US 1494152 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
May I3, 1924 S. O. COWPER-COLES CONTINUOUS AUTOMATIC PROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF METAL 1 SHEETS, WIRE, TUBES, CYLINDERS, AND OTHER ARTICLES Filed Oct. 2, !922 2 Sheets-Sheet 1- may l3 192% S. CONTINUOUS AUTOMATIC P SHEETS, WIRE, TUBES,
1,494.152. o. COWPER-COLES ROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF METAL CYLINDERS, AND OTHER ARTICLES Filed 0ct. 1922 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 l ll il Patented B3, 1924.
21- osnonn cowrnnrconns'on SUNBURY-ON-THAMES, linemen).
corxrm'uous nuromn rrc rnocnss FOR run rnonuorron or mermasnnn'rs, WEBB, runes; c mnnnns, AND ornnn narrows.
apnlicat ioa filed. October 2, (1922'. Serial no, 591,784.
. To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, SHERARD, OSBORN Cowrnn-Conns, a subject of the King of Great Britain, residing at Rossal House,
B Thames Street, Sunbury-on-Thames, Middlesex' England, have invented a Contin uous Automatic Process for the Production of Metal. Sheets, Wire, Tubes, Cylinders, and Other Articles, of which the following is a specification. j
My invention relates to the production of finished metal products such as sheets, wire, tubes, cylinders, and other articles which are usually rolled, drawn, spun, stam ed or cast and to a process of electro-depositing the desired metal or alloys, or combination of metals, on specially prepared mandrels or cathodes coated with lead or a film of sulphide or oxide, so that the deposited metal m can be readily removed by rolling, or in any other suitable manner, when it has attained the desired thickness or dimensions ln revious atents I have described metho s of rapi y electro-depositing metals by revolving or reciprocating a cathode at a high rate of speed. I have foundg ihow ever, that such a process possesses the isadvantage that the cathode, in spite of its rotation, carries around with it a film of eleccc trolytic solution which has been largely denuded of its metal contents. This occurs even if bafie-plates are employed' The efiect of this film, which for convenience is hereinafter referred to as the 86 cathodic film, is prejudicial not merely by reason of its poverty in metal but also from the fact that electrolytic action upon it results in the rapid evolution of gas bubbles immediately adjacent to the cathode surface m which tends to disintegrate the deposit and render the cathode surface rough and un- .even. 7 The object of the present invention is to enable high current densities to be employed 1 and thus to increase the field of application of the process and tothis end it consists in giving the cathode an oscillating or reciprocating motion of such rapidity that it will, .either alone or in conjunction with a coni W tinuous or intermittent rotary motion, shake 0d or dis erse the denuded cathodic, film. lln suita le apparatus for making foil and sheet metal ll employ an open ended cathode cylinder in connection with driving rollers carried on a frame above the depositing vat and capable of rotation at any desired speed, the rollers being so arranged as to allow the 'cylinderto be immersed in the solution to about three-quarters of its diameter. One roller is arranged inside the cylinder and another roller opposite to it on the outside, pressure being applied to them by of springs or weights to give the necessary friction to revolve the cathode cylinder,
other rollers being provided as supports and guides to keep the cylinder in position.
Electriccontact is made with the cathode cylinder by means of one "or more of the rollers or a suitable rubbing contact. The carrying frame for the rollers and the cathode cylinder is'mounted so that it can be given arapid oscillating or reciprocating motion, thus causing the cylinder to oscillate correspondingly in the electrolyte, and to throw oil thecath'odic film, thereby obviating the injurious effects of any gas bubbles and permitting intimate. contact or skin friction between the depositedmetal and the solution and at the same time circulating the solution, thus enabling a high current density to be employed whilst keeping the voltage at the minimum.
'The importance of the rapid oscillating or reciprocating motion is as above stated that the cathodic film of electrolyte denuded of its metal content, which would otherwise adhere to the cathode and result in the evolution of gas around the latter, is broken up, thus enabling a much higher current to be employed than has hitherto been possible. The rapidity or frequency of the oscillatin or reciprocating motion may vary, provi ed, that it is at least sufiicient to disintegrate the cathodic film, when depositing lead if a surface speed of 100 feet per minute is van to the cathode, a current density 0 1GB amperes per square foot or more can he em" ployed.
The required minimumv speed of rec1procation of the cathode to disperse the denuded cathodic film aforesaid in most cases can be ascertained by observing at what speed bubbles cease to appear on he cathode surface and where a speed of cathode has been predetermined it is only necessary, in operating the process, gradually to increase inder b and equi-distant cause the rollers .e,
, form of a bar of semi-circular form supported in, but insulated from, the vat a an the current until a point is reached where s bubbles commence to appear. It will tus be clear that the current is too high and must be reduced until all signs of gas generation at the cathode surface cease.
The improved process enables metallic foils and sheet to be made continuously, and also wire'by providing the cathode cylinder with a spiral or parallel ll-shaped scratch or groove so as to form a weak line of cleavage in the de osit in the known manner. 0r, tubes an cylindrical objects may be made by attaching to the cylinder, or an endless belt working on cylinders, suitable moulds or matrices which are given an oscillatory motion and at the same time made to travel through the solution at a predetermined speed so as to obtain the desired thickness of metal in one or. more revolutions. Or, tubes maybe formed upon mandrels carried directly upon the reciprocating frames.
