|Publication number||US1494410 A|
|Publication date||May 20, 1924|
|Filing date||May 10, 1922|
|Priority date||May 10, 1922|
|Publication number||US 1494410 A, US 1494410A, US-A-1494410, US1494410 A, US1494410A|
|Inventors||Bidle William S|
|Original Assignee||Copper Products Forging Compan|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (10), Classifications (6)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Patented May 20, 1924.
y UNITED s-TATEs 1,494,410 PATENT OFFICE.
WILLIAM S. BIDLE, OF CLEVELAND, OHIO, ASSIGNOR TO THE COPPER PRODUCTS FORG- ING COMPANY, OF CLEVELAND, OHIO, A CORPORATION OF OHIO.
METHOD 0F MAKING TROLLEY WHEELS.
Application led May 10, 1922. Serial No. 559,703.
method shown and described in my appli-l cation filed on the 27th day of February, 1922, Serin No. 539,458;
According to that method, I produce a i trolley wheel of pure or unalloyed copper by cold working operations involving the parting of a copper blank by the use of a sharp-edged roller.
In the present instance, I avoid the use of a sharp parting roller and cutting tool in the initial operations, and modify the subsequent groove shaping steps so as to cause the metal in the worked surfaces to ow together at the base of the groove in such a manner that any fissure or fault may be definitely localized and easily removed.
The formations of the` product at different stages is exemplified in the drawings annexed hereto, in which Fig. l is a side view of a copper blank and a parting roller as related at the beginning of parting operations, and Fig. 2 is an edge elevation of the arting roller and a sectional view of the blank and its holding dies in the same working relation. Figs. 3 and 4 show the same arts but in the intermediate and filial working stages, respectively. Fig. 5 isan edge view of the cold-working and shaping roller beginning operations upon the wheel blank as parted in Fig. 4. Figs. 6, 7, 8 and 9 are enlarged sectional views illustrating in detail the gradual changes which take place in the final cold-rolling operations using the beveled channeled roller shown in Fig. 5.
To those skilled in the art of working copper it is well known that copper may be hardened by compression and cold working, especially if the metal is caused to flow upon itself by such compression or cold working. To effect such results in a facile and inexpensive way in making a grooved trolley wheel, I first cast or forge a solid metal blank 2 of disk-shape having round hollow hubportions 3-3 and a rounded annular swel or enlargement 4 in its body portion, see Figs. l and 2. This blank 2 1s clamped between a pair of axially-aligned dies 55 having opposed beveled faces 6-6 to permit the blank to be rotated at twohundred to three-hundred revolutions lper minute opposite a pressure-applying parting roller This parting roller is mounted in any suitable way and associated with means adapted to force feed the roller against the periphery of the blank toward the axis of the blank and the holding dies, andin practice I use a roller 7 having beveled sides 8 8 and a rounded parting edge 9 in lieu of a sharp cutting edge as shown and described in my copending application. AS a result when this round-edged roller 7 is fed forward and forced into the edge of the rapidly revolving blank 2 exactly at its middle the circumferential portion of the blank is parted equally. In this action the parted sides curve outwardly until the end edges engage the dies 5 5, which occurs when the roller has entered a substantial distance to produce a relativel deep annular roove with a small .roun bottom in the lank. The rolling movement and the pressure which is applied to eect the parting causes the metal in the surfaces of the groove to iow upon itself which hardens this surface and its contiguous areas, and the rounded parting edge of the roller effects a parting without splitting the disk or creating any fissure or fracture at the base of the groove. Consequently, the grooved product when made in this way may be further expanded and shaped without resorting to preliminary cutting operations or removal of any of the stock at the base of the groove.
