US 1502257 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
w. LONSDALE CONDENSER jui 22 1924,. 3,502,257
Original Filed Oct. 5, 1932 2 Sheets-$heet l jufi 22 1924.
w. LONSDALE CONDENSER Origin'l-Filed Oct. 5,, 1922 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 AA M w Patented July 22, teas.
WINE LONSDALE, F ROSELLE PARK, NEW JERSEY,
ASSIGNO'R T0 WHEELER GON- DENSER & ENGINEERING COMPANY, OF GAR-TREE, NEW .rmsnx.
' counnnsm Application filedllotobcr 8, 1922, Serial Ea. 592,175. Renewed June 18, 1924.
To alt whom it may conceive."
Be it known that I, WILLIAM LoNsnALn, a citizen of the United States, residing at Roselle Park, in the county of Union and State of New Jersey, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Condensers; of which the following is a specification.
This invention relates to surface condensers for steam engines, turbines and the like.
In large condensers it is diflicult to distribute the exhaust steam uniforml to. all
parts of the cooling surface, and di cult to cool the non-condensible gases (air) sufiiciently to secure efiicientoperation of the air pump unless the condensate be unduly cooled, i. e. cooled to a temperature materially below that corresponding to the effective absolute pressure in the condenser.
In a prior application, Serial No. 592,174
filed Oct. 3, 1922, I describe and claim an apparatus for condensing steam which avoids the above diificulties. surface is subdivided into small units'an air and condensate are separately withdrawn by means closely associated with each unit.
' In a typical structure the water tubes are arranged in clusters, to form a plurality of cooling units, each of which has at its center an air ofi'take leading to a vacuum chamber or manifold from which the air pump draws.
Each cluster also has beneath it a condensate collecting tray which catches condensate flowing from the tubes and leads it directly to the hot well without further contact with water tubes. The vacuum chamber is readily arranged to be traversed by the water tubes and thus serves as an air cooler. Each tube cluster is dimensioned to produce complete condensation without over-cooling and the condensate is protected from subsequent cooling action by the collecting trays which keep it out of contact with the tubes. The air is withdrawn at many points throughout the condenser, thus preventing the formation of air ockets, and tending to distribute the steam ow in the condenser so as to balance the load on the various clusters. Furthermore the air is cooled in the condenser, but only after it has been separated and isolated from the condensate.
The broad inventive concept above outlined is claimed in the application above identified together with the preferred specific embodiment, and hence is not claimed The coolin of the invention.
herein. The present ap lication is restricted to an alternative em diment of the in vention, having special advantages in certain applications as will be more fully set forth.
The general structure of the condenser herein described conforms to standard practice except in the arrangement of the tubes m'clusters surrounding a vacuum tube. In addition to the ordinary elements of the-condenser there are provided a vacuum chamber mounted at or near the mid-length ofthe condenser, vacuum tubes extending in each direction from the vacuum chamber and serving to draw air from the condenser within each tube cluster, and condensate collectmg trays mounted beneath each cluster of tu es.
In the drawings Fig. 1 is a side view partly in elevation and partly in section of a condenser embodying the invention.
ig. 2 is an enlarged sectional view on the line 2-2 of Fig. 1, a part of the vacuum chamber being broken away to show the internal construction thereof.
The condenser has the usual shell 6 provided with an exhaust steam inlet 7 hot well- 8, and condensate outlet 9, to which in usual installations the condensate pumps are connected. v
The condenser chosen for illustration'is of the double pass type, the coolin water entering and leaving at the same en of the condenser. Hence the water-box 10 is divided by a horizontal partition 11. The head of this water-box is shown at 12, the
tube sheet at 13, the cooling water inlet at 14 and the cooling water outlet at 15. At the opposite end of the condenser is a waterbox'16 connecting the tubes of the two passes and formed with a head 17 and tube sheet 18. The number of passes is not a feature The water tubes 19 are fixed in the tube sheets as usual but are arranged in clusters of generally circular contour, there being five clusters in each pass. Each cluster has at its center a vacuum tube 20, fixed at its ends in the tube sheets 13 and 18, the ends of the tubes being plugged as shown at 21 to. prevent the entrance of water from the water-boxes. The vacuum tubes 20 have a large number of ports or holes 22 through which air may enter from within the condenser shell 6. These holes are shown as circular but the shape is of minor importance. The main requirement is that they be sufii- 1 the vacuum tubes discharging into it the condenser shell 6 over the hot well.
