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Publication numberUS1471600 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateOct 23, 1923
Filing dateMay 28, 1923
Priority dateMay 28, 1923
Publication numberUS 1471600 A, US 1471600A, US-A-1471600, US1471600 A, US1471600A
InventorsRalph B Hartsough
Original AssigneeRalph B Hartsough
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Method of and means for vaporizing hydrocarbon fuels
US 1471600 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Oct. 23, 1923. v

R. B. HARTSOUGH METHOD OF AND MEANS FOR VAPORIZING HYDROCARBON FUELS Filed May 28, 1923 3 Sheets-She t 1 R. B. HARTSOUGH METHOD OF AND MEANS FOR VAPORIZING HYDROCARBON FUELS Filed May 28, 1925 3 Sheets-Sheet 5 [/v Vf/V TOR )THLPH .5 H/m Tam/6H ITTORNEYS Patented Oct. 23, 1923.

UNITED STATES PATENT 0FFICE.

RALPH B. HARTSOUGH, OF MINNEAPOLIS, MINNESOTA.

METHOD OF AND FOR VAPORIZING- HYDROCARBON' FUELS.

Application filed May 28,

T 0 all whom it may concern: I

Be it known that I. RALPH B. HARTSOUGH, a citizen of the United States. resident of Minneapolis. in the county of Hennepin and State of Minnesota. have invented'certain new and useful Improvements in Methods of and Means for vaporizing Hydrocarbon Fuels. of which the following is a specification.

This invention relates to improvements in "aporizing hydrocarbon fuels for internal combustion engines, the invention consisting both in the process of vaporizing such fuels and securing a complete combustion thereof, and in the means or apparatus by which such process is carried out.

The principal object of the invention is to provide a process for practically and conveniently operating internal combustion engines. particularly those used for tractors, trucks and automobiles, with low hydrocarbon fuels.

Another object of the invention is to provide a vaporizer that is simple and inexpensive in construction 'that can readily be applied to practically any type or make of internal combustion engine, and in which I low grade distillates, or inexpensive hydrocarbon fuels may be employed, and a prac- I WlllCll connect dlrectly wlth the engine cyltically complete combustion thereof obtained, thereby avoiding choking or clogging the motors or manifolds, which occurs with devices in general use unless gasoline or high grade fuels are used.

Other objects of the invention will appear from the following detailed description, taken in connection with the accompanying drawings. inwhich,

Figure 1 is a vie-win side elevation of an internal combustion engine, showing my improvement applied thereto, a portion of the manifold being'broken away to show the inside construction thereof.

Figure 2 is a vertical sectional View on the line 2-2 of Figure 1, showing the fuel reservoir and the means provided therein for controlling, the flow of fuel from themain supply tank to the fuel reservoir, and also showing the discharge opening of the port leadingfrom the fuel reservoir to the vaporizer.

Figure 3 is a 'vertical sectional view on the line 33 of Figure 2, showing the means for controlling the supply of air to the' in take of the vaporizer. and also showing the intake manifolds positioned within the exof Figure 1.

1923. Serial No. 642,007.

needle valve adjustment for controlling the flow of fuel from the fuel reservoir to the vaporizing chamber, and also showing the construction of the lower portion of the fuel reservoir, the float being omitted therefrom.

Figure 5 is a verticalsectional view on the line 5-5 of Figure 4, showing the passage leading from the bottom of the fuel reservoir to the needle valve, and also showing the float in valve opening position.

