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Publication numberUS1454310 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMay 8, 1923
Filing dateOct 15, 1920
Priority dateOct 15, 1920
Publication numberUS 1454310 A, US 1454310A, US-A-1454310, US1454310 A, US1454310A
InventorsBooraem John Francis
Original AssigneeBooraem John Francis
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Wall construction
US 1454310 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)


Filed Oct. 15, 1920 4 5 Sheets-Sheet l A 770/?NE Y May 8,- 1923.

J. F. BooRAEM WALL CONSTRUCTION Filed Oct. 15, 1920 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 May 8, 1923.

1,454,310 J. F. BOQRAEM WALL CONSTRUCTION Filed Oct` `l5, 1920 Sxeets-Sheet 5 A TTOHNEY Patent May i923.




Application filed October 15, 1920. Serial No. 417,270.

To all whom it may o o/noem:

Be it known that I, JOHN F RANoIsv BOORAEM, a-citizen of the United States, and a resident of the city of New York, State of New York, have invented certainnew and useful Improvements in Wall Construction, of which the following is a description.

The present invention relates to improvements in wall construction and has specific relation to walls wherein vthe inner exposed surface is desiredV to he had in the form of a veneer of marble, glass, tile, terra cotta, enameled brick or the'like, to provide a. glossy, non-absorbent and sanitary finish.

The general objects of the invention are, first, to provide in a wall of the above type, a construction which will not sweat or condense the moisture in atmospheric air under conditions Where the opposite faces of the' wall are exposed to different temperatures, and, secondly, to prevent chipping, cracking or dislodgement of sections of the veneer by pressure acting from behind the sections, and resulting from conditions where either face of the wall is from time to time exposed to the pressure of a hydrostatic head, operatin exteriorly of the wall to force liquid eit er through the joints between the sections of veneering or through the retaining Wall and into the voids behind the sections. To these ends the invention resides in providing a Wall of the type hereinbefore mentioned with a prescribed system of conduits, disposed between the veneering and retaining wall and arranged in operative relation t0 a source of fluid supply, which in one form of the invention will operate to circulate a heating agent through the conduits to prevent sweating of the exposed surface of the veneering, under conditions when the opposite faces of the wall are simultaneously exposed to different temperature; or, in another form of the invention, the conduits may function to circulate a drying medium which in instances where the veneering forms-the lining of Water reservoirs, such as swimming pools, Will op-` l erate to dry the joints between the sections of veneering when the pool is empty; or. in a further form of the invention the conduits mav effect the maintenance ofl a hydrostatic balance on the opposite faces' of the lveneering when the same forms the lining of section ofthe Hoor drain or trap of the a swimming pool; and, still further the conduits may act as a drain to carry all liquid entering the Wall by percolating through the joints of the veneering or through the retaining wall. l

Other objects will appear and be better understood from that embodiment `of the invention of which the following is a speciii'- cation, reference being'had to the accomlan of a Aswimming pool provided with my invention;

Figure 6 is a longitudinal sectional view of Figure 5; Y

Figure 7 is a detail perspective of one of the ceramic veneering sections;

Figure 8 is a view similar to Figune 5 of another form of veneering section;

/ Figure'9 is a view similar to Figure 5 of a modified form of veneering section;

Figure 10 is a detail perspective of a modified form of veneeringsection;

Figure 11 is a detail perspective partly in pool shown in Figure 5;

Figure 12 is a detail plan of Figure 11;,

Figure 13 is across section on line B-B of Figure 12;

Figure 14 yis a cross section on .line A-A of Fig. 12; and V f Figure 15 is a detail perspective of a modified form of wall constructed of enameled brick A A l The wall designated generally by a in the 10o drawing may'form one of the walls of an ordina ry building, vault, underground railway station or the like, or as shown in Figures 2 and 3, said Wall may be the enclosing wall of an ordinary swimming pool. The body 5 ofw 105 wall a may be constructed in accordance with n.

