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Publication numberUS1457690 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJun 5, 1923
Filing dateMar 22, 1921
Publication numberUS 1457690 A, US 1457690A, US-A-1457690, US1457690 A, US1457690A
InventorsPercival Iv Brine
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Percival iv brine
US 1457690 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

June 5, 1923.

F. F. BRINE ELECTRICAL HEATER FOR OIL WELLS Filed March 22 1921 v mluraifimdllllllll lllllllllllw uanmmilmmnw 2 Sheets-$heet 1 June 5, 1923.

P. F. BRINE ELECTRICAL HEATER FOR OIL WELLS- F'iled March 22 1921 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 '50 wherein:

Patented June 5', 1923.




Application filed March 22, 1921. Serial No. 454,582.

To all whom it may concern:

Be itknown that I, PERCIVAL F. BRINE, a citizen of the United States, residin at Boston, in the county of Suffolk, and tate ,5 of Massachusetts, have invented an Improvement in Electrical Heaters for Oil Wells, of which the following descript on, in connection with the accompanying drawings, is a specification, like characters on .10 the drawings representing llke parts.

The invention to be hereinafter described relates to electric heaters for oil wells.

Parafline and other products accumulate in oil wells, and materially interfere with .15 the free fiow of the oil from the terrain into .the wells, with consequent reduction of the output of the well. r One of the purposes of the present invention, therefore, is to provide a simple,ef- ,2 ficient, commercially practicable. heater which may be lowered into the oil well, and raise the temperature therein so as to fuse or melt the parafiine and other heavy prod,- ucts, so that they will not obstruct the free 2 flow of oil into the Well from the surrounding oil bearing terrain; I Another purpose of the invention is to provide a heater of a-length which may be substantially equal to the depth of the sand stratum through which the oil flows into the well, the construction being such that paraffine or other obstructing matters may be melted and removed throughout the depth of the portion ofthe oil well which extends through the sand stratum. In carrying this feature of the invention into practical effect, simple, efiicient means is provided for providing a strong, durable construction for the I purpose.

vide simple and efiicient means for conducting the electric current to the heater, and for raising, lowering" and suspending theheaten, m

With the aforesaid and other purposes in view, the character of the invention will be best understood by reference to the following description of one good form thereof shown in the accompanying drawings,

Fig. 1 is a side elevation of an electric heater embodying the invention, certain parts being shown in section; H v Fig. 2 on an enlarged scale is a vertical .55 longitudinal section through the heater;

Fig. '3 is a horizontal section taken' on i line 3-3 of Fig. 2;

Fig. 4 is a horizontal line4-4ofFig.2; Fig. 5 is an end view of the'lower end of the heater; Fig. 6 on an enlarged scale is a vertical section through one of the heater units;

' Fig. 7 on an enlargedscale is a horizontal section takenon line 7--7 of Fig. 6; f

Fig.8 is a horizontal section taken on line 8-8 of Fig. 2; r

Fig. 9 is ahorizontal section taken on line 99 of Fig. 2; and f Fig. 10 is a section through end portions of tandem heating units.

Referring to the drawings, the heater shown therein as one good form ofthe invention, comprises preferably a plurality of section taken on heater units 1, and since these units are .3. by a sleeve 11 of mica or other suitable insulation material. 1 1 r r The lower end ofthe coil is connected to a stud 13 having a portion 15 threaded into a plug .17 entered into the tube 3 and separated therefrom by a sleeve 19 of mica or other suitable insulation material. The stud 13 has a portion '21 threaded into a lug 1 7 of a similar heating unit, asmore ful y-hereinafter described.

Suitable substance or vided to transmit the heat of the electric resistance coil 5 to the tube 3. The material, in the present instance, is in the form of finely ground or pulverulent mica 23 which.

material maybe pro:

is introduced intothe tube so as to surround the coil and fill the space between the coil andthe tube. I I i .Heretofore, so far as I am aware, inoil well heaters the space between the electrical resistance wire or tube hasbeen occupied by air or other gas, so'that the heat must be transmitted by radiation from the wire or coil to thetube containing it. In the present construction, on the other hand, the heat is directly conducted by the powdered mica from the: coil to the tube, with materially more efiicient-heatingeiiect.

