US 1484964 A
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J. B. RHoADs ILLUMINATING DEV l'CE Filed Dec. 2l. 1922 2 SheetsSheet l INVENTGR ATTORNEY ma. 26 1924. www@ J. E. RHOADS v ILLUMINATING DEVICE Filed Dec. 2l, 1922 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 fffw/zey//le @hands l lNvENToR ATTORNEY Patented Feb. 25, id.
meiste J'. BENNEVLLE BJ'OADS, OF LA JOLLA, CALIFORN.
Application filed December 21, 1922.
T 0 all whomz't may concern.'
Be it known that I, J. BnNNEvrLLn RHoADs, a citizen of the United States, anda resident of La Jolla, in the county of San Diego and State of California, have invented new and useful improvements in Illuminating Devices, of which the following is a specification.
My invention relates to the art of illumination for both practical and ornamental purposes, and pertains more particularly to articles and devices embodying slowly combustible substances, such as wax, parafiine, tallow and the like.
The principal object of my invention is to provide an illuminating device, capable of giving a soft lighting effect, such as is ordinarily accomplished by candles, while providing for improved dissemination of the light rays, which device, in addition to being more practical and substantial than candles and the like, has a ,greater appeal to the aesthetic senses.
Another object of my invention is the provision of an article of the above character, which after having served its purpose for illumination will be of value as an ornament.
Another object of the invention is the provision of an article of the above charactefr, which may be used as a favor for dinner parties and the'like, and which after having provided illumination throughout the course of dinner, will have a sufficiently o-rnamental and artistic appearance to warrant its being;l kept by the dinner guest as a souvenir.
Another object of the invention is the provision of an illunfiinating` device which will provide a plurality of Eames, or burning elements, suiiicient to give practical illumination without being troublesome or obno-Xius, and which may be constructed entirely of combustible material, while being sufliciently substantial in structure to stand without support, whereby danger of fire, ob- `iectional spreading of melted and the provision of numerous supporting elements is ob-viated.
It will he understood in the consideration of the invention that in order to obtain practical illumination from candles and the-like, a plurality are required, and either a plurality of holders are required, or a necessarily bulky candelabrum is required. In view of this it is still another object of my Serial No. 608,267.
invention to provide for the illumination advantages of a. plurality of candles with a single slowly combustible article or device.
Another object of the invention is the provision of an article of the above character and capable of carrying out the above 0bjects in which the flames will be confined to given areasA without danger of spreading, and without undue melting of adjacent maferial before that material is required to be burned.v
A further object of the invention is the .provision of an illuminating device which is self sustaining, and which may consist solely of a single mass or arrangement of an inexpensive material which lends itself to artistic finish and decora-tion; it being one of the objects of my invention to provide for low cost of manufacture.
Still other objects and advantages will appear hereinafter and will be better understood by virtue of their occurrence.
I have illustrated by the accompanyingA drawings a preferred embodiment of my invention and a modification thereof, and while both the preferred embodiment and the modification have certain features in common, the modification is shown to illustrate the adaptability of my invention to a wide variety of requirements as to site and quantity of illumina-tion.
In the said drawings,
Figure l, is a view in perspective of a preferred form of the invention for ordinary household purposes.
Figure 2, is a view in section thereof seen on a line 2 2 of Fig. l, and showing; more clearly certain salient features of construe tion.
Figure 3, is a view similar tothat of Fig. l, showing the said embodiment after it has served, or partially served for illumination purposes.
Figure 4, is a view in perspective of a modified form of the invention after it has been used for illumination purposes.
there are provided a plurality of Wicks 7. Said wicks are preferably vertically disposed and the wicks may extend downwardly through the structure to the point at which it is desired to have combustion CCISQ.
lhile the structure may comprise a single wall, it is preferred that a plurality of walls, such as indicated by 9, 10, 11 and 12 are provided and arranged around an area or space 13, so as to partially enclose same. ForI the conservation ot' material, while providing for strength, said walls are of minimum thickness, as at 14C, and are interconnected b y portions 15, of increasing thickness, as at 16, which portions in the structures illustrated form the pilasters thereof. In certain, or in all of the pilasters a wick 7 is disposed. In the forms shown the structure is re-enforced by a complete annular cornice 16 at the top thereof, and equally spaced therearound are provided a plurality ot projecting cornices 17. Each pilaster is aligned with an alternate cornice, and therefore a wick extends through and projects fromV alternate cornices.
It will be seen now that each pilaster of the ininature tower, together with the wick in each pilaster, is in effect a complete candle, and each complete candle is held with respect to all others by the inter-connecting walls. To complete the appearance ol' a tower, and to carry out certain objects of the invention a. pluralityT of apertures 18 are provided in the reduced portions of the walls, which apertures are here shown as resemblingl Gothic windows.