Figure 6 is a detail sectional View on the line 66 of Figure 3, showing in cross section, thenovel shape of the intake manifolds positioned'within'the exhaust manifolds, and

Figure 7 is a similar view on the line 7 -7 of Figure 3. i

In the apparatus shown in the accompanying drawings, which illustrate a desirable application of my method of vaporizing and a preferred form of vaporizer for practicing such method. 2 represents the vapori inders. The lowerpart of-the vaporizing chamber 2is Preferably cylindrical in a. vertical transverse plane, as shown in Figure 2, which is a vertical section, looking in the direction of the arrow, on the line 2, 2,

ber, which is here shown as formed of a separate casting. is also cylindrical and near its upper. end is in the form of a Venturi tube 4. Preferably formed integrally with the upper part of the chamber 2 is an air valve chamber 5, having the usual springcontrolled air valve 6 arranged'therein, said chamber being provided preferably with a removable head 7. This chamber 5 is also provided near its inlet with the usual choke Theupper part of this chamused.

I provide, preferably formed integrally with the Venturi tube portion of the chamber 2, a fuel reservoir 16 (Figures 1, 2, 4 and 5). This reservoir is preferably provided with a waste valve- 17 at its lower end, and with a removable cap or cover 18, secured in position'by an ordinary screw threaded connection. The cover 18 is preferably provided with a centrally arranged downwardly projecting tube 19 having at its upper end a fuel passage 20. Surrounding this fuel passage is an integrally formed coupling member 21 to which a suitable member 22 may be connected. This member has a fuel pipe 23 connected therewith, said fuel pipe extending to and being connected with a suitable fuel tank 24 (Figure 1).

Arranged within the fuel reservoir, 16, is a float 25, carrying a valve 26, preferably provided with guide lugs 27, said valve being arranged in the tube 19 and being controlled by said float 25.

The lugs 27 center the valve in the tube 19 and permit the fuel that enters the tube through the fuel passage 20, when the valve is open, to pass down around the valve 26 into the fuel reservoir 16. By means of the described float and valve the fuel is kept at the desired level in the fuel reservoir 16.

A fuel passage 28 extends upwardly from the lower end of the fuel reservoir 16, through the wall between said reservoir and the chamber 2, and communicates at its upper end with a fuel passage 29, leading into the vaporizing chamber, preferably just below the Venturi tube portion 4 (Figures 4 and 5). The passage 29, as here shown. extends horizontally from the upper end of the passage 28, and, preferably, opens tangentially into the vaporizing chamber (Figure 4). A needle valve 30, arranged upon a threaded stem 31, is provided in the passage 29, and an operating rod 32 is provided, connected to said needle valve, so

that by turning the rod 32 this valve may be adjusted to regulate the passage of fuel into the vaporizing chamber.

I prefer to provide the inner wall of thereservoir 16 with lugs 33, which limit the downward movement of the float 25, thereby preventing the valve from moving more than a predetermined distance away from its seat.

I also prefer to provide an inclined flange 34 on the inner wall of the reservoir 16 (Figures 2 and 5), which brings the entrance to the passage 28 at a point near the bottom of the reservoir. so that the fuel drawn into the passage will be taken from a point near the bottom of the reservoir,

thus lowering the suction level reservoir.

As the suction created by the engine tends to create a vacuum in the vaporizing chamber, the fuel is drawn from the fuel tank through the opening 29 and enters the Venturi tube portion of said chamber, spreading in a thin film over the wall of said chamber. This permits the fuel to be quickly and evenly taken up by the current of air passing through the Yenturi tube 4 in thevaporizing chamber 2 in the lower part of which the current is divided, one portion going to one of the intakes and the other portion to the other.

The chamber 2 connects with the mani folds 2, 2. These manifolds connect with the cylinder intake ports 3, 3. The manifolds 2, 2, (Figures 2 and 6) are of substantially the shape, in cross section. of a Greek cross, the ends of the arms being in said preferably curved. Large exterior heating,

surfaces are thereby provided for said inanifolds, the spaces 2, 2*, between the arms of the cross forming longitudinally extending recesses o-r corrugations. Longitudinally extending corrugations 2, 2, are also formed in the interior of the manifold. Formed integrally with and surrounding the vaporizing chamber 2. and the intake manifolds 2, 2, I provide exhaust manifolds 34, which substantially surround and enclose the said intake manifolds 2, 2, (Figure 6).