In some instances a unit such as described may be sufficiently long to serve the purposes required. In other instances it may be desirable to provide a heater of greater length. To accomplish this, a plurality of such heater units may be provided in end-to-end or tandem relation, For purposes of illustration, two such units are shown in end-to-end relation, and are connected by the threaded stud 13 referred to, which may have asbestos in sulation 1d. v To strengthen the construction and securely hold t'he units 'in proper alignment, they may be introduced with a close fit into a tube 25, of copper or other suitable material, having a length substantially corresponding to the number of heater units employedin endto-end relation.

There is no air space between the unit tubes '3 and the outer tube 25, and as a consequence, the heat is directly conducted from the coil through the powdered mica to the tubes3, and thence through the outer tube 25 to the oil surrounding the latter.

The number of-heating units may be va- "r'iedas requirechbut in the present instance of the invention, SlX such unitsare arranged in agro'up and conveniently disposedin a circle.- Theupper ends of the outer tubes of the units maybe entered into'holes in an upper head 27, and may be brazed or otherwise secured in said holes. The lower ends of the outer tubes-of the units may entered into holes in a lower head 2 9,fand may be brazed or otherwise secured thereto.

To strengthen the tubes and hold the same in proper spaced relation, members or disks 31 may be provided at suitable intervals intermediate the upper and lower heads, and may have holes extending therethrough, through which the outer tubes are inserted and brazed or otherwise secured thereto.

"The lower head 29 may-have a cap 33, desirably of conical form and provided witha flange 35' connected by screws 37 withthe head 29, a gasket 39 of asbestos or-other'suitable material being interposed between the body and cap to prevent entrance of oil into the head. A filling 41 0f asbestos or other suitable material-may be provided for the lower head 29- further'to prevent leakage of oil i-nto the head- -The'binding posts 7' for the lower ends of the units may project into the lowerhead, and pairs of said binding posts may be connectedby'b'ridge platesl3 (Fig. 9) apertu-red to receive said binding posts, and held by adjusting nuts 4C5. y y The means for supporting the heater'and supplying electric current to the units,fin the present instance of the invention, is in the form of a heavy conducting cable 49 (Figs. 1', 2' and 4). comprisin a strong fabric 51: en-

. closed by heavy spirally wound wire strands 53. The lower end portions of these wires may be unwound and divided into groups of wires 55 which may be looped through eyes in ears 57 projecting from a flange 59 of a collar 61 secured by screws 63 to the upper head 27, a gasket 65 of asbestos or other suitable material being interposedbetween the sleeve:v flange and: the upper head to prevent leakage between them. y

' The internal diameter of the sleeve 61 may be substantially the same as the external diameter of the cable fabric 51,. which may have a lower end portion projecting down through said sleeve. To prevent leakage, the sleeve 61 may have a recess therein receiving a packing 67bit asbestos or other suitable material held by a gland 69 which may be; adjusted downward and secured by a; 'fl'ange collar 71 threaded t0 the'sleeve ducting cable contains three conductors 73 enclosed in rubber tubes 75 encased by fabric tubes 77 which are encased in turn by the tubular fabric 5lre'lerred' to.

The pairs of units which are not connected by the lower bridge plates43' may be connectedby upper bridge plates 78. The conductors 73 may project down into the upper head and have contact arms79 apertured and secured "by nuts 81 and-83 to alternate posts of the upper binding posts 7. Theconstruction'is such that the un'itsare eonnectedin series. and receive polyphase alternating currents, although direct current could be used if desired.

The space in the u-pperhead 27' surrounding the electric conductors may be filled with asbestos 85 orother suitable material. The construction is such that the cable 49 serves the dual function of con-- taining the electric conductors which supply the current to the heating unit, and of supporting the heater. As a result, the heater may be raised or lowered and suspended by a strong cable, and the conduc-.

tors are contained within the cable so as to be protected thereby. The necessity of separate cables to supply the current to the heater and to support the heater iseli1ninated;

In operation, the heater'may be lowered into the oil well, and" electric current may be furnished from any suitable source, of supply to the heater. VVhen thecurrent'i's turned on, it will pass through the eonductors to the heating units, and as it passes through the electric resistance coils of' the units, they will become quickly heated", and this heat will be directly transmitted or conducted by the pulverulent mioato.- the In thepresent instance, the electrical contubes 3 and the outertubes'2 5, and sinceflthe latter' are indi1-ect "contact withthe oil in the" well, the latterwill' be directly; heated, "and its; temperature will' quickly raised =to1the' proper point for fusing or melting the parafiine or'other products in qu'ence' in construction, and efficient inoperation;

It will be understood that theinvention is not limited to the" specificembodiment shown, and-that various deviations may be made therefrom' without. departingvfrom the spirit and'scopeof theappended claims.

