US 1500829 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
A Ni E.. LAYNE METHOD 0F Forum@ WELL SCREENS Filed Abril 19 w, -Ev k wm M. E. LAYNE METHOD, 0F FORMING WELL SCREENS .Filed April 19, 1923 2 Sneetwheet 2 Mannen E. LAYNE, or r'roUsToN, Taxes.
MELT'HOD OF FORMING WELL SCREENS.
Application lled Api-11119, 1923. Serial No. 633,084.
To all whom #may concern.'
Be it known that I, MAHLON E. LAYNE, a citizen of the United States, residin at Houston, in' the county of Harris and btate of Texas have invented a. new and useful Method of Forming Well Screens, of which the following is a s eeification.
vThis invention re ates to the general subL ject of well-screens, and is particularly directed to a method of forming well-screens -in wells.
An object of the invention is to provide a method of forming wel1 screens,b which the screen apertures may be positive y initially opened to a predetermined degree-and subsequently positively openedA to a greater degree.
'- forming well screens,
20 apertures may be repeatedly'and accurately Another object is to provige tzjiiilethod of y W c t e screen engaged after the screen hasbeen installed Within a Well, by means' manipulatedfrom the well surface and under full control of the operator. f"
f' Various otherobjectsaild advantages will be more fully apparent from the, following description of the accomranying draw' ings which formv aplirt'iof t is disclosure,
and which illustrate fpreferred form of'embodiment of the invention., 1
Of the drawings:
Figure l is a vertical 'f section throuh a well-screen casing showing tlietool o? the Figa 8 is a detail view yshowing amodiied' form of perforating element. v
The method and means herein referred to are especially adaptable for use in the formation of well screens which are manufactured with normally closed screen apertures to be subsetuen'tly opened after the screen is psitione in a well boreat the desired pointf'o production, and are more particularlywadapted for use in the formation of e well screc'nsin which an inner apertured casing functions as a means of positively guiding a mechanical perforating device or tool in a perforating operation to open screen' apertures in the outer wall or e0 casing.
In making and installing well screens of this general characterit has heretofore been proposed to open lthe screen apertures by hydraulic or explosive pressure, but suoli e5 -methods are objectionable, first for the reason that in producing a pressure within `the casing of a degree suiicient to open the screen apertures, and QSPGClly in the USG of explosives, there is great danger of injury to the Well casing, it having been found that in some cases the explosion was so sharp as to open or stretch the connecting couplings to such 'an extent that when attempting to lift the casing the couplings would slip nii' the threads of the casing sections, and second for the reason thatl the degree to which the screen apertures are opened cannot be accurately determined or controlled,
for instance those screen apertures which ao happen to. be adjacent hard formations will lnot be opened to the same extent as those ad` jacent softer formations.
With the herein described apparatus, the
screen apertures are positively opened to a se predetermined degree regardless of the nature of the formation contacting the various portions thereof. And further, with .the present apparatus it becomes possible to open the screen perforations ,to a limited eo extent inthe irst instance and to further open said perforations as conditions may require, and with a certainty of accurately re-engaging-the previously formed perforations. This is of great advantage in bringing in Wells under high initial pressure,v necessitating va screen with only limited Openings or screen apertures, and Where later the pressure subsides and a more liberal openingfis needed. Further in Wells 'in sand fci'mations,`the fineness or coarserness of the screen-openings should vary according to the iineness or coarseness of the sand in such formations and should be under positive control of the operator, so los that in a well -bore through formations of different characters it is possible to open@ one portion of the screen more than air` other. It will beunderstood that that por-c tion` of the screen adjacent hard' formations 110 lshould be o ened to a greater degree than that which is adjacent soft tormations for the reason that large screen apertures adjacent soft formations will usually admit too much sand into the well, and further it will be evident that with the heretofore proposed methods of opening the screen apertures by hydraulic or explosive pressure the reverse will be true, that is, in hard formations there is a greater resistance to thc opening of the screen apertures, resulting in limited apertures where larger apertures are desired and in sott formations where Such resistance is least the apertures will be relativelylarge. where smaller apertures are desired.
lVth those types o1 mechanical perforators which arenot positively guided in their pcrtorating operation, an accurate spacing of the portera-tions is not possible, and in cases where it is desired to reperl'orate a screen to provide a more open screen or to clean previously made pei-t'orations, such unguidcd pertorator cannot. be depended upon to engage or follow the previously made screen apertures and is exceedingly liable to 'torni a new set of perforations so close to the first Vformed set as to seriously weaken the Strength ot' the entire screen.
My improved method permits me to positively open the screen apertures in any portion ot the screen to any degree desired, and after the sereer has been set in the well bore, and to subsequently, accurately and positively re-cngage said apertures to increase the degree ot openingr or to clean out such ot the apertures as may have become clogged or cen'iented sluit. by the lime or other incrusting contents of the formations.