any method and formed of any of the materials generally used for such purposes, such as wood, plaster, metal, cer-amic bodies or concrete. As shown, the body is composed ot' concrete. The section b` of veneering may be glass, marble, tile, terra cotta, enameled brick or any combination of these, as for instance, terra cotta and tile, or enameled brick and terra cotta, as shown in the drawing. lin constructing the wall of this invention i for the purpose of eii'ecting drainage, drying,

mediate between the vertical and horizontal in the same or different walls as required or foundnecessary and as shown in the draw- Where it is proposed simply to prevent sweating in the wall of an ordinary building, the conduits 6 may extend horizontally and may be placed in fluid communicatlon with outlets arranged at suitable intervals in the base of the veneering to establish connection between the interior enclosed by the Wall and the conduits; in like manner inlet openings may be provided in the upper portion oit the wall. The outlets in the base of the veneering are designated in Figure 1`by the numeral 7. It will also be observed by reference to Figure 1 that the various rows of /conduits 6 intercommunicate through the vertical openings 7. rlFhe provision of this construction operates to permit air from the .space surrounded by the wall to circulate through the conduits 6, bearing in mind that air enters through the upper inlet openings and on cooling descends and issues from the lower outlet openings 7. The air in circulating goes through the various rows of conduits 6` and from one into the other through the openings 7. lin this way corre sponding temperatures are maintained on yopposite faces of the veneering and the veneering is insulated from the main body .5 ofthe wall. Obviously, under these conditions, corresponding temperatures are maintamed on the opposite faces of the veneering Z'),thu s preventing cooling of the veneering vbi'elow the temperature fof the air in the space surrounded by the wall. Consequently,

atmospheric moisture in the. space surrounded by the wall cannot condense on the exposed `surface of the veneering.

rllhe structure just described may also be used to advantage in the construction of the walls of underground railway stations, vaults, and the like, 'which are usually exposed to the action oit surface water` percolating through the body 5 and which' has heretofore caused dislodgement, cracking and chipping of the y'sections by erectingl a hydrostatic head in the voids behind the sections. `With the present construct-ion it will be obvious that water entering the conduits by percolating water reservoirs, the general arrangement of parts heretofore named may be employed.

In Figures 2 to 6 a 4swimming pool is shown having walls embodying this invent-ion. Each of the conduits 6 of the side Walls 8 extends for the length of the corresponding section of the side walls, as determined by the slope of the floor 9, and the Series of conduits 6 extends from the latter to the life rail 10, the said conduits being disposed in rows parallel with the courses of Veneering b. At the deep end portion 11 of the pool, conduits 6 communicate with the distributing conduits 12 of the end wall 13, which diverge from the upper portion of lwall 13, and connect with laterals 14C, which 'orm continuations of the conduits 6 of 'side walls 8. The openings indicated by 7 in F igure 1, are disposed for suitable distances apart at the base of the side and end walls, and thereby admitwater to the conduits from the interior of the pool. With this construction it is obvious that the height of the water column in the pool and that behind the sections Z; of veneering will, at all times, correspond so that a hydrostatic balance will be vmaintained on the opposite faces of sections ,7). The sections b are united by ordinary cement. It is well known that the hydrostatic l pressure of the liquid in a pool, as heretofore constructed and lined with a veneering of tile, enameled brick, glass, terra cotta, marble or the like, forces liquid into the joints between the sections of veneer-ing. lin variably voids will exist behind the sections and the liquid entering such voids erects an internal hydrostatic head. l/Vhen the pool is empty it is obvious that the water constituting the head cannot escape except by the slow process of percolating through the n joints.

Where several of these joints intercom- `municate and are disposed one above the j other a formidable head results. The pres sure of such a head is frequently evidenced by the bulging of sections of the veneering near the base of the head and the cracking, chipping. or total displacement of the said sections. rThe foregoing is particularly true in the case of outdoor pools erected in 1ocalities where freezing temperature is had during winter, when the pool is empty. Under these conditions the expansive force of the water entra ped between the veneering and the body ofP the wall, on freezing operates over a relatively large area of the veneering and causes considerable dama-ge thereto. With the construction thus far described, it is obvious that an internal hydrostatic head cannot be maintained when the pool is empty, beca-use of the drainage facilities afforded by the conduits.

Referring now to the drawings, a source of heat supply 15, herein shown, as a plurality of coils of pipe through which steamv is circulated by a suitable generator as a steam boiler, not shown, is located in a chamber 16 formed of any suitable material as metal and connected at one end with a. series of vertical ducts 17, disposed transversely of the end wall 13 and communicating with the upper ends of the diverging conduits 12 and the vertical conduits 12. A blower 18, which may be electrically operated, forces heated air around the coils 15 through the ducts 17 and conduits 12, 12', 14 and 6 and finally through the conduit-s 20 in the end wall 21 at the shallow portion 22 of the pool. From the conduits 20, which may be disposed similarly to the conduits 12', the heated air passes into a recess 23 disposed above the water line of the pool in the end Wall 21 and then into the atmosphere. The portion of the chamber 16 in which the blowers are disposed is relatively deep and is closed on four sides by the' bottom wall 24, top wall 25 and the side walls 26. The top wall 25 is practically flush with the top of the pool, and the inner section 27 of the bottom wall 24 inclines upwardly so that the throat 17 is relatively shallow. The inner sections 28 of the side walls 26 are flared outwardly toward the throat 17 and the area of the latter is so proportioned to the capacities of the blowers, that the air will be sufficiently congested in the chamber 16 to cause it to rereceive the required amount of heat before entering the .conduits of the walls.

