|Publication number||US1472642 A|
|Publication date||Oct 30, 1923|
|Filing date||May 4, 1921|
|Priority date||May 4, 1921|
|Publication number||US 1472642 A, US 1472642A, US-A-1472642, US1472642 A, US1472642A|
|Inventors||Evans Jr William Lewis|
|Original Assignee||Evans Jr William Lewis|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (13), Classifications (7)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
' W. L. EVANS. JR
COMPOSITE WALL AND METHOD OFLC'ONSTRUCTING IT Oct. 30
Filed May 4. 1921 4 Sheets-Sheet l WluEvans jr,
' INVENTOR ATTORNEY Oct. 30,1923.
, Filed w. L. EVANS. JR
OSITE WALL AND METHO D 0F CONSTRUCTiNG IT v 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 1 is; i WL.Evam 7.;
INVENTOR wrrNEssss I w. L. EVANS, JR
COMPOSITE WALL AND METHOD OF CONSTRUCTING IT Filed May 4. 1921' 4 Sheets-Sheet 5 I I I (f I, I\klll INVENTOR Oct. 30, 1923.
W. L. EVANS. JR
COMPOSITE WALL AND METHOD. OF CONSTRUGTING IT Filed May 4. 192 4 Sheets Sheet 4 Evan 8,] c,- INVENTOR WITNESSES ATTOR N IY Fatented Get. 3t), 1923,
WILLIAM LEWIS EVANS, JR,
OF WASHINGTON, INDIANA.
COMPOSITE WALL AND METHOD OF CONSTRUCTING IT.
Application filed May 4," 1921. Serial No. 466,843.
To all whom it may concern Be it known that WILLIAM L. EvANs, J r., a citizen of the United States, residing at Washington, in the county of Daviess and State of Indiana, has invented new and useful Composite Walls and Methods of' Constructing Them, of which the following is a specification.
This invention has reference to composite walls for buildings and to a method of constructing them, and its objects are toreduce the cost of construction by dispensing with inner courses of bricks, and to provide a wall which is superior toan all brick or tile wall, whatever may be .its thickness.
In I accordance with the invention, the wall is built of a single course of brick or tile constituting a facing, following which there is produced an inner wall or backing of concrete'of suitable thickness, the brick or tile facing and the concrete being anchored together in contact.
As the brick or tile facing wall is built, special spacing devices or separators are in cluded, being built into the facing wall and projecting away therefrom to such distance as may be determined by the proposed thickness of the concrete wall, while the distance apart of these spacers is such as experience,
When the single course of brick or tile is built and the spacing devices are placed, tie wires and reinforcing bars or rods are included, and finally molding forms are se cured by the tie wires against the ends of the spacing devices to hold the forms in posltion, whereupon concrete 18 run or de posited between the inner face of the brick or tile wall andthe faces of the forms to ward the brick or tile wall. The concrete 'is allowed to harden or set, and then the tie wires are severed to permit the removal of the molds and the trimming off of the projecting portions of the tie wires, after which the exposed face of the concrete wall which forms the inner face of the composite wall may be finished in any suitable manner, as by papering or painting, or the application offthe numerous Wall finishes to be foundcn the market. These materials may be applied to the concretesurface without.
other preparation thereof, although, in the case of papering,'the wall may be advantageously smoothed and filled.
By forming the facing wall one brick or tile in thickness and providing spacing means carried by the brick or tile wall, I either in the form of metallic bars partially or Wholly embedded at one end in the brick wall and projecting rearwardly therefrom to the requisite distance, or by building brick spacers in the brick wall and projecting rearwardly therefrom, and then con structing a temporary molding surface for the concrete back of the brick wall, the concrete may be deposited between the molding surface and the-rear or inner face of the brick wall to produce the composite wall,-
with anchoring and reinforcing devices included, so as to insure an intimate interconnection between the facing and backing walls. At the same time firm adherence is obtained between the two walls, each carrying its part of the load, and the whole forms a strong wall capable of not only sustaining heavy loads, but of withstanding strong wind pressures and shocks.
