US 1474571 A
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A Tron/vif rvs A To @ZZ whom/.t may concern.'
Patented Nov. 2G, i923.
FRANS HENRIK :AUBERT wIELGoLAsKI, or oHRIsTrANIaNoRWAi i REACTION TUBBINE non WATER, WIND, srnnivrfn'rol,
l Ajpucauon sied september s, 191e. serial No. sereni.
Be it known that I, FRANS HnNRrn AUBERT -W1ELGoLAsKn subject of the King of Nor-v Away, and resident otOdins Gate l, Christie an'ia, Norway, have invented certain new and useful Improvementsin Reaction Turbines for Water, Wind, Steam, Etc., of which the following is a specification;L
Y The present invention relatesto turbine vmotors and more particularly to an improved motor wherein the pressure ot the fluid", (its static energy) rather than itsV velocity (its kinetic energy) is utilized to de-` 'velop power. l5 f In consequence or' the utilization of the static energy of the fluidV the turbine of thepresent invention has Va high degree of etliciency as compared with other turbine motors. l Thisis due probably to the fact that speed of rotation of the turbine may be relatively low, the pressure of the iiuid` being.
constant and uniform so longas the head of fluid is maintained constant and the power vat allr times 'depending solely on the difter-v V 254 ence in fluid pressurev at the respective sides ofthe turbine. y
vTo obtain these results Iprovide a .turbine wheel having suitably shaped blades or vanes and I mount the wheel so as tobe en-, tirely filled with the'fluid at all times and Vto be in communication at all times at one 'side with fluid at vone pressure and at the `other side `with fluid at relatively low pressure. n
Considered more-specifically the turbine wheel is sopmo'untcdthat the fluid under excess pressure passes` transversely across the-wheel reacting iirst 'against the blades at one side of the wheel, and, -becauseofthe wheel. It will therefore beseen that in effeet the high pressure fluid acts upon the `fluid in the space between the blades in addition to itself actingupon' the blades.
Since the turbine of thisvinvention utilizes fluid pressure which'I of course is uniform it encounters the same.
for the" entire width of the head, severalf.
turbines according tothis invention may be vconnected togetherfor oneturbine, the, entire width of the headmay bejuseld.' This `is not possibleV with the turbines heretoi'ore known or with the methods heretofore used.v 1
rlhe power of the Vturbine is tur-ther jenhanced by cusing thelfluid ,to follow a course substantially tangential. ci the wheel `before My vvimprovements are applicable to water, steam` air or other iuids and while, the ollowingspecification'is directed for the mostv part to water turbines, it should not be understood that, my invention is limited to the same'.
illustrated in the' accompanying drawmgs in which, Y
Figure l'is a diagrammatic View of one embodiment of my invention, showing a water turbine. Y Fig. 2 is -a diagrammatic view-showing my invention as applied to'an air operated Fig. 3 is a view similar to'Fig.-l showing guiding blades on the high the turbine wheel. 'Y y v Y. According tothe present invention as illustrated in the drawings the. turbine wheel B is mounted toV rot-'ate on a horizontal shaft and has a pluralityof'vanes o-r blades ot" suitable curvature arrangedfalong the outside edge of a pair of discs or wheels. The
form ofthe inventionl shown in Figs. land 2 is particularly Vadapted for use Ywhere large Several embodimentsjof'my invention are' A pressure side of quant-,ities ofwater have only a relatively Y,
low speed.. Consequently, the turbine wheel B is preferably of sutlicientlength to extend across the entire width vofthe bodyrot water.
The turbine is mounted in a chamber. or con;
duit for the'motive'iluid, said conduit 'being provided with a-diagonal' wall whe'rebyat one side ot the 'turbine there is acanal S dii/'erging toward the upper surta'ce or the body of water T with whichitcommunicates, I
whiley at the otherjside the turbine wheel communicates directly with a. body of water C the level ofwhich is lower than the vlevel of the water T. In consequence of this arrangement the hydrostatic pressure infthe 'canal S is greater than thefhydrostatic ipressure of the water at the 'other/iside ofthe wheel B. The water T and thewater C are separated by a wall or daniwhichpreierably slopes toward the canal S form-ing with the ledge from which the water T descends, a funnel shaped arrangement.