In the dra-wings I have illustrated a wellscreen structure which consists ot' an inner casing 1 having a plurality of circularly spaced rows ot holes 2 equally spaced vertically, and an outer easing 3 which is vertically slit as at 4 with each slit extending across one of the holes 2 in the inner casing. The slits are normally closed and in such condition the screen is lowered into the well to position ot' use, and means are, subsequently-manipulated within the screen to widen the slits to torni screen apertures 5 in conm'iunication with the respective holes 2 of the inner casing.
A' screen structure of this type is fully illustrated and described in my copending application entitledlVell screen and method of making saine, Case B, Serial No. 633,088, tiled April 19, 1923, to which reference may be had if desired.
1t will be stated that in so far as the present invention is concerned, the specific construction of the screen is immaterial so long it embodies the general characteristics ot the type of screen shown, it being evident that other speciticforms of screens arev adaptable for use with the mechanism dis closed herein, one of such other forms be- 'sprocket wheel.
ing shown and described in my eopending application entitled Well screen and method of making same, Case A, Serial No. (533,082, tiled April 19, 1923, and still another in the Patent #1,304,493 to Ollyn A. Layne, patented May 2t), 1919.
The means for forming the well screen as herein illustrated has a two-part body comprising a tubular member 1t) which carries the pcrforating element, and a head 11 slidable within the upper portion of the member 1() and screw-threaded into the lower end of a tubular shank 12 which preferably consists of a plurality of tubing Sections extending to the well surface, from which point the tool is manipulated. The two body members lt) and 11 are joined by a pin and bayonet slot connection comprising, in the present instance three radial pins 13 carried by the head 11 and projecting into slots 1l in the member 1U (see Figs. 1 to 5). Vith particular reference to Figs. 1 and 3, it will be Seen that normally with the! pins 13 in the lateral portions of the slots 14, the two body members may be lon-v gitudinally translated within the well as a unit and aA rotation of the shank 12 and head 11 in one direction will correspondingly rotate the body member 10. Further it will be evident that upon a-n independent reverse rotation ot' the head 11 the pins 13 will be brought into the vertical portions of the Slots 14 and the head 11 then permitted a limited independent vertical movement, the purpose of which will later be explained.
The tubular body member 1t) is longitudinally slotted as at 15 and pivoted on a pin 1G carried by the member 1t) is a depending frame comprising two relatively spaced plates 17 joined together by a block 18. The frame 17 is positioned within the slot, 15 and journaled lto rotate on a stud 19 carried by the lower end oi" said frame7 is a perl'orating element or wheel 2t) having circularly spaced punch members 21 projecting from its periphery in the manner of a Attached to the inner` wall surface otI the tubular body member 10 and adjacent the block or shoe 1H, is e companion block or shoel 22, the adjacent surfaces of the blocks or shoes 1S and 22 having tapered half-circular recesses; 18u and 22 cooperating to form a tapered bore for cooperation with a wedge element or mandrel 23, said mandrel being in the form of a round rod having a tapered lower end, and provided with means 2stat its upper end for attachment to a cable leading to the well surface.
lhe mandrel 23 is adapted to slidably engage through a. bore 25 in the body member 11, which bore is aligned with the tapered bore formed by the rece/Ses 18 and 22 in the shoes, the upper surfacel of the body member 11 being formed to guide the mandrel 23 into the bore 25 when ylowered through the tubular shank 12,=a shoulder 26 .on the mandrel limiting its Ainsertion into` said bore 25.
In carrying out the method vof the present inventionthe well screen with the slits 4 closed, is positioned in the well bore. The perforating tool, with'the pins 13 in the lateral portions of the SlotsA 14, is then lowered into vthe well casing to location of the screen. Due to the absence of the`mandrel 24, the frame 17 carrying the perforatorf element, isfree to swing laterally and upon reaching the screen the tool is rotated from the well surface, in a right hand direction, .and is moved slightly up and down if necessary, until the punch members 21 engage one of the row ofiholes 2 in the screen (as shown in F ig. 1) this engagement of the punches with the holes in the screen being automaticallyefi'ected by gravity by reason -of the pin 16 being located considerably to one side of the vertical axis of the tool.
With the punch members 21 so engaged the mandrel 23 is lowered into the tubular Vshank of 'the tooland entering through the bore 25 inhe body member 11, drops downwardly between the wedge shoes 18 and 22, forcibly separating said shoes and forcing the frame 17 an laterally to drive the punch members 21 outwardly through the holes 2 in the innei` casing 1 to open the slits 4 in the outer casing 3. In this operation the opposite wall of the tool body 10 engages against the inner periphery of the screen.
