US 14762 A
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UNITED sTATEs PATENT oEEToE.
ASA W. CADY, OF SULLIVAN, NEW YORK.
MACHINE FOR EXCAVATING AND MOVING EARTH.
Specification of Letters Patent No. 14,762, dated April 29, 1856.
To all whom t may concern:
Be it known that I, ASA W. CADY, of the town of Sullivan, county of Madison, State of New York, have invented a new and useful Machine for Excavating and Moving Earth, entitled Cadys Excavator; and I do hereby declare that the following is a full, clear, and exact description of the construction and operation of the same, reference being had to the annexed drawings, making a part of this specification, in which- Figure l is a side elevation of the machine, showing the fixtures as arranged in movable order, and the scraper raised to its loaded position for conveyance. Fig. 2 is a corresponding plan of the machine showing the localities of its different parts.
The same letters indicate the same parts in both figures.
The machine is mounted on the transoms of a common lumber wagon and consists in,
appending these to such fixtures as does enable the seam or moving power to take up its own load, convey and unload it, without the use of the shovel, the team being accompanied by the driver to guide them, and set and control the machine, while operating.
80 The wheels, tongue (not shown), and axles are madesimilar to those in common use, save the inner band on the hub of one of the hind wheels, which is left ofll and a toothed spur wheel (a) wedged on in its place. This is designed to actuate the fixtures for hoisting by the revolution of the wheel. The hounds forward are connected with the tongue in the usual manner, made higher, and sawed a short space in the rear of the axle. These are capped by a sand board formed like' a half moon and designed to perform the functions of sweep and sand board. It is ironed top and bottom by bars circling around the edges, and is held in its place by a step (d) in which it works in turning.
The hind axle is prepared without the usual mortise for the reach, none being used, and to effect a connection between the hind and forward axles, thills (E) are bolted to the hind axle and capped with a bolster piece (-f). These thills have an iron bar bolted to the under side of each, and take a bolt under the axle, in such a manner as to form a brace between the axle and thill; they are then brought forward and eyed at the end of the thill, lapped back and bolted through and through for a short space.
The bridge (G) is designed to sustain the load, and consists in the main of a single plank reaching from axle, to axle; it is finished forward with a head piece and is raised on a plank of equal thickness, the underside of which and the head piece, has an iron plate underneath bolted to each, the head of one bolt forms the step (1),) for the sand board to'work in; it is crossed by a wood bar (j) bolted to the top and projecting on either side so as to connect with the thills (E). This cross piece is strongly braced in position, by an iron bar passed under the bridge from each end and secured with bolts, and by two bars running forward from each end along the sides of the bridge to the head piece bolted through and through. The bolts securing these last bars to the cross piece, are eyed at the head, and placed so as to take in the end of the thill, forming a hinge with them and connecting the hind and forward axles. The bridge (g) is placed centrally through the wagon (G) Fig. 2, the head piece resting on the sand board secured by the king bolt and the rear end without fastenings on the bolster piece By this arrangement the bridge can be articulated at its point of junction with the thills, and be elevated or depressed. The rear end of the bridge is placed between stakes (O) bolted to the axle and bolster; these stakes rise vertically, and have a pulley inserted in the top. Also a hook (g) hung loosely on a bolt through them; this hook (g) takes into a loop (1") bolted on the rear end of the bridge, when the bridge is elevated, and holds it while the scraper is being dumped.
The scraper (S) is divided into two parts horizontally on the line (t) which may be distinguished as the upper and lower sections. These when secured together by their vfastenings resemble an open box for the body of the scraper, with one end vacated. The sides to each section are made of wood. The upper section after forming the body of the scraper or its box projects back, and forms a platform (b) for the driver to stand on at the rear end. The sides to the lower section are bolted to the bottom The bottom may be made of Wood,
strapped with iron bars, front, center, and rear, or it may be made of boiler plate. In either case it has a steel point or points to enter the ground. The rear end has a bar riveted across it and is angled so as to connect with the sides. The forward or cutting end of t-he scraper is made curvilinear (Fig. 3), that form being found best adapted to take up the load with the least expenditure of force, while the rear end is made straight, that form giving 'the most gateway or space to discharge the load. The curved lines `in the front run out regularly to the straight lines in the rear. The end 'board (&) to the box .of the scraper is hinged, so as to fall back and give additional space in dumping. It is adjusted or kept in position by a spring, and iron brackets are fixed to the sides of the lower sect-ion of ithe scraper to hold it in its place. The upper and lower sections are hinged :together forward by iron straps coming ydown .astride the sides of the upper section and eyed at their lower ends so as to take a bolt with the bottom section, and allow the bottom to dro-p from the :upper section at the rear end. Where the two sections are arranged to be `connected or disconnected at pleasure, in the following manner: Knobs project out on either side of the lower section, and take into hooks (29) hung in boxes secured to the sides of 1the Aupper section. These hooks (p) are hung on a pivot in the boxes, so as to be thrown in and out -of kedge with the knobs, on the bottom section. The hooks Vrise'a short space above the sides of the scraper, where they have each a rod fastened to them, which runs back `and connects with .a small roller, 4placed so as to turn in hoop eyed bolts on the top `of the scraper. This roller has a chain coiled partly around Ait which runs back and conneet-s with a lever (u) placed on the drivers platform. By operating `with this lever the driver `can unkedge the bottom when required. The roller has :a spiral spring ,-attached to read-just the `hooks (p) in kedge. The scraper (s) is hung at a xed height under the hind axle `with snybill bolts passed through the iron braces to the lthills (E), the axle :thills and bolster piece above, and through the scantling to scraper below., so that it can Abe articulated at its point of unction. If iron axles .to the wagon are used, other forms of connection may be adopted. If the construction is such that the power of articulation is retained at :the axle which is requisite to allow the scraper to be raised or depressed forward by the gearing, which is operated principally by the spur wheel (a) on the wagon hub, which is vactuated by the team. This spur wheel (a) gears with a pinion wheel (c) placed ron one end :of an iron shaft, while the .other end of .the same shaft is occupied by a wooden spool, on which is placed a ratchet wheel This end is journaled through the thill, with suitable bearings, secured from end movement `by a shoulder and nut.