With a four-cylinder engine, as here shown, four exhaust ports, each marked in the drawing, connect with the manifolds 34, and said manifolds are provided with a discharge opening 36, connecting with an exhaust pipe 37, preferably held in position around the opening 36 by means of a collar 33 and screws 39.

Preferably the lower part of the chamber 2, the manifolds 2. and the manifolds 3-1 are all formed of a single casting. and the upper part of the chamber 2. which embodies the Venturi tube 4 and the throttle valve 11 is supported thereon. For securing this casting in position on a motor I prefer to provide suitable openings 4-) extending through the casting and adapted to receive securing bolts 41. I also prefer to provide a control rod 42 for the choke valve 8, and a priming cup 43 for the fuel reservoir 16, these parts being of usual or ordinary construction. I

In the method of vaporizing carried out by the apparatus herein described, the fuel is passed into the reservoir through the feed pipe 23 and the flow thereof is controlled by the float 25 and the valve 26.

The passage of the air through the'Vcnturi tube portion 4 of the vaporizing chamber 2 induces a suction that draws the liquidfuel from the reservoir through the passages iii) 28 and 29 into the upper part of thevaporizing chamber, just below the restriction 4. As the fuel enters the vaporizing chamber it spreads out in a thin film over the .wall surface. The air current passing over the film of fuel takes it up. vaporizes it and carries it on into the lower part of the vaporizing chamber, where the current of vaporized fuel and air is divided, one portion going towards each engine cylinder intake The vapor is prevented from condensing, and in fact is superheated, as it passes towards the intakes 3, 3, by the hot gases from the exhaust which pass in the opposite direction along the outside of the intake manifolds, the form of which furnishes a large surface to be heated by such gases.

The fuel in a completely vaporized condition passes through the intakes 3, 3, to the engine cylinders.

I have demonstrated, by actual practice, that with my method of vaporizing, carried out by my improved vaporizer, heavy hydrocarbon fuels or'distillates, much heavier even than kerosene, can be completely vaporized and consumed in an ordinary engine. such for instance as that of a Fordson tractor, and that no smoke or unconsumed particles of fuel will escape from the exhaust pipe.

It is very easy to start the engine in cold weather, though if necessary when it is extremely cold the fuel maybe drained from the reservoir 16, and a priming vcharge of gasoline or alcohol may be introduced' through the cap 43.

The mechanism of the vaporizer is, as will be seen, exceedingly simple. There are no complicated parts to get out of'order or to get plugged up. Except for the throttle valve 10, there are no obstructions whatever between the fuel feed and the engine intakes. The extensive heating surface, provided by the longitudinally grooved form of the intake manifolds spreads outthe fuel vapor in the manifolds. and brings it in direct contact with the large interior surface that is brought to a high temperature by theoppositely passing gases'from the exhaust. 50

The ,exhaust gases are hottest where they first impinge against the intake manifold and gradually lose heat as they travel towards the exhaust pipe 37. -There is, therefore, a progressive application of heat to the. vapor as it travels from the vaporizing chamber through the manifolds towards the intakes This action is very desirable as it results in a gradual superheating of the vapor and prevents any condensation thereof in its passage to'the engine cylinders. I claim as my invention: 1. The method of vaporizing fuel oils fo operating internal combustion engines, wh ch consists in causing a column of air to move lengthwise through a vaporizing chamber always in one direction by means of a suction produced by the engine cylinders and simultaneously feeding a supply of fuel oil into the "aporizing chamber from one side thereof and between the main body of the air column and the interior wall of said chamber. thus causing the liquid fuel to be distributed in a thin film or sheet over the interior surface of said chamber from which it is taken up in the form of vapor by the passing air column.

