US 1472956 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Nov. 6 1923.
E. N. BIEGLER BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed Dec. l2 1921 Patented Nov. 6, 1923.
UNITED-STATES f nnwnnn N. ernsten, or cnioaeo, iLLiNois.
g BUILDING CGSTRUCTION.
Application aieapneeember 12,1921. serial no. 521,623.
To all 'whom t muy corn/cern.' l l Be it known that I, EDWARD N. BIEGLER, a citizen of the United States, residing at-Chicago, in' the county of Cook and State ofV Illinois, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in'- Building Constructions, of'which the following is a Vspecification.
ing constructions, andY particularly to improvements in the structure of elements de signedfor use in building structures, such as portions of floors, walls, ceilings, roofs or the like. The invention contemplates they embodimentof the structure hereinafter described not only as integral portions of the parts Vof building structures above mentioned, but ,also as separate members or articles of manufacture formed particularly for use in such employment, such as tile.
The generalzobject of the invention is the provision of a' construction for useY in the above mentionedportionsY of building which may beniade of substantially moisture proof `or non-absorptive materials vand vtherefore possesses distinct advantages for use as sanitary and waterproof wall or floor covering,
and which at the same time possesses charfacteristics of strength, resiliency and noncombustibility which render it particularly advantageousin the contemplated'uses.
Y Another object of the invention is the provisionof Asuch a construction which is very light and at the same time very strong, whereby it is--adapted for. extensive use in Vbuilding construction without imposing anV undesirable load upon the supportingr parts of the structure. l
A more particular object of the invention istlie production of an improvedvv form of -tile or surface finish element' which is de-` Y signed to be manufactured in quantity in a factory and subsequently installed in place in arbuilding construction, said tile having certain' characteristicswof structure which particularly adapt' it for firm 'and immovable mounting inthe intended location.
,- Other andfurther Yobjects ofthe invention will be pointed out hereinafter, indicated in the appended claims, or obvious upon an understanding of .theinvention from. the fo llowing disclosure.'
For the purpose ofthe present application I have disclosed'herein one formin which vthe invention may be embodied, namely, in lthe form of vra tile; but it is t0 bo understood Y This yinvention'relates generally to build- 'the that thisA is here presented for illustrative 3^ purposes merely, and that it is not intended as exhaustive of all forms'which the invention may take structurally. Therefore, the
ypresent illustrative disclosure is not to be, construed as limiting 'the invention as specification I have illustrated in Fig. l a ,i sectional view of a tile supported in a suitable mounting and embodying the features of my invention; and
Fig. 2 is atop view of a tile showing the arrangement of reinforcing members there-1 in as contemplated in my invention.
The nature of the invention will be best `understood by reference to these drawings 'in detail, from which it will be understood that the numeral 1 designates any suitable supporting foundation, such as a floor portion, wall portion or roof portion of a building.- Upon this foundation is imposed a, cementitious coatingk 2. of plastic material suitablyA held in place .upon foundation and adapted in turn to support the surfacing portions of the structure. [These surfacing portions, inthe form illustrated, comprise a number or series of flat tile suitably laid together to afford the desired finish. These tile comprise a combination including a cushion or under-coating designated by the, numeral d, the composition of whichv will be described hereinafter. This cushion oi undercoating may be formed in situ, or Vit may be formed in a mould when the tile is manufactured in a factoryl and afterwards installed. VDisposed at the lowerportion of this cushion or' under-coating is a series of reinforcing elements 'designated' by the across the tile, but not entirely tothe edge' thereof, so that they are substantially completely enclosed within the plastic material, excepting at the bottom or rear vsurface ,of the tile. At the rear surface of the-tile certain :portions of these reinforcing-elements' .mayA bev left protruding a sufficientdistance to form anchoringmeans whereby it may be retained in the plastic scratch-coating 2., In the customary formation ofthe element, as 'wheref it is formed as atile-in a1 surface of the tile will be indented or pitted by a number of` void spaces, herein designated by the numeral 4a. After the undercoating 4 has thus been formed to the proper thickness, a series of upper reinforcing elements 6 vis disposed on thetop of the undercoating, while it is still in a plastic condition. These reinforcing `elements 6 prefely-ably extend across the tile in a direction transverse `of the direction Vof the major axis vof the reinforcing elements 5.- More- Yoverthe upper elements` 6 are spaced apart from. the lower elements 5 an appreciable distance by the material ,of the under-coating 4. After the upper reinforcing elements :6 `are placed 1n position, they are covered by atop vor surfacing coat 7 of,
a suitable plastic material such as the composition hereinafter described. This surfacing coat is applied while the cushion coat 4 is still soft, and by suitable pressure is thoroughly `packed upon the same and about the projecting portions of the upper reinforcing elements 6. The surface of the coating l7 is ythen given the desired finish and the material is allowed to set.