Provision is made for effecting results in connection with the bottom of the pool cor- /responding to'those 'described for the sides and ends. In the. drawings a trap or outlet d is shown located centrally of the deep end 11 of the pool. The floor 9 is provided with conduits 29 disposed underneath the sections b of veneering and communicating with the conduits 12 and 20 of the-end walls .13 and 21. A floor plate 30 of terra cotta or `l`the like is disposed in a' recess made to receive it in the floor and the concave face 31 of the plate slopes gradually from the plane of the floor surface of the deep end 11 and has a centrally disposed socket 32 in which is arranged a removable cap 33, having slits 34 forming Huid passages between the pool and the conduits 29 when the pool is charged with water. TheV plate 3() is replaceable by a closure plate 35, Fig. 13, for preventing escape ot' heated air in the process ot' drying the-conduits when the pool is empty. The relatively narrow webs 36, which terminate in depending bases 37 and which are arranged in spaced relation on the underside of floor plate 30, provide a double series of conduits 38-39, which are disposed at right angles to each other and intercommunicate and further communicate with the conduits 29. This construction obviously effects a circulation of heated air through the conduits 29 in drying the joints between the sections b of veneering and also permits of maintaining a hydrostatic pressure balance on the floor 9, when the pool is charged with water.

The sections b of veneering which cooperate with the retaining wall 5 to provide the conduits 6 may be formed in various shapes. In one embodiment, shown in Figure 7, the sections b are of glazed terra cotta. each .section being a channeled structure as indicated by 40. In this construction the side or body 41 is glazed and provides the facing. The side edges of the top 42 and bottom 43 abut against the retaining wall 5 and the end edges of these parts and those ofthe body abut against the corresponding edges of adjacent tile. The openings 7 in the top and bottom are in alignment and are so arranged that when the sections in one course break joints with those in adjacent courses, above or below, the openings 7 of the various courses'will be substantially in "vertical alignment. In the modified form,

shown in Figure 10, the body 44 is provided with obliquely disposed webs 45-46. This form of section may be used to provide the diverging or ob-lique conduits 12 of end wall 13, which serve to connect the conduits v6 of the side Walls with the vertical ducts 17. The form of section shown in Figure 9 is channeled and constructed like the form shown in Figure 7. except that the side pieces 47-48 are disposed at the ends of body 49. This form of section is employed for the vertical conduits 12', which connect the ducts 17 with, the conduits 29 of the floor 9.

The webs of the form shown in Figure 3 and the pieces 47-48, shown in Figure 7S will be understood as being attached to the retaining Wall 5 by cement or equivalent fastening means. The conduits 12 formed by the sections illustrated in Figure 9 are staggered because of the sections b in adjacent rows breaking joint. In the embodiment shown in Figure 2, the arrangement is such that certain of the conduits 12 supply the extensions of ducts 6 in end wall 13 in addition to directing heated air into the .conduits 29. This arrangement, of course,

` connection with Figure 2 may be had with other arrangements of sections or by making minor mechanical changes in the construction of the forms yof sections shown in Figures 8 and 9. 'llhe lateral extensions 14C of the ducts 6 may, as shown in Figure 2, be constructed so as not to communicate one with the other, in which event the openings 7 described in connection with the sections forming the side wall will be omitted.

rllhe sections b forming the veneered surface of the floor 9 may be constructed similarly to the sections forming the side Walls so that the conduits 29 may communicate one with the other. The floor 9 of the area in the deep portion of the pool surrounding the floor plate 30 isf-"laid by preference in sections disposed at right angles to each other and joining on diagonal lines extending to the corner of the deep portion. Right and left angular shaped sections 5l and 52 are employed for connecting the sections on1 the lines 50 and are constructed so as to form continuations of the conduits of, ythe oonand the conduits 38 and 39 of the floor plate, which as shown in Figure 4f communicate with the mouth 53 of the trap in the base of-Which is disposed a strainer 54 preferably fastened to a collar 55 attached to the central Waste pipe 56,' the'valve of which is not shown. With this construction the water ,from the conduits of the floor may be readily drained when the tank is empty.

