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Publication numberUS1502676 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJul 29, 1924
Filing dateSep 14, 1920
Priority dateSep 14, 1920
Publication numberUS 1502676 A, US 1502676A, US-A-1502676, US1502676 A, US1502676A
InventorsKewish John T
Original AssigneeKewish John T
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Automatic rifle
US 1502676 A
Abstract  available in
Images(5)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

July 2% a 19245 J. T. KEWISH AUTOMATIC RIFLE 5 Sheets-Shet 1 Filed Sent. 14. 1920 R 0 T N E V N M ATTORNEYS J. T. KEWISH AUTOMATIC RIFLE Filed Sent. 14 1920 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 ATTORNEYS I WWII/42,22

\ il s? iisa Ni W i July 29, 1924. 1,502,676

J. T. KEWISH AUTOMATIC RIFLE Filed Sent. 14, 1920 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 Jul 29 1.924.

J. T. KEVVISH .AUT-OMATIC RIFLE Filed Sent.

5 Sheets-Sheet l 2.7/94 Iii-:2. 1

W WEE ATTURNEYS Patented July 29, 1924.

HT ST PAT OFFICE.

JOHN T. KEWISH, or new YO'KK, N. Y.

AUTOMATIC RIFLE.

Application filed September 14, 1920. Serial No. 410,083.

of its objects, the provision of a simple breech mechanism of rugged character embodying few parts and capable of being readily manufactured. I

A second object of my invention is to provide breech mechanism adapted to be operated either by the primer, by a regular movement of the barrel, or by both combined as may be desired.

Further objects of my invention are to provide a. simplified and improved means in automatic-breech mechanism whereby either single shot or rapid fire action may be obtained as desired, and whereby the gunner may readily change from. one action to the other; to improve and simplify the trigger mechanism and to provide means whereby the trigger guard may be eliminated.

The novel features of my invention are pointed out with particularity in the appended claims. The invention itself, however, together with further objects and advantages, will best be understood from the following description taken in connection with the accompanying drawings, in which Fig. 1 is a longitudinal sectional view on a vertical plane taken through the breech mechanism of a gun according to my invention, the parts being shown in the position in which the breech is fully opened.

Fig. 2 is a view similar to Fig. 1, the parts being shown in the firing position.

Fig. 3 is an elevational view, parts being shown in section, .of the gun illustrated in Figs. 1 and 2.

Fig. 4 is a detailed sectional view on a line i of Fig. 1, illustrating the action of the ejector of the gun shown in Figs. 1, 2, and 3.

Fig. 5 is a cross-section taken on the line of 5-5. Fig. 2.

Fig. 6 is a cross-section taken on a line of 6-6, Fig. 1, looking in the direction of same.

Fig. 7 is a cross-section taken on a line 7-7 of Fig. 2, looking in the direction of the arrow.

Fig. 8 is a horizontal section taken on a line of 88 of Fig. 2.

Figs. '9, 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 are detailed views of parts appearing in the preceding figures. v

Fig. 15 is a sectional view, parts being shown in elevation taken on the line of 1515, of Fig. 6. I

Fig. 16 is a cross-section taken on a line of 16-16 of Fig. 15.

Fig. 17 is a detailed view of certain parts appearing in Figs. 15 and 16.

Fig. 18 is a section on the line 18 of Fig. 17.

Fig. 19 is a detailed view in elevation of the portion of the slot in which the end of the cooking stud travels.

Fig. 20 is a vertical sectional view of a gun according to m invention, in which the breech mechanism is'operated b the combined action of the primer and t e recoil of the barrel. In this form of the invention, certain parts are modified, as compared with Fig. 1, these modified details being capable of use in either form of weapon.

Fig. 21 is a section on a line of 21-21 of Fig. 2O, looking in the direction of the arrow.

Fig. 22 is a section oft a line of 22-22 of F 20, looking in the direction of the arrow.

Fig. 22 is a cross-section on line 22-22 of Fig. 20. c

Fig. 23 is a detailed view of a part used in retaining and releasing the firing pin of the gun illustrated in Fig. 20.