The wall construction is advantageous in its cheapness, and in the rapidity with which the wall may be f0rmed, and besides the necessity of highly skilledlabor is in most part avoided.
The invention will be best understood;
from a consideration 'of'the following detailed description taken in connection with the accompanying drawings .forming part of this specification, with the understanding, however, that the invention is not confined to any strict conformity with the showmg of the drawings, but may be changed and modified so long as such changes and .modifications mark no material departure from the salient features of the invention, as expressed in the appended claims.
In the drawings Fig. 1 is a perspective view of a wall constructed in accordance withthe invention, showing the'brick facing more advanced than the concrete backing, with but a portion of the forms or molds in place.
Figs. 2 and 3 are fragmentary perspective views of the forms or molds illustrating different modes of connecting the forms together.
Fig. 4 ice. perspective view of a portion of an outer wall or facing with spacers of like formation to the bricks or blocks composing the outer wall, and also showing the wires and reinforcing strands or bars employed in building thewall. I
(Fig. 5 is a perspective View of an outer wall or facing embodying features shown in F ig. 4, and illustrating a preferred form of spacing elements with tie wires and reinforcing bars carried thereby.
Fig. 6 is a plan view ofcone of the spacing elements used in the construction shown in Fig. 5.
Fig. 7 is a section on line 7-7 of Fig. 6.
Fig. 8 is a view of a structure similar to that of Fig.5, but more complete and including molds or forms such as are indicated in Fig. 1, with some parts of the wall wholly completed. 7 T
Fig. 9 is a sectional view similar to Fig. 7, but illustrating a modification.
Referring to the drawings, there is shown a wall 1, assumed to be formed of brick of ordinary form, with the understanding that the brick may be replaced with tile. For simplicity of description, the wall 1 will hereinafter be termed a brick wall without, however, limitation to such specific 1m: lerial. V c r The bricks are, or may be, laid in mortar, indicated by mortar lines'2, with the bricks laid flat after the usual custom, but without the usual binding courses, which are re placed by other means.
In the construction shown in Fig. 1, the wall 1 is a facing wall and need only be of athickness corresponding to'the width of a brick. Set at intervals in the mortar lines 2 at about the usual altitudes of binding courses in the ordinary brick wall, are bars which may be metallic bars and spaced apart lengthwise of the wall by appropriate distances.v These bars may extend entirely through the wall. but are preferablv inserted from the rear face of the wall for a distanee less than the width of a brick, and are enihedded in the mortar 2. The bars or spacers or spacing means 3 serve two functions. One is to act as stops for forms or molds t, and the other is to act as carriers or supports for reinforcingrods or bars 5, which latter 'may be made of the usual twisted form, or of some other form.
The molds 4, for which no novelty is claimed, are conveniently made of 'sheet metal with edge flanges 6 projecting to the rear and joined in face to face relation. In order to connect the mold forms and prevent displacement thereof, the flanges are traversed by pins 7, as shown in Figs. 1 and 3, oixby bolts 8, as indicated in Fig. 2, in
either case providing a relatively rigid structure to serve as a wall against which concrele. may be deposited or run, thus forn'iing a concrete backing .wall 9 for the facing brick wall 1. The concrete wall 9 may be made of any desired t hickness, to be determined by the projection ofthe spacing bars 3 from the rear of. thefacing wall 1. In
order to hold the forms. to the facing wall anjdfalso to. reinforceuthe concrete wall 9,.