through slots 23 and the water tubes serving as an internal air cooler for air flowing to the air pump. The chamber 24 rests in None of the tubes need fit tightly in the walls of the chamber 24, since slight leakage from the condenser into the vacuum chamber can do no harm. A full sliding fit is therefore suflicient and can be had without undue expense:
The vacuum chamber 24 is therefore simply a hollow casting with drilled holes for the tubes. It takes the place of the ,usual intermediate tube supporting plate and if beveled at the top as shown at 25. serves as a deflector to distribute entering steam to the two ends of the condenser and prevents the entering steam from blasting on the upper tubes. Since'thechamber 24 does not reach. to the top or to the-sides of the shell 6 and since it arches over the hot well 8 the chamber 24 does not isolate the ends of the condenser from each other. However, to provide further free communication, a through port 26 is preferably used as shown Any condensate which might otherwise collect in chamber 24 drains to the hot well through port 27. A thimble 28 which makes a good sliding fit with a port in chamber 24 and which has a flange 29 seating against the outside of shell 6 oilers means for connecting the air pump suction connection 80. The connection is made by studs, as shown, and suitable gaskets are used to seal the joints with shell 6. A tight joint between 'thimble 28 and the walls of chamber 24 is not essential. The condensate flowing from the nests of tubes (except the lowermost) is collected by means of trays 31. These are supported by angle brackets 32 and are longitudinally inclined so as to drain the condensate to the middle of the condenser, a short interval beingleft at the low end to permit the condensate to flow down to the hot well. In such downward flow there will be some slight contact with water tubes of lower clusters, but this contact is negligible and are had by their use.
in practise it is thought unnecessary to pro- I vide the baflies or deflectors over the adjacent portions of lower nests which are an obvious means for preventing all such contact.
The particular construction illustrated has special advantages, particularly where long tubes are used. Not only does the vacuum chamber serve as a tube support, and as a steam deflector, but its location shortens the path of air in the vacuum tubes, permits the chamber to drain directly to the hot well and offers a simple arrangement by which the condensate trays also drain directly into the hot well. The vacuum chamber is readily added to existing desi s ofcondenser. The arrangement of tu es in clusters may be variously changed. The condensate collecting trays may in some cases be omitted but the best results In the broad aspects is not essential that the water tubes be arof the invention, it
ranged in clusters .or that the condensate collecting trays be used. Certain advantages of the'invention can be secured with conventional arrangement of the water tubes with interspersed vacuum tubes and,
in many conventional arrangements, the inclusion of the condensate trays is inconvenient if not impossible.
What is claimed is 1. The combination with a surface condenser having a shell and a plurality of water tubes mounted therein; of a smaller shell enclosing a vacuum chamber, said smaller shell being mounted in the condenser shell so as to be traversed by and give sup port to said water tubes at or near the midlength thereof; a suction connection leading from said vacuum chamber; and vacuum tubes interspersed among said water tubes and serving to conduct air from a lurality'of points within the condenser s ell to the vacuum chamber.
2. The combination with a surface condenser having a shell provided with a steam inlet and havin a plurality of water tubes mounted in said shell; of a smaller shell enclosing a vacuum chamber, said smaller shellbeing mounted in the condenser shell in the path of entering steam and in such position as to be traversed by and give support to said water tubes at or near the mid-length thereof; a suction connection leading from said vacuum chamber; and ducts leading from various spaced points within the condenser shell to said vacuum chamber.
3. The combination with a surface condenser having a shell, and water tubes mounted in said shell in a pluraltiy of separated clusters; of a smaller shell mounted within the condenser shell and forming a vacuum chamber traversed by said water tubes; vacuum tubes connected with said Within the condenser shell and forming a vacuum chamber traversed by said water tu'bes; vacuum tubes connected with said vacuum chamber and extending therefrom in opposite directions within corresponding tube clusters, said vacuum tubes having en-v trance ports from the condensing space at various points within said clusters; a suc tion comiection leading from said vacuum chamber; and condensate collecting trays serving to collect condensate from upper clusters and substantially preclude its contact with lower clusters.
5. The combination with a surface condenser including a plurality of water tubes and an enclosing shell provided with an exhaust steam inlet; of a combined steam deflector, tube support and vacuum chamber comprising a smaller shell mounted in the condenser shell and having reversely inclined deflecting surfaces opposite theexhaust steam inlet, said smaller shell being traversed by the tubes and having air inlet passages from thespace within the condenser shell and an air pump suction connection.
6. The combination with a surface condenser having a shell and a plurality of water tubes arranged in clusters; of a smaller shell mounted .within the condenser shell, near the mid-length of the tubes and enclosing a vacuum chamber traversed by the watertubes; vacuum tubes connected with said vacuum chamber, the various vacuum tubes being open to the interior of the condenser shell at points within various tube clusters; a condensate drain leading from said vacuum chamber; and a connection for withdrawing air from said vacuum chamber.
7. The combination with a surface condenser having a shell and a plurality of water tubes arranged in clusters; of a smaller shell mounted within the condenser shell, near the mid-length of the tubes and enclosing a vacuum chamber traversed by the water tubes; vacuum tubes connected with said vacuum chamber, the various vacuum tubes being open to the interior of the condenser shell at points within various tube clusters; a condensate drain leading from said vacuum chamber; condensate collecting trays for the upper clusters of water tubes; and a connection for withdrawing air from said vacuum chamber.
In testimony whereof I have signed my name to this specification.