ln the form shown in Figure 15' theA veneering is formed of hollow section corresponding in cross sections substantially to the sections 10-,eitcept that their upper sides 57 have depending flanges 58 which in cooperation with the lower sides.A 59 provide openings disposed in the rear of the courses of enameled ybrick 60. Aligning openings 62 are formed in the portions 57 and 59 and thereby establish communication between the various rows of conduits 63.- lt will, of course, be understood that with this construction `the conduits 63 are relatively rough in construction as distinguished from the conduits 6. lin this construction combined tile and enameled brick may be employed for any of the purposes previously described in connection with Figures 1 to 5; the conduits 63 being constructed and disposed so as to admit of the circulation of heated air through the spacev behind the brick 60 or-to provide drainage for water seeping through the retaining wall 64. The conduits may also serve as a means for admitting-.water in the event that the bricks are employed as a veneering for the surface of a swimming pool.

Although llhave shown and described an ideal embodiment vof lmy invention it is obvious that the same is susceptible of numerous uses and arrangements of parts together with modifications in structure of the sections of veneering not herein described. llt is, therefore, understood that ll reserve the right to employ equivalent constructions and arrangements within the nels of the intermediate rows and with 'the space enclosed by the chamber. y

2. A space enclosing structure comprising vertical walls each composed of a main body portion andl a facing on the inner side of the main body portion, said facing at one portion of the structure having vertically disposed conduits and at other portions of the structure to provide substantially horizontal conduits communicating with the vertically disposed conduits, and means for circulating a fluid through said conduits between the facing and the main body of the walls.

3. A space enclosing structure, such as a swimmingpoolfcor e ising a floor composed of a main body portion nd a facing, said facing being constructed o hannel sections providing intercommunicatin tween the facing and the mai body of the floor, drainage means in Comunication with said conduits, a perforatd member r,in said facing for allowing the ontents of the pool to flow outwardly to th drainage means` said member being removable to enableit to be replaced by an perforate member in order to permit the conduits to be dried bythe circulation o a moistureabsorbing fluid through the nduits.r

4f. A-swimming pool co ising walls and a floor, eachcomposed of a main body portion and a facing, the facing ofthe walls being constructed of channel sections providing conduits permittingcirculation of water vertically and horizontally between the facing and the main body'of the walls and-the facing of the floor being also constructed offfchannel sections providing conduits located between the facing and the main body of the floor and communicating with the conduits in the walls, means for r Adraining the pool, and means for establish-a ing fluid communication between the conduit-s of the floor on the one end and the interior of the pool and the draina e means on'the other, so that when the poo is filled l* Btl with channels communicating with the chanlOl;

with watei, the water is allowed to attain thesame level in the conduits between the facing and the main body ofthe walls of the pool as in the interior of the pool, and 5 when the pool is'emptied, the waterbetween the facing and themain body of the walls of the pool 1sa11owed`to flow freely fi'om the pool so as to cause a hydrostatic balance to be constantly maintained on the sides of the facing. y

P In testimony that I claim the foregoingl as my invention,v have signed my name helfe'- unto.


Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2427780 *Jun 10, 1944Sep 23, 1947Mcdowell & Torrence Lumber ComAir conditioning of buildings by passing air through hollow foundation blocks
US2446593 *Dec 16, 1943Aug 10, 1948Jimopoulos Sam CAir conditioning system
US3163890 *Feb 17, 1961Jan 5, 1965Roger PichonWall panel structure
US4219894 *Oct 3, 1977Sep 2, 1980Henry JakowickiTile construction for a swimming pool
US4249273 *Dec 9, 1977Feb 10, 1981Henry JakowickiTile construction for a swimming pool
US4462125 *Jun 20, 1980Jul 31, 1984Henry JakowickiCoping and deck system for a swimming pool
US6810537 *May 14, 2002Nov 2, 2004Paramount Leisure Industries, Inc.Pool floor drain assembly for a suction-activated water circulation system
US7089607Aug 31, 2004Aug 15, 2006Paramount Leisure Industries, Inc.Pool drain assembly with annular inlet
US7178179Jul 23, 2004Feb 20, 2007Paramount Leisure Industries, Inc.Anti-entrapment drain
US8650673Oct 25, 2007Feb 18, 2014Gsg Holdings, Inc.Swimming pool drain
US8713724Mar 7, 2011May 6, 2014Gsg Holdings, Inc.Pool drain assembly with annular inlet
WO2003097967A1 *Apr 18, 2003Nov 27, 2003Steven R BarnesPool floor drain assembly for a suction-activated water circulation system
U.S. Classification4/511, 454/186
International ClassificationE04H4/12, E04H4/00
Cooperative ClassificationE04H4/1227
European ClassificationE04H4/12A1G