The ratchet wheel (i) has a detent hinged on 'the hind axle following it, which secures it as revolved. The detent has a handle projecting in the rear of the axle, within the drivers reach. The 'end of the shaft having the pinion (o) on is passed under the thill, through a movable "bar which slides in an eyed bolt projecting from the side of the thill. The other end of this bar connects with a lever (y) this lever has its fulcrum on the -ax'le formed by a stra-p -bolted to the axle angled :back and turned with a journal on which the lever (y) is placed secured by a nut. By .operating on this lever (o) the Lpinion wheel (b) is brought in ygear `with the spur wheel ((1.), thus -causing it to revolve' by the movement `of the team. The
lever is provided with a latch, which takes into a .catch -on the bolster .and holds the spur and pinion in gear while -operating. An arm (a) with an adjustable thumb attached'is l:placed on the :rear of thescraper, whicha-s .the rear descends in hoisting the forward end, brings the 'thumb on vthe rear .of Ithe latch, which throws it out of lcatch at any elevation of the scraper required. The spool is further provided with a lever (c) which has a click taking into the ratchet wheel, by which fthe scraper 'can be raised :or lowered by hand, `the vteam being stationary. The spool acts on ythe scraper, by means y.of .a chain hitched to it, and thence passed around pulleys (im) on .each side of the bridge (S), also pulleys on each side of the cross piece to the scraper, directly under those on .the-bridge in such .a manner as to form a four fall tackle, by means of which the scraper is vraised .and lowered `between the ground Vand the bridge (S5), being (filled) and raised to iits loaded position, it is prepared to dump 'in the following manner. A small windlass (Fi-g. 4) is placed across the scraper vdirectly under the axle, and has bolts through the sides of the scraper, screwed into each end for bearings, on which it revolves. Chains are then coiled around 'each .end of the windlass, carried down and hitched to the lower section oft-he :scraper on `either side. A chain is :also hitched to the center of the windlass antagonistic to those at the ends, carried up through :the bridge, over the pulley in the top .of the stakes 1(0)., down :and hitched to the bridge. Now in discharging the load the rear end of the lower section of the scraper descends and uncoils the chains at each end of the 'windlass and coils the chain inthe center., and thus elevates fthe bridge, the scraper being attached by the tackle forward, rises with it. Consequently the `forward y-end kof the scraper is made to rise, while the rear descends or the heft of llQ the load is employed to tilt the scraper. The f CIT (lv) by the hook (g) and held while the team moves the scraper from lthe load.
It will be obvious that where the ground is miry the arrangement described for tilting the scraper by the heft of the load will be lessened in value, the free and easy movement of the wheels being requisite, which would be obstructed in such a situation.
The machine can readily be modified so as to meet such an eXigency by raising the bridge to the point required to admit the necessary elevation of the scraper at once for dumping. This may be done by securing the rear end of the bridge with a bolt or on a shoe, and widening the shoe and head piece forward to the requisite heights It 71 disconnecting the chain (n) from the bridge and while operating hoisting the rear of the scraper into hedge with it by hand, the
' other manipulations are the same in both forms of use.
Where excavation of a very compact nature is to be performed, a cross spread chain should be extended from the forward cross piece of the scraper to the shoe under the bridge secured to each by clevis to take the draft in loading.
Operation: The machine being over the place for excavation, raise the detent till the scraper descends and rests on the ground with spur chain to enter. Move ahead till the load is taken up, bring the spur wheel (a) in gear with the pinion Wheel (o) This brings the scraper to its loaded position, the team being in movement, drive to the dumping ground, unkedge the lower section of the scraper, and see that the loop (v) is caught by the hook (g). (If unkedging does not do it, block the hind wheels, and back the team, or raise the bridge by hand.) When the bridge is thus elevated, start the team ahead till the load is deposited, then thumb the hook (g) from the loop (1^) and let the bridge descend. This adjust-s the machine for another load, or if used without the fiX- tures for tilting described, raise the lower section of the scraper into kedge by hand as the form in use may require.
lVhat I claim as my invention and desire to secure by Letters Patent is- The plan embodied in the st-ruct-ure, of the bridge and scraper contained in` their form and method of use in the machine, and in the arrangements made for operating and controlling these with the gearing and fix tures, as actuated by hand or horsepower and in adapting them to and combining them with a wheeled vehicle or wagon, so that the operation of excavating earth may be performed in the manner specified in the foregoing description.
ASA W. CADY.
W. E. LANSING, URIAH PAEVRY.