2. The method of vaporizing fuel oils for operating internal combustion engines which consists in causing acolumn of air to move axially through a vaporizing chamber always in one direction by means of a suction produced by the engine cylinders, and simultaneously drawing a supply of fuel oil tangentially into the vaporizing chamber between said air column and the interior wall of the chamber thuscausing the liquid fuel to be distributed in a, thin film or sheet over the interior wall of said chamber from which it is taken up in the form of vapor by the passing air current.

The method of vaporizing fuel oils for operating internal combustion engines which consists in causing a column of air to move axially through a vaporizing chamber always in the same direction by means of a suction produced by the engine cylinders and simultaneously drawing a supply of fuel oil tangentially into the vaporizing chamber between the main body of the column and the interior wall of the chamber, and thereafter subjecting the fuel to heat from the eng ne exhaust to prevent condensation and superheat said fuel.

4t. The method'of vaporizing fuel oils for operating internal combustion engines which consists in causing a column of air to move through a vaporizing chamber always in one direction by means of a Stir tion produced by the enginecylinders. and simultaneously drawing a supply of fuel oil tangentially into the vaporizing chamber between the'main body of the air column and the interior wall of the chamber thus 'causing the fuel to be distributed in a thin film or sheet over the wall of said chamber from which it is taken up in the form of vapor by the passing air current, and there, after subjecting the vapor thus produced to heat from the engine exhaust to prevent condensation and super-heat said fuel.

5. In a device of the class described. the combination with a chamber normally open at both ends and throu h which a solid column of air passes axially in one direction only. of a fuel reservoir and a fuel passage leading fromsaid reservoir into said chant her and arranged to deliver liquid fuelin a thin film circumferentially over the inner surface of the wall of the chamber and around the passing air column.

. tracted throat near one end and through ch amber,

6. In a device of-the class described the I combination with a chamber having a conof the Venturi and arranged to deliver fuel tangentially into said chamber. between said throat and the other end of said chamber,

a manifold connected to the other end of the chamber forming communications be- .tween said chamber and theintake of an engine, said manifold also having'exh'aust portions surrounding'said intake portions,

said exhaust portions communicating with the exhaust ports of the engine.

8. The combination in a device of the class described with a Venturi chamber having an inwardly openingspring closed valve at one end and throughwhich air passes axially in one direction only in a solid column, of a fuel reservoir and a fuel passage leading from said reservoir into said chamber and arranged to deliver fuel tan gentially into said chamber, a manually operable valve near the'other end of said and a manifold adapted to be heated by the exhaust from'an engine, said manifold having communication with said .one end and .axially, of a fuel reservoir and a fuel pas-' chamber, 9. The combination in a device of the class described, of a. chamber having an inwardly opening spring closed valve at through which air passes sage leading fromsaid reservoir int' said chamber and arranged to deliver fuel tangentially'into said chamber, and a'manually operable valve near the other end of. said chamber and a manifold into which said chamberopens, said manifold having intakes communicating with the. intake of an engine and also exhaust passages leading from the exhaust ports of said'engine, one

exhaust port being arranged for heating the lower part and the other exhaust port for heating the upper part ofsaid intake passages as the exhaust gases are exhausted from theengine. I

10. In a device of the class described, the

combination, with a substantially cylindri-' calvapo'riz'ing chamber open at both ends, and means connected with the engine cylinder for causing a solid column of air to move axially through said chamber, of a fuel reservolr, a port'connecting said reser voir with-said cylinder and arranged to per mitliquid fuel to be drawn by said air current from said reservoir and projected v, 1

the side thereof through said chamber 'alongl In over the cyto distribute it in a thinlindrical wall, wherebysaid fuel is taken up evenl by said air current and carried into sai vaporizing chamber, and means, for superheatin'g the vapor asit'passes from said vaporizing chamber into, the engine.