Fig. 2 1 is a detailed view inelevation,looking at thetrig er of Fig. 20, the lower end of the trigger eing broken away for purposes of illustration.

Fig. 25 is a section on line 25--25 of Fig. 24.

Fig. 26 is a detailed view in perspective, illustrating the rear end of the firing pin, as shown in Fig. 20.

Fig. 27 is a sectional detail view of a modified arrangement for imparting the ener y of the primer of the movable parts of the breech mechanism. 1

Fig. 28 is a detail view in elevation of my improved flash deflector or choke.

Fig. 29 is a detail view, partly in section of one form of my improved means for cooling the barrel.

Fig. 30 is an end view of the arrangement shown in Fig. 29.

Figs. 31 and 32 are elevational and sectional views respectively of a modified form of cooling means.

Referring to the form of invention illustrated in Fig. 1, there is a stock 1 on which is mounted a barrel 2 and a receiver 3, part 3 being threaded to part 2, and both secured to the stock by means of a pin 4. A bracket piece 5 closes the rear end of the receiver and also serves other purposes which will appear later. It is made with a trigger guard if one is used. A pin 6 serves to fasten the part 5 in place, as well as fastening part 5 to the receiver 3 and the rear end of the receiver to the stock. As shown in Fig. 16, the receiver 3 is of channel shape, open at the bottom, having reentrant flanges such as 7 partly closing the opening of the slot at the bottom of the receiver and engaging in grooves in the sides of strips 5 forming part of piece 5. ()n flanges 7 is mounted to slide an actuator- 8, the forward portion 8 of which is made separately for purposes of convenience in manufacture and assembly. The flange and groove connection between flanges of 7 and strips 5 gives a secure connection between receiver 3 and central piece 5, and supports the receiver against a collapsing pressure. The receiver is supported against an expanding pressure by bolts. The rear end of receiver, moreover, extends into a recess in an upstanding portion of part 5, the receiver being thus further locked against pressure or pull tending to lift it off the stock. These features are all important for the reason that the receiver must be thin in order to keep down the weight of the gun, but the receiver being thin it must be Well supported against the various stresses to which it is subjected. Moreover, the arrangement described effectively resists the distortion of the receiver due to unequal heating and cooling. The parts 8 and 8 are shown as fastened together by a pin 9, out any convenient arrangement may be made. The portion 8 of the actuator car- ?ies a bolt 10, the bolt being hollow and Zhe portion 8 of the actuator having a :leeve 11 integral therewith. Sleeve 11 ex- :ends through the bolt into contact with the lead of the primer in the cartridge when he parts are in position to fire, and thus .erves as a bearing on which the bolt slides ind turns. The bolt is locked when in iring position by means of lugs such as 12 .t its forward end, which may be turned to nterlock with lugs such as 13 on the inte ior of the receiver. The turning or twistng movement of the bolt is caused by elative movement of the actuator 8 with repect to the bolt, the bolt having trunnions uch as 14 which project into helical slots uch as 15 in the portion 8 of the actuator see Fig. 14). The sleeve 11, previously mentioned as forming part of the actuator 8 is hollow and the actuator and sleeve have mounted therein a firing pin 16, adapted to explode the primer of the cartridge. The firing pin 16 has an enlarged head 17, mounted in a recess 18 in the actuator, the head 17 being hollowed out to receive a spring 19 by which the firing momentum is imparted to'the pin. The other end of the spring 19 is held by a cap 20, attached to the rear end of the actuator 8 by means of lugs such as 21 (as shown in dotted lines in Fig. 7), and a groove 22. the lugs and groove forming a bayonet connection. The lugs 21 can be inserted in groove 22 through slots such as 23 against the action of spring 19, and 1 provide a projection 24 on one of lugs 21 which seats in an aperture in the lip 25 which forms the rear wall of the groove 22, the projection 24 thus preventing accidental disengagement of the cap 20 from the actuator 8. A main spring 26 bears against the rear end of. the actuator 8, the other end of spring 26 being held by the piece 5, most of spring 26 being housed in a recess in part 5 when the actuator is at its rearmost position. WVhen the actuator is forward spring 26 is housed between the receiver 3 at top and sides, and the strips 5 at the bottom which form part of piece 5. After the firing pin 16 has been retracted relatively to the actuator by means such as hereinafter described, it is held in cocked position by means of the en agement of lug 27 on the head 17 of the ring pin with a split detaining piece 28 (illustrated in detail in Fig. 10. and appearing in elevation in Fig. 2). A removable block 31 is inserted between strips ,5, block 31 being slotted to receive the trigger 29. Part 28 is so formed that its two leaves or halves are connected at the bottom by an integral tubular portion 33, part 28 being mounted on block 31. Parts 28 and 31 are assembled and held in proper relation by drilling a hole 33 in the forward part of block 31 (best shown in F ig. 2) and pressing the part 33 in hole 33, the block 31 being slotted out or mortised so as to permit the insertion of the'part 28 and to provide room above hole-33 in which it may function properly. Trigger 29 is pivoted to block 31 at 30, the trigger 29 acting upon being pulled in the usual manner to spread apart the two blocks 32, forming the upper portion of part 28, which otherwise would lie in the path of the lug 27. The firing pin may then move forward to discharge the cartridge. This action of the retaining blocks on the part 28 is permitted by the fact that the integral tubular portion 33 is resilient. The action of the trigger in separating the two leaves of the part 28 is facilitated by providing two lugs such as 34: onthe rear vertical edge of part 28, the

