US 1493991 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
May 13 1924. 1,493,991
H. M. KNIGHT CONCRETE SHI P Filed July 2, 1918 4 Sheets-Sheet l x im H. M. KNIGHT CONCRETE` SHIP May 13 1924.
lMay 13, 1,924. 1,493.99]
H. M. KNIGHT CONCRETE SHIP Filed July 2. 1918 4 sheets-sheet 4 ff! I,
Hak@ Mfuyht Patented May i3, 19241.
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Application filed July 2,
To all ifi/1,0m it may con/ccm: y
Be it known that I, HEBERT M. KNIGHT, a citizen of the United States, residing at New York, in the county of New York and State of New York, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Concrete Ships; and I do hereby declare the following to be a full, clear, and exact description of the invention, such as will enablefothers skilled in the art to which it appertains to make and use the same.
This invention relates to concrete hulls for watercraft and has for an object to provide a hull constructed of pre-cast plates. with improved means for maintaining the pre-cast plates in assembled relation.
A further object of the invention is to provide improved means for employing assembled interlocked precast plates` and reinforcing frame structure erected within the shell produced by such associated cast plates.
A. further object of the invention is to provide a structure built up of pre-cast plates having improved interlocking mea-ns which are erected to produce the exterior of a hull of a watercraft byibeing set up in a framework or teniplet with a strengtheningframe introduced within the hull so constructed after the pre-cast plates have been associated and interlocked.
A further object of the invention is to provide a method whereby molds may be constructed to cast plates of concrete yin any desired number and with large nurnber of repetitions of like plates throughout the structure, which said plates may be quickly and conveniently associated and interlocked within a templet, after which the hull may be launched to vacate the templet for further construction and a reinforcing frame structure erected within the hull so produced after launching.
A further object of the invention is to adapt to watercraft construction the building block disclosed in co-pending applica-k tion, Serial No. 829,757, tiled .April 6, 19t-t. together with, a key suitable for the purpose as for instance the key disclosed in copending application, Serial No. 25,859, filed May 4, 1915, and other features adapting the block to watercraft construction.
With these and other objects in view the 193.8. Serial No. 243,033.
invention comprisesy certain novel features of construction, combinations and arrangements of parts and method of associating suoli features of construction and combination as will hereinafter be more fully described and claimed. i
ln the drawings:
Fig. l vis a perspective view of one of the plates shown as a rectangular plate, it being understood that plates will depart from the rectangular form as necessityof construction requires.
Fig. 2 is a sectional view through the plate shown at Fig. l taken on line 2.-2 of Fig. l. n
Fig. 3 is a sectional view enlarged through one of the joints connecting two of the plates showing reinforcing and an choring means and a reinforcing concrete framework erected upon the inner surface of the plates.
liig. 1i is a transverse sectional view through a conventional hull showing the manner of erecting the plates within a templet.
Figs. 5 and t3 are enlarged sectional views through a plate and the connection et the plate to an adjoining plate with strenghtcning reinforcing and anchoring means diftering in `constructional embodiment from that shown in Fig. 3.
Fig. 7 is a detail view of the juxtaposed edges of two plates at the lower edge of the side of the hull.
Fig. 8 is a detail enlarged view showing the manner of erecting a deck upon the plate structure.
Fig. 9 is an enlarged detail view showing a still different manner of reinforcing and connecting the plates.
Fig. 10 is a longitudinal sectional view of a hull, one-half showing the hull with the plates erected and interlocked; the other half showing a concrete frame erected within kthe interlocked plates.
Fig. 1l is a modification showing the use of tiles having air cells for strengthening certain parts of the hull construction to provide rigidity and at the same time greater buoyancy.
Fig. l2 is a sectional view of one ofthe abutting joints showing an auxiliary means to prevent infiltration.
Fig. 1 3 is a fragmentary view showing the back of the plates with a structural grillage to receive the stresses.
Fig. 1liis a sectional view taken on line 1a-1f1 of Fig. 1s.
Fig. 15 is a 'sectional vievv taken on line 15-15 of Fig. 13.
Like characters of reference designate corresponding parts throughout the several views. In the construction of the hull of a watercraft it is proposed in the present invention to provide molds for the casting of a plurality of plates which may be represented by the plate 15, cast of dense concrete impervious to water. iks shown at Fig. 1, the plate 15 is cast as a rectangular plate having a plain face but it is to be understood that plates other than rectangular, as for in stance, the plate 16 will be employed for the bow and stern of the hull and that the plain face will be abandoned and curved face substituted where required, as for instance, at 17 in Figs. t and 11.