The tool will next be longitudinally translated to'open a rowof slits 4f to form the screen apertures 5, the perforator wheel' 2() cooperating'with the holes 2 in the inner casing l in the manner of a rack and pinion.
Upon completion of the first row of screeny apertures, the mandrel 23 is withdrawn from between the opposed shoes 18 and 22 te release the perforator frame 17, after which the tool is elevated or lowered aboveor below the rows of holes 2 so that the punch members 21 engage an unbroken portion of the inner casing l. The toolis then slightly rotated to bring the punch members 21 between the row of 'holes previously engaged and the next row and is then translated to bring the punch members 21 between said` rows and subsequentlyrotated until the punch members find and engage in saidnext row. v
The mandrel l23 is then again lowered and the tool operated as above explained, this sequence of operation being repeated until all of the screen apertures desired, arel formed. after which the tool-is withdrawn from the well.
In some. instances it may happen that the, 'Y mandrel cable is lost in the tool shank or its perforator element4 that said cable becomes broken, and in this pendent vertical movement of the tool' shank 12 and body member 11 will cause the man; drei to be' elevated and withdrawn vfrom between the shoes-18 and 22 and in this manner allow the frame 17 and the perforating roller 20 to freely swing inwardly. When` the pins 13 reach the upper ends of the bayonet slots 14 (see Fig. 4) a continued upward movement of the tool sha-nk 12 and 'body member 11 will also carry upward the body member 10 and associated parts in a removal ofthe tool from the well,
` In Fig.'8 I have shown a slightly modified form of perforating element in which the round nose punch members 21a are designed to punch through an outer casing which has not' been previously slit, the term perforating as, used herein having a broad meaning including punching `or, formlng of screen apertures.
,WVhile the form ofr'mecianism herein illustrated 'and described is well adapted to fulfil 'the objects primarily stated and to carry into effect the herein described method, Vit is to be understood that I do not wish to' limit the invention to specilic embodiment herein disclosed, for it is susceptible'of. embodiment in various other forms all 4coming within the scope of the following claims.
1. A method of 'storming well-screens,
'which consists of forming longitudinal rows of holesv in a length o' casing, positioning said casing within an cuter casing, lowering .into the inner casing a tool having e perorating element, lmanipulating the tool from outside the casing to engageisaid element with a row of said holes, and translating the tool -to ositively formscreen apertures in the outer casing with the holes of the inner casing servingas means for guiding the perforator'element during a perforating operation.
2. A method, of `forming well-screens, which consists of forming longitudinal rows of holes in a length-of casing, positioning said casing within an outer casing, scoring the outer casingin the region of each of said holes, lowering into the inner casing a tool having a perforating element, manipulating the tool from outside the easing to engage said element with a row of said holes, and translating the tool to positively form screen apertures in the outer Casing with the holes in the inner easing serving as Ineans for guiding the perforator element during a perforating operation.
3. A method of forming Well-screens, which consists of forming longitudinal rows ot holes in a length of casing, positioning said easing' within an outer easing, providv ing a tool having a rotary toothed perforating element` lowering the tool into the inner easing, manipulating the tool from outside the easingr to anlage said element with a row of said holes, forcingr the perforator element outwardl)Y and translating;r the tool longitiulinali)v to positively forni screen apertures in the outer casinalr with the perforator element. having a rack and pinion engagement with thel holes in the inner casing.
4. A method ot forming a double Wall well-screen, which consists ot" forming longitudinal rows of holes in the inner wall and scoring: the outer wall in the region of eaeh hole, positioning the inner wall within theI outer wall with the seorings aligning with the. holes, and positively forming screen apertures in the outer Wall adjacent each ot said holes by a tool manipulated from outside the casing` and cooperating lwith the holes in the inner wall.
A method of forming nell-screens, which consists of forming a plurality of eir-4 eularly spaced longitudinal rows of holes in. a length ot' easing, positioning said easing within an outer easing, lowering into the inner easing a perforating tool, n1anipulating the tool from the well surface to engage its pertorating elementy with oneI row Voi; said holes, translating the tool to positively forni sei-een apertures in the outer easing with the engagement of the tool with saitl holes in the inner easing serving to control the perfor-ating element during a pertorat ing operation, manipulating the tool from outside the casing to engage it with a second row ot' said holes and repeating the pen 'tol-ating" operation.
(5; A method ot harming' a n'ell screen` which consists of forming' a longitudinal ronv of holesl in a length ot easing', position ing said easing within an outer easing, and forcing a perlomtiugr tool through said holes in the inner easingr to form screen apern tures in the outer easing, with the location of each hole determining the location of each screen aperture.
Signed at South Pasadena, Cal., this'lZth da)Y of April, 1923.
li'lAllLN E. LYNF.