand havi side openings, f us with V- shaped blades, coated in said ambers-and.
adapted to rotate in opposite directions, a-
plurality of compartments open at one side and located radially around said chamber means for creatin a continuous stream oi air directed over t e open side of said compartments, and means for draining the air rom said compartments. 4 I
10. In an aerial "navigating apparatus, comprising'a chamber with openings at its top and bottom and having-side openings, V-shaped fans adapted to rotate in'opposite directions within the chamber, a plurality .of compartments around the chamber with side and top openings, means for creating a current of air and .directingthe same over the open sides of said chambers, and means i for changing the course of the air current.v
from a tangential to a radial direction.
11. 'In an aerial apparatus, the combina tion therewithof a steering device compris-- ing an inner and outer shell with front nd rear openings and a space between them, means in the space .for circulating air through the space, and means for creating a vacuum in the inner shell.
1.2. In. an aerial tion therewith of a steering device comprising concentric shells with a space between them and open at their centre and afan with blades playing in the space and adapted to circulate a'ir through the said space and apparatus, the combinaopenings and extract the air from about the walls of the innershell.
13. In combination with a steering devid of the characterdescribed, a shell, an auxiliary shell within the same, channels be- 1 "tween the shells and open at the top and bottom; the outlets of said channels being inwardly directed, means to direct a current .of air over the open surface ofsaid first shell to concentrate the same at the centre, I
and means iary shell. I
14. In. an'apparatus-of the class described having a chamber with an opening, means for directing a stream of fluid across said to create a vacuum in the auxilopening for relieving atmospheric pressureat said opening, a movable wall to said. chamber, and means for governing the movement of said wall by the atmospheric density of said chamber.
' In testimony whereof, I have signed my. 1
name to this'specification in; the presence of two subscribing witnesses, this 7th day of April, 1920. I
I MARCUS HOLLAHDERLT Witnesses: I I I A. M. BAKER,
JAMES F. Dommnn.