Vhatever the form as to the surface or whatever the outline of the block each block is constructed with an inturned rib 18 containing a dove-tailed furrow 19 so that when the plates are juxtaposed edge to edge a double dove-tailed groove is provided, each groove registering with the other into which a pre-cast double dove-tailed key 2O is inserted. The specific type of key disclosed in the aforesaid co-pending application is a pre-cast key 2O made up of concrete reinforced with breaking joints to be cast in indeterminate length and broken to the ree quired length or lengths as construction may require, it being understood that the key employed is not limited to such specific type. lVhen the type of. key so specified is inserted into the registering double dovetailed groove the exterior surface of the key is covered with thin cement indicatedat 2l in Figs. 3 and 9, so that when so inserted it becomes cast substantially integral or monolithic with the block structure. To prevent any possible infiltration the edges of the block are preferably provided with rabbets formingv when juxtaposed external grooves 22 as indicated at Figs. 3 and 9 unto which grooves a waterproof plastic may be inserted to insure a watertight joint between the juxtaposed edges of the plates.
lt is desirable, and in some cases necessary, to reinforce the block structure to prevent not only the fracture of the body of the block but also the ribs carryingl the locking means and such reinforcing may be of any usually and ordinary type, but preferably consists of wires or rods 23, the extremities of which extend outwardly beyond the inner face of the block as shown `at Figs. 1, 2 and 3, for the purpose of tying with the frame to be erected within the hull composed. in the,
first instance of the plates. Where it is proposed to construct the frame within the hull of structural metal it is desirable to imbed in the plates gussets for attaching to the metal frame shown at Figs. 5 and 6 as 24.
The gussets indicated at 25 are secured to the reinforcing wires here shown as 26 in any approved manner as by being inserted through openings in such gussets and the gussets are secured to the framework 24 in any approved manner as by the rivets 27. In either form, it is desirable to employ transverse rods or wires 28 for further strengthening the block structure.
For corner Construction where it is necessary to engage the edge of one plate against the side of another plate angle gussets 29 are imbedded in the block structure and bolted together as by the bolt 30 shown in F 9.
lVith the several blocks cast to form and dimension as required by the hull to be constructed a templet 31 is erected and the blocks set up in the required relation to produce the hull and are locked together by the use of the keys a specific type of which is shown at 2O with the reinforcing rods 23 or the gussets 25 and 29 extending inwardly within the hull so erected but at that stage not in engagement with any frame or reinforcing means. After such erection the frame is constructed within the shell so produced. If it is desired and found expedient to construct the frame from concrete, molds are erected Within the shell into which is poured concrete in the desired form as indicated at 32, of a texture less dense and heavy than the concrete of the plates and preferably with reinforcing bars 33 set up within the mold before pouring with the reinforcing rods 23 locked about some of such reinforcing bars 33 as indicated at Fig. 3. Under some conditions it is found desirable to lock the plates together by means auxiliary to the keys, as for instance, the bolts 3a inserted through openings 35 with the ends of said bolts imbedded in the concrete frame structure 32. Braces 36 will be cast integrally with the frame structure 32 a nd will add to the rigidity of the structure and also support the decks 37, which will preferably be also of concrete formed in the usual manner. To provide for the proper retention of the concrete framestructure to the surface of the block structure, the blocks are provided about the edges of the ribs opposite the dove-tailedy groove with other grooves 38 into which the frame structure is cast.
The cast structure or framework 32 is like- Wise provided With grooves 39 in alinement with the groove 33 so that there are corresponding and registering grooves entirely around the structure into which a temporary structure may be inserted for the making of llO temporary repairs. Under some conditions it is also desirable to provide the rib 18 with other re-entrant grooves as shown at Fig. l2, into which a mortar or other cementitious material 4,1 may be poured or otherwise inserted :for the purpose of additional preventation against iniiltration.
Where the concrete framework is used upon the interior of the shell it is Jfound at times necessary to strengthen the plate in addition to the intermediate rib 42 which is accomplished by means ot a structural metal grillage. This grillage comprises beams Il?, extending along and bearing upon the intermediate ribs 4t2 as shown more particularly at Figs. 13 to l5, inclusive, and having their opposite ends embedded in the concrete frame structure SQL @ther structural beams 44 extend transversely across and bear upon the beams 43 and likewise have their opposite ends embedded in the concrete frame structure 32. f
Under some conditions it is desirable to stillen the bottom of the hull or the decks without adding unduly to the weight or detracting from the buoyancy. `For that purpose hollow tiles 45 may be employed as shown at Fig. ll with concrete in engagement with Asuch tiles to wholly seal them from the water whereby the buoyancy oi the air cells is made available.
In the method of constructing the ship or other water craft it is intended as hereinbefore indicated to set up in their proper relation and key together blocks to produce the shell, after which the inner frame either of the structural metal or concrete formation is erected within the shell so formed. Where rapidity of construction is an object the shell formed of interlocked plates may be launched from the templet as soon as the plates have been so interlocked and the frame structure within the shell erected after such launching, whereby the templet is made available for the erection of another hull. It is also obvious that with the construction of a set of molds for the casting of the several plates any number of reproductions can be had, such plates being cast as time and occasion makes possible and later as occasion makes possible, erected within the templet and the shell so erected launched and reinforced by the internally erected frame insuring the greatest possible speed in the turning out of completed hulls.