To enable the invention to be fully understood, I will describe it by reference to the accompanying drawing, in which Figure 1 is a plan of apparatus constructed in accordance with the invention for the electro-deposition of metallic toil.
Figure 2 is a vertical section of the apparatus on the line 2-2 of Figure l, and
Figure 3 is a sectional view at right angles to Flgure 2, with certain parts omitted.
a is the-depositing vat and l) the open ended cathode cylinder, 5 is the anode in the arranged with its inner surface in close proximity to'the outer surface of the cyltherefrom.
a is the frame for supporting the cylinder 1) in the vat a through the medium of the supporting and guiding rollers d, d, the said frame comprising two side portions or cheeks c tied together by cross-bars 0 and i, i. The said rollers are mounted on spindles carried in hearings d in the said frame and are arranged in contact with the inner peripheral surface of the said cylinder and provided with flanges for guiding purposes. e, f are the drivin rollers for the cathode cylinder b, the sai rollers being arranged in contact with the inner and outer peripheral surfaces of the said cylinder and mounted upon spindles also carried in bearings g in the frame 0. The said bearings are slidably mounted in guideways g in the frame 0 and are pressed upon by springs g to f to grip the cylinder 5 between them, the roller e bein rotated by a sprocket-wheel h and chain from any suitable driving means to frictionally turn the said cylinder in the electrolyte in the vat a.
The frame a is supported by extensions on the rod 5 mounted in bearings i and deaeeaaea signed to slide endwise therein, so that the said frame together with the cathode cylinder 6 can be reciprocated laterally with respect to the vat a. This reciprocating motion is shown as being imparted to the said frame by a shaft through the medium of an eccentric y" and connecting rod 3' but any other suitable means may be employed.
By efiecting such reciprocation of the cathode cylinder 5 rapidly to insure the dispersal of the cathodic film within the electrolyte in the vat a I am enabled to employ a high current density for efiecting the deposition on the cathode with a minimum voltage.
' The cathode cylinder 6 is rotated at such a speed that the foil or sheet deposited thereon has acquired the desired thickness as it emerges from the electrolyte, the said foil or sheet being peeled off from the cylinder and passing between a pair of trimming rollers 7c, 10 supported in bearin s in the frame 0 and geared together as in icated at k and driven from the shaft of the roller 0 by sprocket gear 7c". is isa shoot for the trimmings from the trimming rollers 1:, la. From the said rollers the foil passes to, and is wound on, a roller Z mounted in hearings in the frame 0 and upon which bears another roller Z carried in bearings ina lever frame at pivoted on a shaft m also carried in hearings in the said frame, the said roller I being rotated, to frictionallv rotate the roller Z, by sprocket gear from the said shaft m which is itself rotated from any suitable driving source by sprocket gear m 1!. is a container and pad for applying the coating of strippi 1g solution to the surface of the cathode cylinder before it passes below the surface of the electrolyte and n is a container pad for washing such treated surface directly after the application of such stripping solution.
0 is a brush for brushin the deposit on the cathode as it emerges om the electrolyte and is a rollerfor squeegeeing the deposit after the brushin operation, the deposit then being washef by water from a tank g. 7
By providin the cylinders b with a spiral or parallel V-s aped scratch in the hown manner the deposit can be unwound from the said cylinder in the form of wire.
Having now particularly described and ascertained the nature of my said invention and in what manner the same is to be per formed, I declare that what I claim is 1. An electrolytic process for the production or metal sheets, wires, tubes, cylinders and other articles wherein the cathode has imparted to it an oscillating or reciprocating motion in the electrolyte of a rapidity or frequency suficient to throw ofi or disperse the denuded cathodic film.
. 2. An electrolytic process for the producaaeawe tion of metal sheets, wires, tubes, cylinders and other articles wherein the cathode has imparted to it an oscillating or reciprocating motion and also a continuous orv intermittent rotar motion, in the electrolyte of a nature and requency such as will throw off ord'isperse the denuded cathodic film, substantially as and for the-purpose described.
3. Ap aratus for carrying out the process claimed 1n claim 2, comprising a cathode cylinder, a frame for supporting the same, means for rotating the cylinderin the electrolyte and means for oscillating or reciprocating the said frame and cylinder, substantially as described.
' 4. Apparatus for carrying out the process claimed in claim 1 wherein the cathode is provided with one or more V-shaped scratches or grooves for the purpose set forth.
5. Apparatus as claimed in claim 3 wherein the cathode cylinder is provided with a spiral or parallel V-shaped scratch or groove for the purpose set forth.
6. The apparatus for the production of and other articles wherein the cathode has imparted to it an oscillation or reciprocating motion in the electrolyte of a rapidity or frequency at the rate of 100 to 125 reciprocations per minute.
8. An electrolytic process for the production of metal sheets, wire, tubes, cylinders and other articles wherein the cathode has imparted to it an oscillation or reciprocating motion in the electrolyte of a rapidity or frequency re 'lated to prevent the formation of gas bub les on the cathode surface.
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