there are provided tie wires 10", "each having cent flanges 6, with the tie wires twisted about rods 12 in Figs. 1 and 2, while in Figs. 3 and 8, U-shaped clips 13 embrace the meetmgiflanges 6, with the clips h'a'vnig elastic closed endsl. imparting a gripping tendency to the opposite ends or edges 15 of the clips, which edges are outturned to cause the easy application of the clips. In the arrangement shown in Fig. 3, which may be taken as applicable to other figures of the drr-iwing, the closed end 14 is a plain partially cylindrical end about which neigli boring ends of the'tie wire 10 are placed and brought together and fastened by a twist 16, thereby permitting a tightening of the tie wires to hold the molds or forms a in firm engagement with the spacers 3.- At the left hand side of Fig. 3, there is shown a clipllw;
with a closed end 14 havingnotches 17 atwhich the twisted ends of Spacers or spacing means 3 are built into the facing wall 1 and project from the rear thereof to an appropriate distance, and tie wires 10 are also built into the facing wall 1- and project from the rear thereof. The
forms .et are erected and anchored against the spacers 3, as described, after which reinforcement rods 5 are laid upon the spacers and other reinforcement rods set upright, are located in the space between the facing wall 1 and the forms 1. Then concrete is deposited in the space between the facing wall 1 and forms 4, filling such space, and I the concrete is then allowed to set or harden, after which the tie wires 10 are severed 'so that the forms or molds at may be removed.
The projecting ends of the tie wires may be cutv oif ,tlush with the rear or exposed face of theconcretewall. g
Such concrete wall. needs no lathingior plastering, but may be directly tinted or papered or provided with some thin wash, if it be desired that the inherent roughness of the c ncrete be obliterated, although such roughness is frequently desired.
Where the wall is of consider 'le height, it. is usually; applied, secti sitely, sothat the rot-ms"; may 16 e repeatedly This leaves of the forms The spacers 20, in the showing of Fig. 4 are ordinary bricks or blocks at right anglesto the bricks constituting the wall 1. i
The spacers 21 inFigs. 5 and 8 differ from the spacers20 of Fig. 4 in that each spacer 21 has a hole 22 preferably extending therethrough from top to bottom about midway of the width of the spacer, and aboutv midwayof the projection of the spacer from the rear of the wall 1. It is to be understood that more than one such hole may be employed with the holes appropriately located. This modificationis shown in Fig. 9 of the drawings. The reinforcing rods 5 are used in-the arrangement of Figs. 5 and 8 and wires 10 are also used. The. reinforcing rods 5 are laid across the perforations or holes 22, and the anchoring wires 10 are wrapped at thelOOp portion about the reinforcing wires 5, with one leg of the tie wire carried directly to the rear to pass between adjacent flanges 6 of the. forms, and the other leg of the tie wire carried downwardly through the perforation 22, and thence to the rear and between the flanges of the forms, with the two legs of the tie wires after passing through the forms twisted about a rod 12, as in Fig. 2, or twisted together, as shown at 16 in Fig. 3.
In building the composite wall shown in Figs. 5 and 8, the brick mason is not bothered by having to lay steel spacers or separators or the wire ties in the wall, nor is he bothered by their being in his way after they are laid in the wall. When build ing the wall, the mason lays the brick or tile spacers 20 or 21. extending from the brick part of th wallinwardly as a part of the wall, thus separating the forms from the brick facing wall, and the tie wires are installed after the brick wall is completed and set. The tie wires pass through the forms, either between them, to one side of them or through them, according to requirements, and thetie wires are twisted at their outer ends around the clips or other brick walls together, and as the horizontal reinforcing bars are, secured to the brick. spacers or separators bythe wire ties, the
brick wall and the concret wall are in effect,
an integral whole.
The composite wall of Figs. 5 and 8 is cheaper to construct and more practical than the wall of Fig. 1, and since such skilled labor as is demanded of a brick mason is not required in the production of the concrete wall, the composite wall may be built cheaper and more expeditiously than a wall of the same dimensions built entirely of brick or tile.
What is claimed is- 1. They method of building composite walls, which consists in erecting an outer facing masonry wall with spacers projecting rearwardly orinwardly therefrom, laying reinforcing means upon said spacers so as to be supported thereby, erecting molding forms against the spacers and separated facing masonry wall with spacing means projecting-inwardly from the facing wall, supporting'reinforcing means by said spacing means, setting up an inner molding surface against the spacing means, temporarily tying the molding surface to the facing wall, filling the intervening space between the masonry wall and molding surface with concrete, and removing the molding surface by. severing the tying means therefrom and leaving said'tying means and said rein forcing means embedded in the concrete fill- 3. The method of building walls, which consists in erecting a '1 .asonry wall, including permanently located spacers in and projecting from the brick wall, setting up molding forms in spaced relation to the rear face of the brick wall. locating tying means in the space between the masonry wall and molding forms with said tying means projecting beyond the rear face of the molding forms, supporting reinforcing elements on said spacers, filling the intervening space between the facing wall and the molding forms with concrete. severing the tying means and finally removing themolding forms.