Thus, in practicing this process I withdraw or retire the parting roller 7 and enter a second and more obtusely beveled roller S into the parted blank while it is still clamped between the dies and under rotation, the purpose being to straighten the curved sides or anges of the blank, to widen and reshape the groove, and to rework metal in the surface of the groove into a harder state by crowding and fiowing the metal toward and into the base of the groove. In so doing I have also conceived the idea of eliminating any fault or fissure which might occur by crowding the metal on converging lines into the base of the wheel blank in the first stages of groove and producing a seam or overlap of metal which may not be manifest to the eye but if present will develop irregularities or defects eventually in the base of the oove in the trolley wheel. I accomplish tie desired end-by employing a reversely-beveled shaping roller S having a narrow annular space or relatively deep channel 10 at the apex of its converging sides, the summit or high point at each side of the channel being rounded to produce a rounded bottom in the trolley wire groove in the wheel. The straight beveled sides of roller S flatten the curved sides or flanges of the parted blank as this roller is fed under considerable pressure into the groove against such sides and as this occurs the rounded summit portions ll-ll at each side of the channel 10 in the roller crowd and roll the material in the grooved surface in advance of the roller in increasing degree until this material flows toward the middle and into channel 10, as indicated in Figs. 6 to 9, inclusive where Fig. 6 shows the parted sides or flanges of the eing flattened, and Fig. 7 shows a slightly advanced state of flattening and an initial movement of the material in the groove surface at 12 toward the channel l0. Fig. 8 shows the flanges nearly flattened a ainst the dies and the material which has een crowded and rolled downward from the sides of the groove as nearly closed to ether and starting to work up into the c annel 10, While Fig. 9 shows the flanged sides flattened and conforming to the beveled and rounded portions of roller S with a slight surplus of metal crowded into channel 10. This surplus of metal forms an annular bead or ridge' 14 having a crack or fissure, but this crack or fissure is located entirely within the area of the channel. v Upon withdrawing or retirin roller S from the grooved wheel, the r1dge 14 is easily removed by cutting, filing or grinding until the bottom of the groove is smoothly rounded. This completes the making of the wheel, excepting the boring of an opening axially for a bushing or a shaft, or some other finishing step not necessaril va part of this invention, which as state herein, consists in the main of parting the blank by applying a rolling pressure with a rounded parting roller or equivalent tool, and then of ex andino and reshaping the parted blank by applying a rolling pressure with a second roller and crowding the material in the sides of the grooved surface on lines moving toward the center of the bottom of the groove until a ridge or bead is formed to embrace any fissure, crack or line of division produced by such crowding and flowing movement of the metal upon itself on converging lines toward the bottom and center of the groove.
What I claim, is:
l. A method of making a trolley wheel consisting in forming a deep circumferential groove in a round body of ductile metal of high electrical conductivity, in working the material in the opposite faces of the groove into confluence at the bottom of the groove, and in removing the surplus conuent stock.
2. A method of making a trolle wheel, consisting in parting and sprea ing) the peri heral portion of a disk-shaped lank of uctile metal until a relatively deep circumferential groove is formed, in shaping and working the sides of the groove while flowing the material in the o posite faces of the groove into raised con uence at the bottom of the groove, and in removing the raised confluent material to yround the groove.
3. A method of makin a trolley wheel, consisting in parting a dis -shaped blank of ductile metal by the application of a rolling pressure,y in expanding and reshapin the parted blank, in crowding the material in the parted faces on lines moving toward the center and bottom of the parting until a ridge of surplus material is produced, and in removing the ridge thus formed.
4. In a method of makin a trolley wheel, the step of crowding and owin the material involved in the grooved aces of a trolley wheel body on confluent lines until a bead is formed embracing any fissure or line of division at the lace of meeting.
5. A method of malling a trolley wheel, consisting in forcing a round-edged roller into the peripheral ed of a disk-shaped blank of ductile meta until a relatively deep round-bottomed groove and flaring side flanges are produced, then forcing a second larger roller between said flanges and crowding the material in the groove faces toward the bottom of the groove while permitting the sur lus material to build up at the middle of tlie groove, and finally in removing the surplus material and smoothly rounding the bottom of the groove.
6. A method of making a trolley wheel, consisting in forcing a beveled round-edged roller into the circumference of a revolving disk-shaped blank of ductile metal until a relatively deep groove and flaring side flanges are produced; in forcing a larger beveled channeled roller between the flanges of the revolving blank until a different sha is imparted thereto and the material in t e opposite faces of the groove is crowded into the bottom of the groove with the surplus metal and line of meeting extending into the channel in said roller; and in removing the surplus metal and rounding the bottom of the roove.
7. A method of making trolley wheels, consistingyfirst, in forming an annular groove in a body of ductile and tenacious the bead on rounded lines conforming to 10 metal of high electrical conductivity; secthe bottom of the groove.
ondly, in subjecting the surface of the In testimony'whereof I aix my signature groove to a rolling pressure moving on conin presence of two witnesses.
verging lines to crowd the material in the surface toward the center and bottom of WILLIAM S' BIBLE' the groove until a circumferential bead is Witnesses: formed embracing the meeting line of the GEO. E. Knroxnx,
flowing material; and thirdly, in removing DOROTHY MOSER.
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|U.S. Classification||29/894.1, 191/63|
|International Classification||B21H1/00, B21H1/04|