lugs 34 extending rearwardly in a substantially horizontal direction. The upper surfaces of lugs 34 are, however, inclined upwardly and outwardly as shown at 35, thus forming a groove or notch (best shown in Fig. 9) into which the forward end of the trigger presses, thus readily spreading the leaves or halves of part 28 when desired. As the forward end of the trigger 29 passes downwardly bet ween lugs 34 in response to the finger-pull, blocks 32 release lug 28 the instant the trigger disengages itself from lugs 34 or as nearly the same instant as may be possible to insure the release of lug 28 on the firing pin. ln single shot firing, the trigger stops immediately below the lugs 34 owing to detent 36, but in case of machine or full automatic action, the detent is moved to permit the fingerend of trigger 29 to be pulled far enough back so that its forward end presses into notch 35* in part 28 immediately below lugs 34 so as to spread apart blocks 32 and hold them apart to prevent them from detaining lug 27 on the firing pin as it moves forward.

The a: tion of the gun according to my invention, illustrated in Figs. 1 to 18 inclusive. will now be readily understood. The parts being in the position shown in Fig. 2, the trigger 2:) is drawn back until it strikes the movable detent 36, the forward end of the trigger thus spreading the-blocks 32 apart in the manner previously described and releasing the lug 27, thus permitting the tiring pinto move forward and explode the cartridge. The bolt 10 will hold the head of the cartridge firmly inposition, but the head of the bolt is countersunk at 37 to permit. a limited movement of the primer, and