11. In a device of the class described, the combination with a vaporizing chamber in the form of a Venturi tube through "which air is drawn in an axial direction, of a fuel reservoir and a fuel passage leading from said reservoir through the wall of said chamber near the throat of the Venturi and arranged to distribute fuel circumferentially over the inner wall of said chamber between said throat and the other end of the chamber, 'a manifold connected to the other end of the chamber forming communication between said chamber and the intake of an engine, said manifold also having exhaust portions surrounding said intake portions, said exhaust portions communicating with the exhaust ports of the engine.

12. In a device of the class described, the combination with a vaporizing chamber in the form of a Venturi tube through which air is drawn in an axial direction, of a fuel reservoir and a fuel passage leading from said reservoir through the wall .of the chamber and distributing the fuel in a thin film or sheet over the inner wall of the chamber, and superheating manifolds leading from said chamberto the engine intakes.

13. In a device of the class described, the combination, with a chamber in the'form of a Venturi tube through which air is drawn in an axial direction. of a fuel reservoir and a fuel passage leading from said reservoir through the wall of the ,chamber and disa tributing thefuel in a thin film or sheet over the inner wall of the chamber, intake manifolds leading from said chamber to the engine intake, and exhaust manifolds leading,

from the engine exhausts and surrounding said intake manifold. I

14. In adevice of the class described, the combination, with a vaporizing chamber in the form of a Venturi tube having open ends and closed walls whereby all of-the air passing through said vaporizing chamber enters the end of the tube and passes through the Venturi, of a fuel reservoir and a fuel passage leading from said reservoir through the wall of the chamber near the Venturi, and on the side thereof that is towards the chamber outlet and arranged to distribute the fuel over the inner wall of the chamber, and superheating manifolds connected with the chamber outlet and leading to the engim .intaka,

15. In a device of the class described, the combination, with a vaporizing chamber in the form of a Venturi tube having open ends and a closed wall whereby all of the air passing through said vaporizing chamber enters the end of the tube and passes through the Venturi, of afuel reservoir and a fuel passage leading from said reservoir through the wall of the chamber near the Venturi and on the side thereof that is towards the chamber outlet, and arranged to distribute the fuel in a thin film or sheet over the inner wall of the chamber, and superheating manifolds leading from said chamber to the en gine intakes. v

16. In a device of the class described the combination with a vaporizing chamber in the form of a Venturi tube through which air is drawn in an axial direction and in a solid column, of a fuel reservoir and a fuel passage leading from said reservoir through the wall of the chamber near the throat of the Venturi, and superheating manifolds connected directly to the discharge endof said tube and having vapor intake conductors leadin from saidtube to the engine intake,

and ex aust conductors leading from the engine exhaust to .a centrally located discharge port opposite the discharge end of said Venturi tube, said exhaust conductors surrounda ing the intake conductors.

17. In a device of the class described the combination with a vaporizing chamber in v the form of a Venturi tube through which air is drawn in an axial direction and in a solid column, of a fuel reservoir and a fuel pas-' discharge end of said Venturi tube, said exhaust conductors surrounding the intake conductors.

18. In a device of the class described the combinationwith a vaporizing chamber in the form of a Venturi tube through which air is drawn in an axial direction and in a solid column, of a fuel reservoir and a fuel passage leading from said reservoir through the wall of the chamber near the throat of the Venturi, and superheating manifolds connected directly to the discharge end of said tube and extending at right angles in opposite directions therefrom and having vapor intake conductors leading from said tube to the engine intake and exhaust conductors leading from the engine exhaust to a centrally located discharge port opposite the discharge end of said Venturi tube, said exhaust conductors surrounding the intake conductors.

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand this 14th day of May, 1923.

RALPH B. HARTSOUGH.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US7735460Aug 22, 2008Jun 15, 2010Leonard BloomMethod and apparatus for operating standard gasoline-driven engines with a readily-available non-volatile fuel, thereby obviating the use of gasoline
Classifications
U.S. Classification123/545, 123/557, 261/79.1, 261/145
International ClassificationF02M21/10
Cooperative ClassificationY02T10/34, F02M21/10