In the making oi hulls having a considerable portion oi the hull structure below the water line it is obvious that it will be desirable and perhaps in some cases necessary to strengthen the structure for the purpose of resisting the strength of the surrounding waters and this strengthening will be accomplished by the casting of the plate of thicker material the strengthening ribs 4:2 of heavier and stronger concrete and by strengthening the' frame structure and grillage it being understood that the several proportions of the several elements shown in the drawings are not intended to govern and that the proportions will be varied as circumstances may require.
llVhat l claim is:
l. A hull comprising a plurality of precast plates having inwardly projecting edges said plates forming the shell and an interior frame of concrete poured around the projecting edges oit said plates.
2. A hull rcomprising a plurality of precast plates having their juxtaposed edges provided with registering re-entrant grooves extending throughout the length of the edges and,I keys filling the registering grooves. y
A hull comprising a plurality of precast plates having inwardly projecting edges, said edges ot' adjacent plates having `grooves in the faces opposite the adjacent edges, and a pouredconcrete frame upon the interior overlying the inwardly projecting edges so as to engage within said grooves.
l. A hull comprising a plurality of precast plates having inwardly projecting edges and 'registering re-entrant grooves and grooves on the projecting edges of the faces opposed 'to the re-entrant groove and a poured concrete frame upon the interior engaging the second mentioned grooves.
5. A hull comprising a plurality of precast plates having inwardlyprojecting edges with re-entrant registering grooves in their abutting sides and grooves in the sides opposed to t-he abutting sides and a concrete iframe overlapping the abutting line and engaging in the grooves in the opposed faces.
G. A hull composed of a plurality of recast plates having inwardly extending a utting edges, keys in said edges, and a poured concrete frame spanning the abutting line and connected with the pre-cast plates upon opposite sides of such line and positioned to prevent infiltration.
7. A hull comprising a plurality of precast plates having inwardly projecting edges abutting and a poured concrete frame spanning the line of abutmentand engaging against the opposed faces of the inwardly projecting edges.
8. A hull comprising a plurality of precast plates having their edges abutting, a poured concrete frame securing the edges together and preventing inltration and means for eecting temporary repairs consisting in inwardly extending ribs about the peripheries of said plates provided with grooves and registering grooves provided in the poured concrete frame.
9. A hull comprising a plurality of precast plates having inwardly extending juxtaposed edges interlocked throughout their length, said edges having registering grooves and a waterproofing material interposed in such grooves.
10. A hull comprising a plurality of plates pre-cast from conglomerate material having their edges abutting and interengaged and a frame work of conglomerate material erected within the shell thus formed and engaging over the abutting edges of the pre-cast plates.
11. A hull comprising a plurality of precast plates having edges juxtaposed and secured together and each plate having longitudinal and transverse strengthening ribs formed upon the interior thereof forming pockets in said plate, the sides of each pocket sloping inwardly toward each other.
12. A hull comprising a plurality of precast plates having their edges juxtaposed to form a shell, a concrete frame erected within the shell and in engagement with the plates and a supporting grillage bearing against the plate and having portion thereof embedded within the concrete frame.
13. A hull comprising a plurality of precast plates having their edges juxtaposed to form a shell, a concrete frame erected within the shell spanning the juxtaposed edges to prevent infiltration and a metal grillage bearing against the interior of and supporting the plates and having the ends of the members embedded within the concrete frame.
14:. A unit for the production of hulls comprising a pre-cast conglomerate plate having inwardly extending peripheral ribs and reinforcing members imbedded within the material of the plate and extending inwardly beyond the limits of the inwardly extending ribs.
15. A unit for the production of hulls consisting in a plate pre-cast to the required dimension and contour7 inwardly extending ribs on the inner face of said plate, said ribs being provided with grooves to receive temporary repair material.
16. A unit for the production of hulls consisting in plates pre-cast to the required dimensions and contour, said plate having along its peripheral edges grooves positioned to register with corresponding grooves of abutting plates and other grooves also in said edges positioned to register with corresponding grooves of abutting plates to receive a non-infiltrate material.
17. A unit for the production of hulls comprising a plate of conglomerate material, pre-cast to the required dimension and contour, having about its peripheral edges both a key-way positioned to register with a corresponding ey-way in an abutting unit and a groove positioned to register with a corresponding groove in an abutting unit to receive non-infiltrate material.
18. A unit for the production of hulls comprising a plate of conglomerate material pre-cast to the required dimension and contour and having inwardly extending peripheral ribs with bolt holes formed through said ribs positioned to register with corresponding bolt holes of abutting plates and key-ways formed in the periphery of said plate, positioned to register with corresponding key-ways in abutting plates and receive a key spanning the abutting line.
19. A vessel comprising eld molded reinforced concrete field cast elements and reinforced concrete plates of relatively small size, said members and plates being united to form a monolithic structure7 said plates forming the skin surface of the vessel, contiguous edges of the plates having grooves for the reception of a caulking material to prevent leakage at the seams, ianges on said plates, the reinforcements of the plates proj ecting through the flanges and into the field cast elements.
In testimony whereof I affix my signature.`
HERBERT M. KNIGHT.