the primer consequently throws the actuator 8 rapidly to the rear owing to the contact of the forward end of sleeve '11 with the head of the primer. It will be seen that the lug 27 on the head of the firing pin 16 passes to a position in front ofthe blocks 32 in the act of tiring the cartridge. As the actuator and firing pin move backward under the influence of theprimer, the lug 27 spreads the blocks 32 apart. in order topass between them. the forward face of the blocks 32 being preferably notched out as shown at 51 (Fig. 10) and the ram 37 preferably being bevelled as shown at 52 (Fig. 9) to facilitate this action. As the actuator moves to the rear. it rotates and. unlocks the bolt 10 by means of engagement between the trunnions 14 and the cam grooves 15. thereupon the bolt and actuator are moved rearwardly at the same time to the position shown in Fig. l. the movement of the actuator serving to compress the spring 26. As the bolt moves rearward, it extracts the exploded cartridge by means of a suitable extractor, the one used by me being illustrated in Figs. 12 and 13, and comprising a piece 38 slidably mounted in a radial dove-tail slot 39, cut in the front face of the bolt 10. The part 38 has a tapered edge adapted to engage the groove in the head of the cartridge and is held in releasable engagement with the cartridge when the parts are in firing position by means of a spring 40, one endot' which contacts with part 38 and the other end of \Vllli'll is rolled up, as at 41, to form a substitute for a pin. In assembling the parts, portion 41 is inserted through a hole 41 drilled through from the outer face of the bolt to groove 4l -in' which spring 40 normally lies. Asmall'cut 41, running from hole 41 to the face of the bolt, permits the spring 40 to be passed over to the groove 41 as the part 41 is pushed through hole 41. After assembly, spring 40 automatically locks itself in place. The cartridge, thus being drawn back by the extractor, is ejected through the opening 42 in the receiver (shown in Fig. l) by the action of the ejector 43. The relation of the ,ejector to the bolt and the cartridge at this time being illustrated in Fig, 4'. The ejector 43 is formed with an integral spring 44 at its rear end, carried on a small bevelled face on 45 on the forward portion of one of the central strips 5, as shown in Figs. 4 and 7. The front end of the bolt 10 is slotted, as shown at 46, so that the ejector 43 may be carried by spring 44 into contact with the head of the cartridge at the proper time. As appears clearly in Figs. 7 and 8, the spring portion 44 of the ejector 43 lies in a slot 44 cut down into strip 5" from bevelled face 45. The ejector 43 changes its section at the point where the spring portion 44 passes out of slot 44. Also a shoulder 44 is formed on block 31 at this point,

against which the ejector portion proper 43 thrusts when it has moved over into slot 46, and the ejector strikes the cartridge to throw it out. The rear end of spring 44 is rolled as at 44 to serve as a pin. As the parts move forward, the lug 47 (shown in Figs. 5 and 6) scoops up the cartridge out of the magazine and forces it into the explosion chamber in the barrelf In order to prevent bolt 10 from running back on the actuator when lug 47 strikes the cartridge in the top of the magazine, the outer ends of the trunnio'ns 14 are arranged torun in grooves in the sides of the receiver 3, as indicated at 14 in Fig. 5, also the forward ends of the cam grooves 15 in part 8 are preferably so formed that a little additional pressure is needed to inaugurate the collapsing of the bolt within the a tuator. As indicated in dotted lines at 14 in Fig. 5, the inner sides of receiver 3 are cut out on an arc at the place where the trunnions come at the time the head of the bolt is against .the breech. The bolt can thus readily turn to lock and unlock at the proper time. As

the bolt and the actuator go forward, the bolt is locked by a reverse operation to that described in the rearward movement. However, as the artuator goes forward, the lug 27 on the head of the firing pin catches on the blocks 32, the firing pin being thus detained and cocked against the action of the spring 20, from which position it must be released by the trigger, as previously described. it will be seen that, with the parts as just described, the detent 36 being so placed as to prevent the trigger 29 from moving so far as to bring its forward end more than just below the lugs 23% on the part 28, no other action than that described can be obtained, it being necessary for the trigger to be released and pulled again in order to obtain another shot. If the trigger is simply held back in its rearward position against the detent 3G nothing occurs, the trigger being entirely out of the way of the part 28. When, however, the trigger is released, the spring 48 throws it up, and, the forward arm of the trigger being split, (as shown in Fig. 8) the trigger now spreads and passes around the lugs 34 in returning to its normal position. The trigger can nbw be pulled to spread the blocks 32 and fire the gun again, as before described. To facilitate the action of trigger 29 in thus separating and passing around the lugs 34, the lower faces of the lugs 34 are bevelled to form a wedge, as shown at 49, and the upper faces of the split portion of the trigger are notched, as shown at 50 (see Figs. 10 and 11). I

hen now it is desired to use the rapid fire or full automatic action of the mechanism,the detent 36 is moved to one side out of the path of trigger 29 so that the front end of the trigger piece may assume its lowermost position, (as indicated in dotted lines in Fig. 2). When the trigger 29 is thus held down, the two halves of piece 28 remain spread apart and the blocks 32 are kept out of the path of the lug 27 so that the firing pin travels back and forth with the actuator 8 without being detained at any point in its travel. I find that the impact of the pin on the primer is sufliciently sharp under these circumstances to ensure the explosion of the primer.