IV find it advantageous to `form the surface coating 7 of about one-half the thickness of the .cushion coating, so that the relation is about one-third Vto two-thirds with respect to the entire thickness of the `structure. When a tile of this construction is imposed upon `the plasticl cementitious scratch coating 2, and pressed thereupon, a certain amount of the `material of the latter will be forced into the voids or pits 4* at the rear surface of the tile, and when the scratch coating 2 sets, this connection of the two will operate effectivelyl as a lock to retain the tile or surfacing element against detachment or movement upon the foundation 1. It will 'be observed that this lockarrangemcnt permits the material .of
`the scratch coating to penetrate the tile into the vicinity of the reinforcing elements.
l, will now describe in detail one com- :composition 'constitutes an essential part nfisxriyimzention. This composition hasthe .characteristics of possessing great. strength when rcombi-ned `with the reinforcing ele 65. ments in the manner above described, and at .the seme time iscompa'ratively light, weten proof, sanitary, lireproof, resilient, and `possessed of a peculiar quality which renders 1t particularly comfortable underfoot. 1n l the prepa-ration of this composition I first prepare a' mixture of dry powdered in gradients as follows: calcined magnesitc approximately 332;% ;V pulverized slate stone approximately 10%; silica approximately 10%, pulverized cork approximately 20%; asbestos libre approximately 5%; kiese c hr approximately 2% ,I coloring matter,I suc as oxide of iron approximate-ly 8 tov 10% Vand the balance wood flour of a fneness suitable Y for the particular part of the structure, as.'
hereinafter specified.l These several ingredients combined in the `proportion 'by weight above mentioned, are suitably mixed together and then combined with. the liquid ingredients which previously have been mixed together as follows: YA magnesiinn chloride solution reduced `with water to a density of approximately QOO'Baum, to which is added a mixture Of silicate of sode and Crude oil in proportion of approximately ten percent. .The `proportion of silicate .Of soda to crude Oil may vafry as desired. A suilicient quantity of this liquid 'mixture vis combined with ythe dry `powdcr constituent to form a -plasticmortaLwhichis laced in the mould or deposited upon Y t e lower' reinforcing members `5 and coating 2,.in any suitable fashion and smoothed olf .to-the desired thickness. The'wood flour employed in forming this lower or cushion coat* may inforcing elements 5 and 6 are given a waterproofing coating before they are incorporated in the structure. A suitable coatyed in. the Y ing. for preparing and Y protecting the y reinforcing elements aga-inst corrosion is onel formed vby dissolving Ilsonite for asphalt v111V a sultable hydrocar on solvent such as naphtha or benzol. "The `metal reinforcing elements are dipped in this inaterial before their insertion into vthe estructure, and thereby are givenA a waterproofing coating which protects themffrom moisture and which aids -in -theadhesion of the plastic material tothe elements. Y
A distinct 17advantage bym. structure as above described isits. ability `to resist warping influences, particnlady influences which might tend to," ,make the su-rfacecup.y This lresults not only from the natureof the composition ,iormingfthc body of the structure, but also from the--m-` 1 ,arance bination of body material of this type with reinforcing elements in the manner specified. The construction moreover accomplishes a very great reduction in. weight from that of the customary 'tile construction. This is accomplished not only by the reduction in the weight of the material which goes to form the surface elements, such as the tile above described, but also in the reduction of the backing or mounting for such surfacing elements. In ordinary tile construction it is necessary to form the backing, corresponding to applicants scratch coat 2, of very substantial thickness, in order to resist cracking. The construction of applicants structure, however, enables it effectively to resist cracking, so that cracks which may occur in the scratch coating are not transmitted into the surfacing elements. Moreover, where the scratch coating is formed of my above described composition7 it is less subject to cracking, and may be used effectively in much thinner coats and is of much less weight per unit of volume than the cements ordinarily employed. By the employment of my improved construction a reduction of weight perunit of surface may be obtained amounting to substantially 70%.
While I have. described above one composition of which the articles herein claimed may be formed, it is to be understood that they may be constructed of other suitable plastic materials. Furthermore, while the particular composition herein described is not herein claimed, such omission to claim the subject-matter of the composition is not to be regarded as an abandoment or dedication of the same, as I purpose to claim such composition in a co-pending application.
l. An article of the class described comprising the combination of a cushion coating of rigid material having reinforcing elements embedded adjacent its rear surface, a surface coating imposed upon said cushion coating and consolidated therewith, reinforcing elements embedded at the junction of said coatings, and the cushion coating being provided with a plurality of pits orV depressions in its rear surface constituting voids remaining beneath certain of the reinforcing elements.
2. An article of the class described domprising the combination of a rigid cushion coatinohaving reinforcing elements embedded therein adjacent its rearward surface, a surface coating covering and consolidated with said cushion coating and containing waterproong materials, and reinforcing velements embedded in said coatings at their zone of consolidation, the cushion coating having voids remaining in its rear portion under certain of the reinforcing elements.
3. A structure of the sort specified comprising the combination with a suitably supported scratch coating, of a surface element including a cushion coating laid upon the scratch coating, reinforcing elements embedded in the rearward portion of the cushion coating, a surface coating consolidated with the cushion coating at the front surface thereofV and covering the same, reinforcing elements disposed in the cushion and surface'coatings in their zone of conjunction, the cushion coating having rearwardly opening pits or depressions and the scratch coating having integral portions thereof extended .into said pits or depressions, whereby the surface element is retained against movement on the scratch coating.
4:. A structural article of the sort described comprising the combination of a.
cushion coating having reinforcing elements embedded therein, a surface coating of greater density than the cushion coating covering one surface thereof and consolidated therewith, and reinforcing elements embedded in said coatings in their zone of conjunction.
5. A structural article of the sort described comprising a sheet of coherent material having reinforcing elements embedded therein adjacent its rear surface, said sheet having a plurality of voids therein extending inwardly from its rear surface behind the reinforcing elements and in association therewith, said voids forming locking means for reception of plastic material into the vicinity of the reinforcing elements, whereby to anchor the article in place.
In testimony whereof I have hereunto subscribed my name.
EDWARD N. BIEGLER.