I wish to point out at this time that I have.` discovered that wax and similar substances trom which candles are made, particularl;7 certain grades of paratfine, when moulded into forms having thin walls, are quite translucent, and when light rays fall upon the surface of such walls some of the flight is reflected and well disseminated,
while other of the rays pass through and illuminate the walls, thereby creating a particularly attractive lighting effect. I have also found that the aforesaid substances are readily moulded and that thev surfaces of thin walls moulded therefrom may be tinted to provide for a colorful glow when the wall rendered luminous. I have also discovered that by placing the wicks in the thicker portion of the walls and substantially centrally o'tl the thickened portions the-flame trom the wick will be conned to said thicker portions, and the adjacent thinner walls will not melt or burn appreciably. The embodiments shown are constructed in conformance with these discoveries. i
The form shown. in Fig. 4l differs from that shown in the other figures only in that it is more elaborate and resemblesl a castle or the like, in which in addition to battlenient tower 20, other walls 21 are provided as required to make up the complete miniature structure, and certain of the apertures 22 provided in the latter walls appear as doorways. In this form of the invention, as in the first described form, pilasters 23 are provided at spaced intervals, and in each pilaster there is imbedded al wick. It will be seen now that a great variety of structural effect-s may be produced in carrying out my invention. i
In the application and operation of the invention the structure is suitably placed,` such as ony a table, or mantel, or in the case of large structures designed for spectacular or theatrical effects, a natural settino in the open air, or on a stage, may be provided.
To produce the desired effects the wicks are lighted. That portion of the light rays which travel divergently downwardly and inwardly with respectto the structure will strike the smooth white inner surfaces 24 of the walls. Certain of the light rays striking the walls will pass through said walls and provide a particularly pleasing luminous appearance to said walls, which will throw out a glow moderated by any coloring` pigments that nia-y be applied to the outer surface of the walls, or by any pigments incorporated directly in the material forming the walls. rlhe pilasters will appear less luminous and therefore the outline of the minature structure and its formation will appear more pronounced,
That portion of the light reflected from the inner surface of the arcuate walls will be integrated within the partially enclosed space and will vemanate through the apertures or windows to further dene the structure and to 'further' add to the appearance and effec-t of a luminousV castle or structure. i
Since all ci the wicks are incorporated in the one structure the danger incident to a plurality oi candles is obviated. The flame rising from each wickis protected from draughts by adjacent walls, and this is particularly true when the pilasters have been burned to a point below the cornice. OW- ;ing to the even distribution of material about the wick and the proper proportion of the wick diameter to that of the pilaster, burning is confined chiefly to the immediate area of each pilaster.
As each pilaster is consumed a corresponding breach is formed in the tower at that point. Owing to slight melting and burning of the portions of the wall adjacent the pilaster each breach willvbe somewhat irregular in shape and the breach so formed instead of appearing merely as a definite opening will have the appearance oi having been formed by, crumbling of m'asonry and the dislodgment of stones making up the tower. Therefore when the wicks are consumed to the lowermost end or when the flames thereon have been extinguished the structure will carry the appearance of a ruined tower or castle and altho its usefulness as an illuminating device is at an end it still retains an intrinsic value as an object of art or souvenir.
While I have shown and described a speciic construction and arrangement of parts for carrying out my invention I do not limit myselil thereto but may employ any construction or arrangement of parts as I desire or as occasion requires and I may reduce or elaborate upon the structure as shown without enlarging the scope of my invention and without departing from the spiit thereof, wit-hin the appended claims, an
Vhile I mention candle wax as the preferred material to be employed other suitably compounded materials may be used, and means other than ordinary wicks may be employed for defining the direction and determining the rate of combustion.
l. An illuminating` device, including a plurality of walls arranged around an area to form a miniature tower; the walls being of increased thickness at intervals to resemble pilasters; said walls being formed of a slowly combustible material, and wicks imbedded in said pilasters.
2, An illuminating device, including a plurality of translucent walls arranged to resemble an edifice, vertical pilaster elements formed of a slowly combustible material interposed between adjacent walls, and wicks imbedded in said pilasters; the walls being formed with apertures for the purpose set forth.
3. An illuminating device, including a plurality of translucent walls arranged to resemble an edifice, pilasters between adjacent walls and formed of a slowly combustible material, and wicks imbedded in said pilasters.
4. An illuminating device, including a candle and substantially vertically ranging translucent walls radiating from said candle whereby light rays thrown off from said candle will render said walls luminous.
5. An illuminating device, including a plurality of candles in substantially annular formation, and vertically ranging walls connecting said candles to form a substantially integral structure.
6. An illuminating device, including a plurality of candles and walls connecting adjacentcandles to provide a substantially integral structure; the inner surface of said walls being reflective, and said walls being formed with apertures.
7. An illuminating device, comprising a miniature structure formed of a substance having slowly combustible material in its make-up, and means in said substance whereby the combustion thereof may be conined to pre-determined portions.
8. An illuminating device, including a plurality of slowly combustible illuminating elements incorporated in a miniature ediice formed with'apertures to resemble windows.
9. An illuminating device, consisting of a miniature edifice formed from a slowly combustible material. having wicks imbedded therein at certain points, whereby upon said device having served for illuminating purposes, a miniature ruined structure will result.
J. BENNEVILLE RHOADS.