In order to commencing operat ens to recock the piece in case of mien. I provide a knurled head or knob which has a shank 53 thereon projecting into the cavity 54, connecting with the one 18 in the actuator in which the head 17 of the firing pin operates.

' Shank 53 has a portion of rectangular section which slides on a track 56 formed in the receiver 3. The inner end of shank 53 carries a sleeve 57. the inner end of which has an eccentric pin 58 thereto projecting toward. the firing pm and normally lying adload and cock the piece when jacent the forward face of the head 17 on the firing pin when the latter is not cocked.

This position of pin 58 is clearly shown in Fig. 15, and also in dotted lines in Fig. 2. The sleeve 57 and head 52 are normally pressed inwardly by spring 59 which bears against an enlarged portion of the sleeve 57. It now it is desired to operate the actuator to load the cartridge chamber the user merely grasps the head 52 and pulls it back to the full extent of its travel and then allows it to move forward again to force the cartridge into place. This movement automatically cocks the firing pin in the manner ireviously described. In case of a misfire, owever, in order to cock the firing pin, the user merely pulls the head 52 outwardly a short distance against spring 59 and twists the head around. \Vhen the head arrives at the position 180 degrees from that shown in Fig. 15, the pin 58 has pressed the firing pin back into position where it will be caught and held by the blocks 32 being thus cocked. The head 52 is then returned to its original position. I also provide means for locking the firing pin either when'the bolt is closed or when the actuator and bolt are fully withdrawn from the breech, as in Fi 1. For this purpose, I provide slots suc as 60. one at each end of the track 56 and lying at right angles thereto. WVhen the head 4' 2 is at either end of the track, it may be twisted in an obvious manner so that the shoulder 61 which, normally runs between the two portions of the track 56, may slip down a small distance into one or the other of the slots 60, thus holding the pin 58 at a point 90 degrees from that; shown in Fig. 15. -\Vhen the parts are in this position, the actuator is locked against movement and the firing pincannot strike the primer even if the bolt is forward. The receiver is countersunk, as shown in 62, adjacent the transverse slot 60 to permit the ready turning of the head 52 at these points. The sleeve 57 is assembled on the shank 53 by connection illustrated in detail in Figs. 17 and 18. The sleeve has two interior webs such as 63, projecting from its inner face and leaving an aperture 64: (Fig. 18) between them, of substantially rectangular section. The end of the shank 53 is formed of a size and shape complemental to that of the aperture (S -l, so that the shank can be inserted into the sleeve beyond the webs 63. The shank is also turned off a short distance from its end. as indicated at 64, so that it can be turned between the webs 63, thus connecting the shank and the sleeve somewhat after the manner of the bayonet joint. The shank 53 is also squared off, as shown at 65, to form shoulders just inside of the head of'the shank which fit between the webs 57 outwardly so that these shoulders will fall between the webs, thus preventing accidental unlocking of the sleeve from the shank. Also, the head 52 is thus secured to the actuator 8.

The magazine 66 is normally fixed in position by arpin 67 formed on the front end of the block 31 which carries the trigger, the pin 67 projecting through an aperture in the piece 5, as shown in Fig. 2. The block 31 has a right angled slot 68 therein, into which is fitted a bridge-piece 69 which extends between the strips 5*. In assembling the parts, block 31 is passed down between strips 5 so that bridge-piece 69 enters the vertical section of slot 68 and the spring 48, previously mentioned in connection with thetrigger, then forces the block 31 forward so as to hold it in proper position with relation to the bridge-piece 69, and also so as to keep the projection 67 normally in position to lock the magazine. The projection 67 on the block 31 normally extends through an aperture in the forward part of piece 5 into a recess in the magazine. The magazine is so formed that it may be pressed into place simply by pushing it upward into the opening in the gun provided for this purpose. The magazine automatically interlocks with the projection 67 when it has reached its proper position. When it is desired to remove the magazine, the trigger 29 is pressed forward. It then comes in contact with the bridge-piece 69, forcing the block 31 rearward against spring. 48 and withdrawing the pin 67 so that the magazine may be removed.

