US 14923 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
UNITE JAMES M. MILLER, OF NEV YORK, N. Y.
SURFACE CONDENSER FOR STEAM-ENGINES.
Specication of Letters Patent No. 14,923, dated May 20, 1856.
The condenser is made as follows: I form oblong sections of cast iron or other suitable metal, with which the tubes may be cast, or otherwise, attached. a, shows this most clearly in section 5. These sections are portions of an oblong trunk, with straight parallel sides. They are enough broader at bottom than at top, to permit a series, cast from the same pattern to fit into each other, thereby causing the water to incline to the center as clearly shown in Figures 2 and 5. At the bottom there is a iianch, (n, and at a little distance below the top a similar one a, the two flanches of succeeding sections coming together and being packed and bolted, either by short bolts passing through the flanches, or by long bolts running up the whole length of the stack of sect-ions forming one division of the condenser. Each section (r, above named, is perforated on each of its longest sidesl with two, more or less, rows of holes its whole length, and as large as will admit of suflicient support of metal between them. Into each of the holes a tube, 3 may be screwed, constructed, as clearly shown in Fig. 5, Fig. 6, showing but one row of tubes in the section. The outside tubes in this plan may be cast with the section. These tubes or recesses are formed as shown in attached Fig. 6, representing a cross view of one section of the apparatus with one of the tubes divided through the middle. This tube, as will be seen, has two or more annular spaces instead of the single one.
There are three, more or less, stacks of sections, as above named, placed parallel to each other, see Figs. 2 and 3, which can be so proportioned as to have their lateral tubes ll the interior ofa shell or outer case 0, of circular form, but which may be of any convenient ligure in the plan. This surrounding case o, of thin metal may be divided into two parts close to the bottom for the purpose of using cold water on a small portion of the short tubes, in case the steam should not all be condensed. This division plate c through which are holes at the point of junction of the trunks, a, so that the only communication through said division plate c, is through the interior. Sections 66, outside of the spaces above and below, are entirely separated. Below the bottom of the division a and the chamber containing them there is a plate 6, on which they all rest. This plate, e, covers another chamber, f, below, a plan of which is seen in Fig. 4. Within this chamber are three, more or less, coils of pipe, g, placed one above the other, as seen in Fig. 2, in section. Each one of these coils connects with the bottom of one of the divisions a, and receives all the contents thereof, as will hereafter appear. All the coils, g communicate with the pump well at It. The upper portion of the case 0, is covered with a convex head, and a dome rises from the center thereof at o2 from which a feed pipe, p, passes to supply the boiler. The steam passes into the trunks 01, of the condenser through the induction or steam pipea3, but just before it reaches the condenser, it enters a receptacle under an evaporator 2, from which a number of tubes project upward-see 2, Figs. 2 and 3 formed like tubes d, before described. This evaporator 2, is filled with impure water from any source.
A pipe 2 leads from the top of the evaporator down into the steam pipe so that the vapor from the water in the evaporator rushes into the condenser and the evaporation goes on under a vacuum in the evaporator, produced by its connection with the condenser; the whole supply thus condensed by passing through the condenser, runs down into the coils g and passes through the pumps at h, where it is forced through pipe, 7b3 up into the small reservoir, l, through pipe, 7a. Here the air, oil, and gases rise to the top and are occasionally blown off through small pipe Z, which is furnished with a stop cock for the purpose; the water passes through below into the upper chamber of case o.
Here it may be proper to remark that I have by careful experiment found that warm water extracts the heat from the steam more rapidly than cold water does, as I apprehend for the following reasons: Vater is a bad conductor of heat when in a quiescent state, and unless the globules of a vaporized water are at once made large enough to exert an active force to pass olf in ascending currents, they absolutely retard the condensation; aft-er the condensation takes place however, a different state of things exists; then the'condensed vapor is to be cooled down by itself, passing slowly over cooled surfaces, all of which on inspection of my apparatus will show I have done; the water in the upper section of case 0 is hot, passing from the pumps through the condenser to the boiler, and thus augment* ing its heat and economizing the fuel, while below the division plate of the cold exterior water enters through pipe 77%, into chamber f, and thence through holes in the plate e into the space below 0,
whence it passes off through pipe n a circulation being continually kept up therein around the coils of pipe g and below section a of the condenser.
It will be observed that nothing but pure water ever comes in contact with the most highly heated portion of my condenser, consequently no deposit can take place on the condenser or boiler surface.
The pumps having their lower parts surrounded by cold water at 71 are kept cool and in good working order.
I do not wish it understood that I confine my claim to this precise form of tubes in connection with using the condensed steam in the main body of the apparatus above, as many various forms might be used. Nor do I confine myself to the precise quantity of cooling surface below, as it requires much less surface in proportion, on a large scale than a small one. If vacuum is not required, it may be dispensed with entirely.
Having thus fully described my new improvement upon condensers what I claim therein as new and for which I desire Letters Patent, is-
Passing the water of condensation in or upon the main body of the condensing surface on its way to the boiler, under the pressure of the steam, and the cold external water on the other portion of the surfaceas herein set forth.
J. M. MILLER.
GEO. R. ADAMS, C. H. BALL.