US 1462483 A
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Juny 24, w23. M6242@ J. S. CRPENTER HYDRAULIC TURBINE INVENTOR #L MMJA/ep BY H L5 ATTORNEYS @fw ZH fa/M@ Juy 24, i923 Hamm J. S. CARPENTER HYDRAULIC TURBINE J Filed Sept. 2l, 1921 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR .my v24, 1923.
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SGEN S. CARPENTER, @il ER'V'ENGTN, IillE'lli JERSEY, ASSIGNOR TO WGRTHENGTON PUMP AND BSLCHINERZ" GRPRATON, UF NEW YORK, N. Y., A CORPRATEON mannen-'nrc minerarie.
Application led September 2l, 1921. aerial No. 562,267.
To all whom t may camera.
Be it known that l, JOHN S. Canrnnfrnn,
With this object in view, and some others which will be apparent to those slnilled in the art from the description hereinafter, a structure embodying all the features of the invention comprises a turbine in which the line of flow of the inlet water is deflected before it strikes the runner, in combination with gates, which, when open, overhang at their inner ends, that is, project into the runner chamber, the overhanging end or ends oi' each gate being chamtered, beveled or otherwise gradually reduced in thickness so as to form a stream line surface tor the deflected water; also, it comprises a turbine in which the cover plate is supported independently of the gate mechanism, so that in case of injury to the gates or any of them, the casing cannot collapse, while at the same time the gate mechanismis such that the gates may be readily withdrawn without dismantling the turbine, in combination with means for preventing loss of eciency due to the use of means for supporting the casing outside the gates; also it comprises a special construction of the bottom member whereby the wear on the internal ortion ci" said bottom member is reduced w ile at the same time the parts most subject to wear may be replaced without dismantling the tur ine.
The invention will irst be described in connection with the accompanying drawings and then more particularly pointed out in the claims.
Fig. l is a section partly in elevation oil' a' hydraulic turbine embodying the invention;
Fig. 2 a detail plan view of the top olf the turbine;
Fig. 3 a section on the line 3 3, Fig. l;
l Fig. a a plan view oi' the internal bottom ring;
Figs. 5, 6 and 7 detail views of a turbine gate, and
Fig. 8 a sectional view 'of another type of turbine embodying the new gate construction.
Referring to the drawings, it will be seen that the turbine comprises a runner having a hub A, blades B and a band C, the runner belng supported by and serving to drive a turbine shaft D. The runner is` mounted within a casing comprising a bottom member E and a top member or cover plate F.
rlhe bottom member in the best embodiment of the invention comprises a curb ring c with a series of upwardly extending ribs e2 carrying a bottom plate which comprises two parts, namely, an external bottom ring e3 and an internal removable bottom ring c". rlhe external bottom ring e8, the ribs e2 and the curb ring e are advantageously cast in one piece, while the internal removable bottom ring cA1 is fitted into a shelit1 or shoulder in the external bottom ring e3 and secured in place in any suitable way to permit detachment, as for example by means of countersunk machine screws, indicated at c5, which are accessible from the inlet of the turbine.
For convenience of removal this internal ring may be made in sections or segments having downwardly extending lugs at the ends, the segmentsbeing bolted together at the lugs by suitable bolts, as will be clear from Fig. l oi' the drawings.
rllhe curb ring e is provided with a bottom ilange l arranged to rest upon the foundation, usually of concrete7 the curb ring being grouted into this concrete Jfoundation.
lin the best embodiment o the invention the runner blades B are made ot wrought steel plate material forged hot to the correct shape and inserted in the mold in which the hub A and band C are cast, so that, in this way, the runner is constructed as one integral unit, yet has blades ci' such accurate form and suriace finish as to give high ehiciency.
lThe hub may be formed in any suitable way, but for lightness and strength, it very to malte the he lil@ and provide it with interior radial strengthening ribs, as indicated at 2. This can be done in casting the hub, for which reason it is provided with an opening at its lower end, as shown, which also provides, for the escape of leakage water from above the runner.
The runner band C is provided on the out side of its upper end with a rebate, indicated at 3, to receive a downwardextending flange 4f, carried by the internal removable bottom rmg et.
The inner surface of the runner band C and the internal bottom ring e4 are curved near their meeting faces, as indicated at 5, to allow the water to make its turn here in the proper manner without unnecessary loss of energy and therefore without anyappreciable cutting of the band or said ring.
rlhe inner surface of the runner band C instead of being cylindrical is curved or sloped outward in the direction of the water How, whereby loss of energy by eddymg is avoided.
The runner hub A is secured to the turbine shaft D in a special manner. .instead of being splined to the shaft as usual, 1t. is provided with a central opening into which the reduced e'nd of the shaft projects, while the shaft itself has a radial flange or collar d extending over the central portion of the top of the hub and secured to it by any suit able means, as for example, by the machine screws indicated at 6 which are accessible from the top. The cover plate F has a central opening` whose diameter is greater than the flange or collar d on the shaft, so that the latter may pass through this opening. The opening is covered by a bearing plate G carrying the main bearing or journal box H for the turbine shaft D. 'lhe bearing plate is provided with a downward extending rib 7 which fits snugly in the opening in tibi the cover plate, and suitable means is pro-` vided for holding the bearing plate Gf to the cover plate lF, as, for example, the machine screws 7.