Referring more particularly to the form of gun, illustrated in Figs. 20, 21, 22 and 22*, I have therein shown an arrangement in which the breech mechanism is actuated not only by force from the primer but also by the energy derived from the recoil by relative movement between the barrel and "receiver on the one hand and the stock on the other. The barrel and receiver 100 are mounted on bolts 101 and 102, the receiver being also guided by long flanges 103 which run in slots 104 in the sides of the central piece 105, which correspond to part 5 in the form of invention above described. The receiver and barrel are normally held in foremost position relative to the stock by means of leaf springs such as 106; thus the actuator, which is of the same general form and performs the same functions of the actuator 8, previously described, receives its acceleration not only from the rearward movement of the barrel and receiver due to the rearward movement of these parts on the bolts 101 and 102 at the time the cartridge explodes. owing to the actuator being pushed by the barrel but also by a movement of the actuator relatively to the re-' (-eirer produced by the primer. In this form of invention, however, I have shown a.

single spring 107, which not only restores the breech mechanism to position after having been thrown back by the explosion of the cartridge. but also serves to actuate the firing pin when released by the trigger. The use of a single sprin in this manner necessitates the modification of the actuator 108, as compared to actuator 8, and also modification of the rear end 109-of the firing pin, together with the means for cocking and releasing the pin. The rear end 109 of the firing in is shown in detail in Fig. 26. The firing pinhas a head 110 thereon, in which is mounted an irregularly. shaped piece 111, illustrated in detail in Fig. 23. The piece 111 comprises a vertical shank which lies in a slot 112, in the rear face ofv head 110, the slot 112 having one vertical face, the other of which is inclined, the slot enlarging downward. Part 111 has a cross-piece 113 on its forward face, the part 113 being curved and concave on its upper surface, complementally to an outward shoulder 114 extending forwardly from'the slot 112 and formed in the block 110 by a transverse slot 115 out in the block from its bottom. The ends such as 116 of the cross-piece 113 project out of the ends of the transverse slot 115, lying in grooves 117 in the actuator 108. The lower end of piece 111 extends below the block 110 so as to work in a slot 118 in the central block 118, corresponding to block 31 of Fig. 1. A- leaf spring 119 is carried by block 118 and so arranged that one end normally projects into the slot 118, as shown at 120. As the actuator and tiring pin move rearwardly, the lower end of piece 111 pushes the end 120 to one side, but, on the forward stroke of the actuator and firing pin, part 111 is detained by the spring at point 120. The actuator, however, continues to move forward as a result of its previously acquired momentum, the firing pin thus being pulled back to such a position that the ends 116 of cross-piece 113 come opposite a notch 121 out in the actuator above the level of the grooves 117. The spring 122 thereupon presses the piece 111 upwardly by acting on the lug 123, which lies in the hole 124 in the head 110. By this upward movement, due to spring 122, the piece 111 is released from its engagement with spring 119 and thereupon moves forward with the actuator in cocked position, being held cooked by the ends 116. The lower end of part 111 has a portion 125 designed to be engaged by the trigger. The trigger is made in two parts for purposes which will later appear, part 126 which engages the portion 125 extending forward from the pin 127 and having a lost motion connection with the finger-piece 128. The piece 126 has a hook part 129 which engages the part 125, so that, when the trigger is pulled back,

the part 111 is drawn down, releasing the ends 116 from engagement with the actuator and permitting the firing pin to move forward under influence of spring 107. The rearward movement of the finger-piece 128, and consequently the downward movement of hook 129, is limited during a single-shot firing by a projection 130. It now the user holds the trigger depressed, the hook 129 is in the path of the hook 125 when the parts move upwardly, but the two parts are enabled to pass each other by virtue of the fact that the hook 129 is bevelled and the part 111 is consequently pushed to one side in the slot 112, art 111 pivoting at its upper end. The ownward movement of the part 111 under the influence of the trigger is limited by a projection 131 at the upper end of part 111, which is designed to come in contact with a shoulder 132 within the slot 112.