Whatis'claimed is a a 1. Anelectric heaterfor oil wells, com? prising apair of hollow, liquid tight; heads, tubes" connecting'said heads, electrical resistanc'evcoilsi mounted within the tubes in spaced relation'to the walls thereof, a substance filling the space between the coils and the tubes for conductingheat'from the coils 'to the -tubes,i tube'spacing means lo- 'cated intermediate saidheads tohold-the tubes in spaced relation, and conductorsfor supplying current to said coils; f

2. An electric heaterwfor oil wells, comprising a pair of hollow liquid tightheads,

tubes. connectings'aidlheads, electrical re sistance coils mounted within the tubes in spaced relation to the walls thereof, conductors within the heads for said coils,

powered insulating material packed within the heads to form a conductor for heat and to further exclude liquid from the conductors, a cable extending into one of said heads, and a stufiing box for preventing liquid from entering the head about the cable.

8. An electric heater for oil wells, comprising a pair of heads, tubes connecting said heads, electrical resistance coils mounted within the tubes in spaced relation to the walls thereof, a pulverulent substance filling the space between the coils and the tubes for conducting heat from the coils to the tubes, tube spacing means located intermediate said heads to hold the tubes in spaced relation and comprising a disk having spaced apertures through which the tubes extend, and conductors for supplying current to said coils.

4:. An electric heater for oil wells, comprising a hollow liquid tight head, tubes connected to said head and extending therefrom, electrical heating coils mounted within the tubes in spaced relation to the walls thereof, a supporting cable secured to the head and having conductor wires within the cable that extend into the head, and

packing means for ipreventingfmoisture from entering the :"head about the conductor wiresa I .5 5. An-electri c fon oil wellsfcom prising a pair of tight heads, tubes connecting said heads,.*electrical heating coils mounted 1 within {the tubes in .spaced relation tov thexw'alls" thereof, *conductors within-said heads'for the coils, a pulverulent substance 1 filling each head furtherto. pre--' vent moisture from reaching the conductors,

a cable forsupporting the heater .and.fsurrounding conductor wires that extend into one of saidheadsand supplycurrent-to:the" j and closely. fitting the wwrought iron tube 1 and having ends :secured, inssa'id :heads, electric resistance c011." mounted in. said wrought. iron tube and spaced and lnsulated therefrom, and pulverulent mica filling-the space inthe iron] tube surrounding the coil for directly conducting the heat fromt he coil to the ironutube- :7. An electrical heater for oil W6ll$,-CQII;1-

prising a pair. of heads, tubesconnecting said heads, electrical resistance coils mounted in and spaced} from said. tubes, :a, substance filling the space between the coils andthe tubes forrc'onducting wheat from. the'coils to1the tubes, and-a cable having electrical conducting wires projecting into'the upper head and supplying current to said coils,

said cable having wires secured to said head for supporting the heater.

8. An electrical heater for oil wells, comprising upper and lower heads, tubes connecting said heads, electrical resistance members in said tubes and spaced and insulated therefrom, pulverulent mica filling the space between the electrical resistance members and tubes for conducting the heat directly from the former to the latter,a cable having'wires secured to the upper head, and conducting wires projecting into said head to supply current to said electrical resistance members, and means to prevent leakage of oil past said cable into the head. a

9. An electrical heater for oil wells, comprising upper and lower heads, containers connecting said heads, electrical resistance members in said containers and spaced and insulated therefrom, a pulverulent substance filling the space in the containers surrounding the electrical resistance members, a

heavy cable provided with a wire sheath thereon having end portions secured to the upper head to support the heater, and conducting wires'in said cable projecting into prising a head,-aj plurality. of heating units secured to and depending from said head, each of said units comprising a tube secured to said head, anelectrical resistance coil in said tube and spaced and insulated therefrom, powdered mica filling the space, betweenzthe coil; and the tube to conduct heat fromv the former to the latter, a cable connected to said head for supporting the heater and having conductors for supplying current to. the electric'resistance coils. i .11.. An electrical heater for oilwvells, comprising a head having a collar secured thereto. provided .with apertured ears, heating units secured to and depending from the head,eachcompr1s1ng a tube, an electrical resistance coil mounted i in the tube and spaced and insulated therefrom, pulverul'ent mica filling the space in the tube surrounding the coil, and-a cable having wiresentered through and'secured to the apertured ears, and conducting Wires; projecting into the head for supplying current to the electrical resistance coils.