'llhe journal box lll has a liner or bushing .it of suitable anti-friction metal cast into dovetail openings in the journal box as will be clear from the drawings. v Annuler spaces are provided below and above the liner or bushings, as indicated at 8 and 9, respectively, these spaces being connected by a suitable passage formed in the journal box, as indicated at 10, in order that any suction which may act at the lower' end of the liner will be compensated by a corresponding suction at the upper end of the liner, thereby overcoming the tendency of the grease or other lubricant to be sucked out of the bearing and down into the wheel. For the purpose of supplying lubricant to the bearing, the latter is provided with an opening at its center on one side, with which communicates a grease pipe conducting grease from a recense suitable source, as, for example, a grease gun (not shown).
To prevent the entrance of sand or the like into the upper end of the bearing, a bearing cap or sand collar I is provided, this being made in two halves screwed together, as shown, and fitting tightly to the shaft. It has a flange extending downward outside the upper end of the journal with which it makes a running fit;
-The cover plate F is recessed or (lished upward at its center portion to receive the upper end of the runner hub while the inner or under surface of the cover plate and the crown or outer surface of the runner hub are suitably curved, so as to deflect the inflowing water in an efficient manner, as will be clear from the drawings.
Yll`he cover plate l" is supported from th foundation, through the external bottom ring e3 by a series of column bolts, as indicated at l, which in the present example are shouldered as shown so as to space the cover plate and bottom member at the proper distance apart. The lower end of cach column bolt is threaded into a boss cast integral with the external bottom ring c3, as indicated at ll, while the top end passes through a similar boss 12 carried by the crown plate and is provided with a nut as shown. lt is well known that there are many advantages in supporting the cover plate independently ofthe gate bolts, but it has been recognized that with such independent supporting means there is serious loss due to eddy currents formed by such supporting means. ln order to obtain all the advantages of Such independent supports as the column bolts K, and at the same time avoid the disadvantages thereof` l provide each column bolt with a swinging guide vane L whose sides have stream line configurations. Since these guide vanes are free to swing on their respective column bolts. they are readily adjusted by the water currents so as to lead the water to the gutes of the turbine without loss of efficiency. That is. the guide venes conform at all times to the direction of the entering water` which, of course, may vary according to the amount to which the turbine gates are opened. To limit the movement of the guide vaines suitable stops are provided. as, for example, the stop pins 7, Z in Figs. l and 3. l `or the sake of lightness the guide vanes may be made hollow as shown in the drawings, and preferably will be ot wrought metal. The number of column bolts and guide vanes should be suflicient to insure. the proper strength of support for the crown plate and the load which it carries. However, in practice about half as many column bolts as there are gates will be sufficient. Also. it is very advantageous to locate each column bolt on a radial line which cuts the circunn ference on which the axes of the gates are loc-ated about one fourth the distance between the axes of two such gat/es. 'lhat is,
a column bolt is not in a radial line with 5 the axis of the nearest or adjacent gate, nor on a radial line .with either end of such gate in its closed position, but is about on a radial line intersecting the tail portion of the gate when the latter is in its Widest open position.
As the crown plate is supported on the column bolts it becomes possible to mount the gates between the bottom member and the crown plate in such a way that the gates may be removed individually in a sidewise direction, 'thereby avoiding the necessity of dismantling the wheel. ability may be obtained in various ways, in the preferred embodiment of the invention each gate lll is mounted on a pin or spindle M which has its lower end suitably journaled in the bottom member, and. has its upper end tendine tl rough er journal i ing: carr f by l t H device. Suitable i connecting the gate it cannot rotate thereon, allori/ing' the spind c om gate. ln the erf n in the drawings stepper x is to say, has sever diaine smallest diameter beir the loner end `to in a. headed bronze bnshingf)1 it removably in counterbored socket in 'the intern nble bo m et. top ot projects slightly above the top ce of the ring; et in order to been the gate lr ing1 on the bottom memiier. The no the spindle having the nent larger i passes lirough an openingf in the bi transverse brace ldot the gnte. VThe 'third A l i die so time n- Simple lVhile this reinovf feature ot the invention. lt has heretofore been considered a disadvantage to have the end of the gate project inside the bottom member because of the eddy currents formed in the space directly under the projecting end of the gate. Hence, owing to the necessity ot having a gate of sudcient Width to properly guide the Water to the runner and the additional necessity ot' not having the gate project beyond 'the inside of the bottom member it has been considered necessary to make the casingh somewhat larger than otherwise would be required. While the turbine as heretofore described may use this old arrangementof tie gate, an important feature of the invention consists in arranging the gates closer to the center and allowing their inner edges project inside orerhane the inner edo; oit the bottom member, While orerco-lf 'the disadran tages off the prior sii ingements by cutting down the thic; e overhangcorners so corn-ers own j' member. ifle reduced indicated at m and will Ott) t.
needed only et one corner turbine heretofore describe' plied to both the orerhei doubie flow turbine? es i ample in 8. ln this :rieurAA marked M2 and the reduce i dicnted at m2.