At. The method of building composite walls .of masonry and concrete, which consists in forming the facing portion of the wall of. masonry, and the rear portion of the wall of concrete, providing a spacing means between the facing portion and the rear portion by embedding the spacing means in the facing portion, providing tying means between the facing and the concrete wall of an initial length to extend through and beyond the concrete wall, with the tying means initially embedded in the facing portion, setting up molding forms to define the rear limits of the concrete wall, securing the molding forms in firm spaced relation tothe masonry wall through the tying means, depositing concrete in the space between the masonry wall and themolding forms, and finally removing the moldingforms to leave the portion of the concrete molded against them exposed. V
5. The method of building composite walls, which consists informing a masonry wall facing, providing spacers projecting rearwardly from the wall facing approximately to the depth of the composite wall, securing tie wires to the spacers at a distance from the facing Wall, setting up molding forms in contact with the spacers with the tie wires fast to the molding forms to hold them in engagement with thespacers, depositing concrete in the space between the wall facing and the mold forms thereby embedding the spacers, and subsequently severing the tie wires and removing the mold forms.
6. The method of building compositewalls, which consists of forming an outer wall or facing of masonry with spacers of masonry projecting rea-rwardly approxi' mately to the depth of the composite wall and embedded in the masonry wall, securing tie wires to that portion o-feach spacer remote from the facing wall, erecting a molding wall of mold forms engaging the spacers and secured thereto by the tie wires, placing reinforcing bars upon the spacers between the facing wall and the molding forms and secured to the spacers by said tle w1res,
' face of said wall to the'depth of the full thickness of the wall, reinforcing means supported by the spacing means, tie wires connected to the rear face of the masonry wall, and a concrete wall or backing in contact w th the facing wall and enclosing the spacing means, reinforcing means and ty ing means. p i V 8. A composite wall comprising a masonry facingof a single thickness, spacers forming part of the facing and of a length to extend rearwardly from thef'acing to the depth of thereof.
thecom-posite wall, with the spacers each having holes therethrough between the masonry) facing and their rear ends, reinforclng ars laid upon and supported by the spacers between the masonry facing and the rear ends of the spacers, tie wires carried by the spacers holding the reinforcing bars, and a concrete wall embedding the reinforcing bars, tie wires and spacers, said concrete wall constituting the rear portion of the composite wall,and in contact with the facing.
9. A composite wall of'masonry and concrete, comprising a masonry facingof a sage of the spacer and along the bottom of said spacer toward the rear of the wall, said tie wires initially connecting mold forms to the rear ends of the spacers, and a filling of concrete embedding the headers, reinforcing bars, and tie wires and in contactwith the rear face of the facing wall. i
10. composite wall, comprising a ma sonry facing of less thickness than the full thickness of the wall, spacers formed of units similar to the masonry facing and embedded in said facing and carried thereby, with the spacers of a length corresponding-to the full thickness of the wall, and aconcrete back ing in contact with the :facing and embedding the spacers, andtogether with themasonry facingconstituting the full thickness of the wall, said spacers extending through the concrete backing to the outer face 11. A composite wall comprising a masonry facing of less thickness than the full thickness of the wall, spacers embedded in extending inwardly therefrom, and a concrete backing in contact with the facing and embedding the spacers and tie wires and together withthe masonry facing constituting the full thickness, of the wall.
In testimony, that I claim the foregoing as my own, I have hereto affixed' my signa-' ture; v i
WILLIAM nnwrs Evans, JR.
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|U.S. Classification||52/379, 52/699, 52/745.9|
|Cooperative Classification||E04B2002/8682, E04B2/8635|