The. eXcess pressure of the water in the canal S causes the water to be. forced againstV viding a free space or .chamber in the inte- Cil rior of the wheel B. The water T under excess pressure nnpinging upon the blades or the wheel B 1n its effort to pass to the low pressure side C causes the wheel to rotate,
the water passing to thefree space or chamber in the wheel and through they blades at the other side thereof to the low pressure water C. It will thus be seen that the static energy of al column of water passing through the canal S `and bearing upon the vanes at each side of the wheel will cause the wheel to rotate with more o-r less power according to the difference between the low and high pressure water columns or heads. Where this di'erence is slight it is of course important that great quant-ities of water pass through the wheel in order to develop the necessary power and therefore the wheel B is given as great a. length as is possible under the circumstances. Further, the canal S is made to have a maximum terminal area, equal to approximately one-half the circumference of the wheel B. Therefore, when the difference is slight and the quantity of water great the wheel will be rather slowly yet powerfully rotated by the water.
It will be noted than in this embodiment` of my invention the turbine wheel is located with its horizontal axis in substantially the same planel as the water bed of the low pres sure side C and therefore the canal S extends belowthis level. `With this arrangement the tendency of the water p-assing through the canal S is to rise as soon as per missible, but of course before this can take place the wheel must be rotated by the passage'of the water therethrough.
In Fig. l is shown a valve (Z which can be opened more or less to permit the head in the high pressure side T to be more or less reduced according to the power which it is Cleired to develop by means of the turbine wheel B.
rTt is desirable even in the reaction turbine above described that the water in passing through the wheel engage the blades sub stant-ially tangentially of the wheel so that the kinetic energy as well as the static energy can` be utilized. 'For this purpose there may be provided in the canal S as shown in Fig. 3, a. series.,V of guides n which are close to the wheel and, another series of guidesm which are relatively short and which are in line with: the guides n. The guides m are not :i ,avanti continuous so as to avoid the utilization merely of the hinetie'energy, in other words, to permit the pressure in the various channels formed thereby to bevequalized. 1
The turbine wheel B and the general arrangement above described may be employed to advantage for utilizing the energy of wind. Y Such a device is illustrated in Fig'.
LA ln this iigure there is a funnel shaped chamber T adapted to face the ldirection from `which the wind `comes so that the vind will force the air contained in the chamber T down through an auxiliary funnel shaped conduit R to a canal located adjacent the base ot the device. The Vair in the conduit B under pressure due to the force of the wind on the vair vin the chamber T is forced through the canal S and through the blades of they turbine wheel B in the same manner as the water is forced by pressure through the turbine wheel B in the -arrangement shown in Figs. l and 3. The air then passes through the hollow column having a chamber c, and thence through a passage C. It will .be understood that the air in the passage C` is either at normal pressure or less than normal pressure due to the rushing of the wind past the 'same and drawing the air from the chamber Cwhile the air in the chamber T is under the excess pressure of the wind. Consequently, there will be a difference in pressure of the air at opposite sides'of the wheel B, and so long'as this pressure is maintained the wheel will be rotated. The chamber T and` chamber C are mounted upon Vrollers so that the chamber T will always be facing toward the direction from which the wind comes. The
advantage of this form of wind mill is wheel being in communication by a passage through the wheel with the spaces between certain ol" the blades at the opposite side of the wheel.V 'a conduit for the motive liuid and in which the `wheel is mounted, and means dividing the conduit into an inlet side and anoutlet side, the turbine wheel being mounted in saidconduit with: its axis of rotation in substantially the same horizontal plane as the fluid bed at the lower pressure side. Y
2. A, structure as set forthv in claim l including means at the' inlet side 'of the turbine wheel for causing the motive fluid to cumference of the wheel.
.certain of the blades at one side of the -1 i 3. A structure as set forth in ola-im l `including a canal for the motive luidat the inletvside of the turbine Wheel, said canal.
extending below the fluid bed at the lower pressure side. p Y
4f. An apparatus for utilizing the energy of the Wind, comprising a hollow tower closed at its| base and open at its top, a horizontal conduit arranged to rotate freely upon the upper end of ear-idV tower, a turbine arranged in the interior of said tower at the base thereof, means dividing said horizontal conduit into an inlet duct and an outlet duct, and meanspdividing the hollowfspa'ee Within said tower into an inlet ductand out. 15
let duet, theinletduet in said tower being in communication at all times'with the inlet n side of the turbineand With the inlet duct horizontal oonduitf Y Signed at Christianiai Norway.' i
` FRANS HENRIK AUBERT wlELeoLosiKL; i p