Suitable mechanism is nro-'rid all the gates siinuit, said gates as may be ent example each spindle its top bearing, and the .dvnntngeously reduced in a shoulder. @n the redrcfu` one end ot o gate lever, having its other l iding; inward d pivot-ally con-a nected to one end ot iinlt, which has to gate adjusting* e aronnt und in contact with annular tiange or hob corners in r,
'or actu y to adjust the presprojlects abone injecting end is ine-ter to form end is clamped on its spindle e or lever ie other trates. y construe tid' titl
tion tor the purpose stated each lever hl has its end split and is provided with a machine screw or bolt n to draw the two parts together thus clamping the spindle with such force as may be required.
The gate adjusting rin P isarran ed to be operated' in any suita le way. sually it is controlled by a governor mechanism (not shown) which operates a rod pivotally connected to the ring. One end ot such a rod is indicated at lt.
lt is to be understood that the invention is not to be limited to the specific embodiments hereinbetore described and shown in the drawings, as many changes may be made without departing from the spirit ot the invention so long as the construction is within the scope ot the following claims.
What is claimed is:
l. ln a hydraulic turbine, the combination, with a runner, a bottom member, and a cover plate, of gates pivotally mounted between the bottom member and the cover plate, column members arranged outside the gates for holding the cover plate from the bottom member, and a swinging guide vane journalecl on each column member and arranged to adjust itself to the water dow.
2. ln a hydraulic turbine, the combination, with a runner, a bottom member, and a cover plate, of gates pivotally mounted bey tween the bottom member and the cove-r plate, means tor adjusting the gates to determine the dow of water to the runner, column members arranged outside the gates for holding the cover plate trom the bottom member, and a guide vane journaled on each column member, said guide vanes being arranged to be changed in position upon the adjustment oit the gates.
3. ln a hydraulic turbine, the combination, with a runner, a bottom member, and .cover plate, ot gates pivotally mounted between the bottom member and the cover plate, column members arranged outside the ,gates for holding the cover plate from the 'bottom member, and a swinging guide vane journaled on each column member and arranged to adjust itself to the water flow, each guide vane having stream line sides.
4. ln a hydraulic turbine, the combination, with a runner, a bottom member and a cover plate, of gates pivotally mounted between the bottom member and the cover plate, column members arranged outside the gates for holding the cover plate from the bottom member, and a swinging guide vane journaled on each column member and arranged to adjust itself to the water tlow, the column members being less in number than the number ot gates.
5. ln a hydraulic turbine, the combination, with a runner, a bottomy member and a cover plate, ot gates pivotally mounted between the bottom member and the cover recense plate, column members arranged outside the gates tor holding the cover plate trom the bottom member, and a swinging guide vane journaled on each column member and arranged to adjust itself to the water dow, the column members being out of line radially with the pivotal axes of the gates.
t. ln a hydraulic turbine, the combination, with a runner, a bottom member and a cover plate, ot gates pivotally mounted 'between the bottom member andthe cover plate, shouldered column bolts arranged outside the gates tor holding the cover plate trom the bottom member, and a swinging guide vane journaled on each shouldere column bolt and arranged to be adjusted automatically to the water dow.
7. ln a hydraulic turbine, the combination, with a runner, a cover plate and a bottom member comprising an external bottom ring and a removable internal bottom ring comprising a plurality of separately removable segments, ot a series ot spindles journaled in the internal bottom ring and cover .plate respectively and arranged to be.
withdrawn from the outside ot the case, a
plurality of gates through each ot' which.
one ot the spindles extends, means for loching the Igate to the spindle, and column members outside the gates and arranged to support the cover plate from the external bottom ring.
8. lin a hydraulic turbine, the combination, with al bottom member comprising an external bottom ring ot an internal bottom ring formed ot a plurality ot sectors, said internal ring being detachably connected to the external bottom ring, a series of spindles journaled in the internal bottom ring and cover plate respectively and arranged to be withdrawnfrom said ring and plate in an axial direction, a plurality `of gates through each of which one ot the spindles extends, means tor providing` a locking engagement between each gate and its spindle, and column members outside the gates and arranged to support the cover plate from the external bottom ring, said column members being spaced apart a sutilcient width to permit the removal ot a gate through the spaces between them.
9. In a hydraulic turbine, the combinalitt@ lll@ tion, with a casing having a water inlet and ing corner being gradually reduced in thickness from the body of the gate toward said corner to form a stream line surface on each side conforming to the changing direction ot ldow et the water in its passage trom the inlet to the runner.
litt I memes portion of the bottom plate when the gates 10 are not closed, the said corners of the gates beinghollowed out to form stream line surfaces in the direction of flow ofthe water at said corners.
In testimony whereof, ll have hereunto 15 set my hand.
JOHN S. CARPENTER.