12.'An electrical heater for oil wells, comprising, in combination, upper and lower heads, heating units arranged in tandem relation, each of said units comprising a tube,

an electrical resistance coil mounted in and spaced and insulated from the tube, pul- -verulent insulation material filling the space -connecting the adjacent endsof the tandem nae-moo imits, and a i-tubecontaining); and closely fitting the;- units having ,itsjend's secured to the upper and lower headscrespectively,

13;Anelectrical heater for oil wells, comprisinga plurality of electrical heating units ing the space between the coil. and tube for conducting heat from the former to thelatter, a tube havinga length sufficient to receive the tubes of theunitsin tandem relation,.vand. means tosupply electric current to the-coils.-,j v I v 14;. An electrical heater for oil wells, comprising upper and -lower heads, groups-of heating units, each comprising a tube, an electrical resistance coil mounted in and spaced and insulated from the tube, binding posts projecting" from theyunits into the upper head, binding. posts projecting vfrom the units; into the. lower head, bridge contacts connecting pairs ofthe lower binding posts,

bridge contacts connecting the upper binding ,1;

posts of the units which arenot connected by the bridge contacts for the lower binding posts, and means to supply electrical current torthe units through certain of the upper binding posts.

In testimony. whereof, I have signed my name to this specification. I 4

rEncivAL F; mm;

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2506768 *Jul 19, 1948May 9, 1950Caterpillar Tractor CoGlow plug for internal-combustion engines
US2632836 *Nov 8, 1949Mar 24, 1953Thermactor CompanyOil well heater
US2672546 *Jun 23, 1950Mar 16, 1954Edison Inc Thomas AGlow plug for compression-ignition engines
US2792895 *May 3, 1954May 21, 1957Union Oil CoWell heater
US2794504 *May 10, 1954Jun 4, 1957Union Oil CoWell heater
US3379256 *Feb 27, 1967Apr 23, 1968Continental Oil CoOil well ignition device
US5120935 *Oct 1, 1990Jun 9, 1992Nenniger John EMethod and apparatus for oil well stimulation utilizing electrically heated solvents
US5247994 *Nov 6, 1992Sep 28, 1993Nenniger John EMethod of stimulating oil wells
US5400430 *Jan 21, 1994Mar 21, 1995Nenniger; John E.Method for injection well stimulation
US8256512Oct 9, 2009Sep 4, 2012Shell Oil CompanyMovable heaters for treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations
US8353347Oct 9, 2009Jan 15, 2013Shell Oil CompanyDeployment of insulated conductors for treating subsurface formations
US8355623Apr 22, 2005Jan 15, 2013Shell Oil CompanyTemperature limited heaters with high power factors
US8381806 *Apr 20, 2007Feb 26, 2013Shell Oil CompanyJoint used for coupling long heaters
US8448707Apr 9, 2010May 28, 2013Shell Oil CompanyNon-conducting heater casings
US8485256Apr 8, 2011Jul 16, 2013Shell Oil CompanyVariable thickness insulated conductors
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US8732946Oct 7, 2011May 27, 2014Shell Oil CompanyMechanical compaction of insulator for insulated conductor splices
US8791396 *Apr 18, 2008Jul 29, 2014Shell Oil CompanyFloating insulated conductors for heating subsurface formations
US8816203Oct 8, 2010Aug 26, 2014Shell Oil CompanyCompacted coupling joint for coupling insulated conductors
US8857051Oct 7, 2011Oct 14, 2014Shell Oil CompanySystem and method for coupling lead-in conductor to insulated conductor
US8859942Aug 6, 2013Oct 14, 2014Shell Oil CompanyInsulating blocks and methods for installation in insulated conductor heaters
US8939207Apr 8, 2011Jan 27, 2015Shell Oil CompanyInsulated conductor heaters with semiconductor layers
US8943686Oct 7, 2011Feb 3, 2015Shell Oil CompanyCompaction of electrical insulation for joining insulated conductors
US8967259Apr 8, 2011Mar 3, 2015Shell Oil CompanyHelical winding of insulated conductor heaters for installation
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US20110308814 *Apr 20, 2007Dec 22, 2011James Louis MenottiJoint used for coupling long heaters
U.S. Classification392/305, 338/238, 219/537
International ClassificationE21B36/04, E21B36/00
Cooperative ClassificationE21B36/04
European ClassificationE21B36/04