Improvement in telegraphs
US 14917 A
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PATENTED MAY 20, 1856. n. E. HUGHES.
3 SHEETS-SHEET 2.
PATENTED MAY 20, 1856.
D. E. HUGHES. TELEGRAPH-.-
3- SHEETS-SHEET 3 DAVID E. HUGHES, OF LOUISVILLE, KENTUCKY.
IMPROVEMENT IN TELEGRAPHS.
Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 14,91 7, dated May 20, 1856.
and use myinvention, I will proceed to describe its construction and operation, reference being had to the annexed drawings, making a part of this specification in which- Figure 1 is a perspective view, and Fig. 2 a birds-eye representation. Plate 3 represents parts or portions of the instrument.
A in Fig. 1 is the electro-magnet, the poles of which are in contact with the natural magnet B. (The poles being made the same as the natural magnet by electricity, the natural magnet no longer feels an attraction for the softiron poles of the electro-magnet, and is at liberty to fly upward, being raised by a spring.) If opposite polarity be given to the electro magnet by electricity, the natural and electro magnets are held in contact by mutual attraction, and when the electric circuit is broken the natural magnet is at liberty to fly upward, the spring having sufiicient force to overcome the attraction of the natural magnet for the soft iron of the electro-magnet. An armature of soft iron might be substituted for the natural magnet when the current is used as last above specified. The natural magnet B, in rising, works a detent, O, which sets free a crank or eccentric, G, which, in its revolution, moves the platen I, the feed-wheel F, and the lever 1), by which ,the magnet B is restgred to its restingposition. Thus the press and feed-wheel are governed by the combined use of natural and electro magnetism.
The crank H is revolved by a series of wheels or clock-work put inmotion byweights, springs, or other motive power, the revolution of which crank moves the lever D, which draws down the natural magnet to.the electro-magnet, returning the natural magnet to its original position, thus'restorin g the connection between the electro and natural magnet. Two instruments being constructed to move in harmony, and so arranged that, the cog-wheel R of one being always in connection with the electro-magnet,
I the bearing-spring T, which is connected with the extremity of the main line at the same moment, being in connection with or resting on one of the cogs of R at a distant office, a similar spring, which is connected-with the other extremity of the main line, at the same moment rests on one ofthe cogs of a cylinder similar to S, which cylinder can be put in connection with the ground-wire Y at pleasure by means of projections from the cylinder, which. at the proper time restores one of the connectingsprings Q, after being released from its rest, to its original position, and in so doing forms an electrical communication with the groundwise. By this means one magnet is in connection with the cylinder of another instrument, and is made to operate at the pleasure of the distant operator. The next moment the cylinder S is in communication-with the bearingspringT. Thedistautinstrumentbeinginconnection with the cog-wheel R, the magnet thereot'is'liable to be afl'ected, provided a connectingspring be thrown down,which establishes the connection with the groundwvire, in conse quence of which the magnet of the distant machine operates by beingin connection with the spring'T, communicating with the main line X, and this explains the manner in which the cog- --whee1,s or circuit-breakers are employed,that
the tooth of one shall be in connection with the electro-magn'et and a tooth of the otherin connection with an insulated cylinder, which, by the action of springs moved by keys at pleasure, is brought in connection with the *groundtwire at the same time that it cuts off communication withits own magnet, which op eration makes a letter, the one cog-wheel havin gits connection insulated, so that the action of the circuit shall be intermitted from one to the other. Thus by each revolution of these wheels the magnets are brought twenty-seven times reciprocally in connection with the cylinders of each other. Thus communications maybe received or expressed in printing (or printing may be done backward and forward) by either instrument or machine at the time or moment when such instrument or machine is communicating a message to the other.
'For transmitting simultaneously both ways by breaking the main circuit, the natural magnet or. soft-iron armature at the transmittingstation is heldiat rest by the attraction of the electro-magnet developed by means of a small battery, one pole of which is connected through the magnetiwith the connecting-spring Q and the other with the bearing-spring T, the short circuit being closed by the contact between a projecting pin on the cylinder S and one of the connectiug'springs Q. Such small battery forms a part of the main circuit in receiving and of the short circuit in transmitting.
L is a bolt to be moved toward the flange K by the action of a cam attached to the crank H. The flange K has one slot opposite the blank on the type-wheel J, also one. other slot opposite any given letter, the flange of the similar wheel of like machines in other oflices each to have two" slots, one corresponding with the blank on the type-wheel and the other correspond ing with some different letter by which such oflice is distinguished; for example, determining the letter A on the wheel to represent the New York oflice, the letter Bto represent the Baltimore office, and the letter O the Washington office. The first action of electricity starts all instruments on the route, and at the same time moves the bolt L near to the flange K. The next action of the crank sends the bolt against the flange K; or, if a slot be opposite the bolt, the latter passes through, and, being in form properly adapted to the flange, permits the instrument to run; but if no slot he opposite the bolt the same is forced against the flange and stops the revolution of the wheel. Suppose, then, itis desired to communicate with New York to the exclnsionof Baltimore. Both intruments being ready to receive, the first closing and breaking oi the current starts all instruments at the same time, the bolt in each by the first revolution moving near to the flange. The next breaking and closing of the circuit, if effected while the slot is opposite the bolt, forces the bolt through the slot, not suspending the operation of the instrument A;
but no slot being opposite A in the instrument at Baltimore, the corresponding bolt there is forced against the flange and instantly suspends the movement of the wheel, thus so arranging a bolt and operating the same-so as weight corresponding with parts of clock-work,
setting free at each vibration a tooth of said ratchetwheei, than directly governing the revolutions the typewheel, which is on the same ehafti Fig, 3 on. P!
the con thereto,
e 2, is the vibrating spring in shoe weight attached meat of which slide or Wei Patent, is-- is effected and controlled by a lever and confleeting-spring operated on by a thumbscrew, the object and effect of which are to compel a uniform movement under different tempera 'tures.
J is the typewvheel, (on the periphery of which the letters are in relief,) and it makes continuous revolutionsv without any apparent intermission of rapidity during the action of the platen and while the communication is being printed.
S is the cylinder or barrel, upon which pins or projections are arranged spirally at equal intervals-upon the circumference, as shown upon the drawings. The spring Q, is so arranged that by the action of the keys \VWV WV it is thrown into line with the projections, The circuit is then completed at the moment of con tact between the projections or pins and the springs. The series of keys W W W is so ar ranged that the connectingsprings Q are thrown into position so as to be acted on by the projections on the barrel or cylinder, which restore at the same time the connecting-springs to their originalposition, thus closing the circuit. Y Y
-,Plate 3: No.1 is the electro magnet. No. 2 is the natural magnet; No. 3, the detent moved by natural magnet No. 2 when released from the electro-magnet, permitting the crank-lever No. 5 to revolve, and in so doing raising the platen 6, so as to press up against the letters of the type-wheel 7 at the same time restoring the natural magnet to its original position by the action of lever No. 4, which lever 4 is operated on. by the crank. 8. No. the connecting-wire or main line. No. 18 is the cylinder. No. 11 is one of the connecting-springs in communication with the cylinder by means of pin 12. No. 13 is a lever by means oi" which the connecting-spring, 11 is thrown into eonnection with. thepin on cylinder 10. No. let is one of the keys indicating the letter to he prin ted, the pressingdown of. which moves lever 13.. No. 15 represents the groundplate.
I. do not claim any feature of any existing printing or marking telegraph as any part of my invention, nor do I desire to interfere in the least with any heretofore invented. Con- I oeiving that I have made important improvements in telegraphdnstruments, I desire protection only for that which is novel andof my own invention; and therefore M *vVhat I claim, and desire to secure by Letters l. The holding in place of the attractive power of electro or natural magnetism as applied to telegraphic purposes, whether tlieisame be applied in the manner herein described'or in any similar manner producing like results.
2. Combining with the permament "a. or a soft-iron armature an adjustable spring, sever it from its contact with the soft irouot' the eleetro-magnet whenever a change is made in. eiestrical condition thereof, and a lever or its equivalent, which,-after the permanent magnet oral-mature has been separated from the iron by the action or the breaking of a current, shall bring it back again into renewed contact by the action of the power which has been called into action bythe retreat of the magnet.
3. The employment of two cog-wheels or circuit-breakers at each station, so arranged that one shall be in connection'ivith the electromagnet at the same station and the other in connection with the transmitting-cylinder at that station, the whole being arranged so that the connection alternates atleach station for every letter between the electro-magnet and thetransmitting-cylinderat that station in such manner that the through-connection is always simultaneously th rough the transmitting-cylinderof one station and the electro-magnet of the eral the use of a single wire for the simultaneous transmission'of different messages'by means of rapid changes of connection, which is not new, but only the peculiar manner, as above claimed, in which I have applied it in connection with my machine.
I 4. So arranging a bolt and operating the I same by a cam, or itsequivalent that it shall act upon a wheel attached to the shaft of the type-wheel, so as to preclude the intelligence from one station being communicated to any other station or stations on the circuit from which it is desired to withhold the communication.
5. The employment of a vibrating spring, properly weighted at its extremity, if necessary, and so arranged by a series of mechanism as to govern and regulate the movement of the type-wheel. This I claim also asa governor in other machinery, without limiting itsuse to its connection with electromagnetism.
6. Printing by electromagnetism by a continuously-moving type-wheel printin g while in motion.
7. The arrangement of a cylinder with pins spirally arranged thereon to operate by contact with-metallic points to close and break the circuit, when this is combined, for the purposes herein set forth, with the system of keys and catches so arranged that any,desired point maybe thrown intoa position where it will be retained until it is struck by its corresponding pill.
8. The closing a short circuit at the transmitting-station at the same moment the main circuit is broken. a
DAVID E. HUGHES.
Joe. G. G. KENNEDY. E. M. HAMILTON.