When rapid fire action is now desired, the plate 133 which carries the projection 130, previously mentioned, is turned on its pivot 134 so that the finger-piece 128 also swings back into the position shown in dotted lines. When in this position, a rearward extension 135 on trigger part 126 contacts with the part 120 and moves it out of the way of the detaining piece 111 on the head of the firing pin so that the firing pin and actuator move forward together. This position of the plate 133 and the finger-piece 128 is maintained while the gun is out of use, thus avoiding the necessity for a trigger guard, the lower end of the finger-piece fitting into a notch 136 in the stock, the plate 133 being then turned on its axis 134 when the gun is out of use, so that it covers the trigger opening while its edge is holding the trigger in the slot or recess 136, the trigger then being in the position indicated in dotted lines in Fig. 20.

In this form of the invention, the magazine may be released in the same manner as previously described by forcing the trigger forward, this action being permitted in the form of trigger mechanism, shown in Fig. 20, by means of the lost motion connection previously referred to between parts 126 and 128, and clearly shown at 137 in Fig. 20.

In Fig. 28, I have illustrated a novel form of gas deflector, comprising a sleeve 150 on which is mounted a forward sight, the muzzle of the sleeve 150 being cut off at inclination with the line of fire, as shown at 151, and only the upper portion of the sleeve or deflector near the muzzle being given a slight deflection at right angles to the line of fire, as indicated at 152, to throw the gases downwardly when in action. The flash and gases from the muzzle are thus prevented with interfering with aiming the piece while the deflector may be much lighter and smaller than those previously 1n use.

In case it is desired to cool the barrel connection, according to my invention I may provide a cooling means comprising a series of rings such as 153, which may be shrunk or otherwise fitted to the barrel, each of the rings having a series of flanges such as 154 thereon, to assist in radiating heat from the barrel. In assembling the rings 153, I prefer to have the flanges 154 of one ring in staggered relation to the adjacent rings. However, I may also provide a long sleeve such as 155, designed to fit the barrel tightly and having heat radiating flanges 156 thereon, the sleeve being pinned to the barrel, as indicated at 157. The sleeve 155 and its flanges are hollow to permit the use of water within the sleeve, the convention currents in the water increasing the cooling effect. In both the forms shown in Figs. 29, 31 and 32, I prefer to make the cooling means of aluminum, as this metal is not only light but has good heat-conducting characteristics.

In transmitting the thrust from the primer to the actuator, I prefer to have the sleeve llor its equivalent project through the bolt, as previously described, into contact with the primer so as to obtain a direct thrust from the primer to the actuator. However, I may use the arrangement as shown in Fig. 27, to supplement the direct action. Piece 160 has a limited movement in the bolt 10 by virtue of the fact that flange 159 can move longitudinally of bolt 10 in slot or groove 160.

It will be seen that breech mechanism illustrated in either Fig. 1 or 20 may be actuated by a recoil movement of the barrel alone, by the action of the primer alone, or by the action of both together as desired. It will be understood, moreover, that the parts not specifically described in relation to Fig. 20 are the same as those described in connection with Fig. 1. While in general the power derived from the primer is suflicient to operate the mechanism, I believe it advisable in certain guns to supplement this action by the power obtainable from a recoil movement of the barrel in order that the breech may be sure to close in case the primer of any particular cartridge is not as powerful as the average, and in order to permit the user of the gun to hold the same somewhat loosely instead of quite rigidly, as is now necessary with automatic rifles. These two actions supple ment each other very well, the relatively limited recoil movement desirable when also utilizing power from the primer not requiring any change in the gun which adds materially to its weight or cost as compared to the primer alone. Moreover, the primer actuated gun and the combined primer and recoil actuated gun can 'be made much lighter neoaeve and cheaper than the full recoil actuated gun. However, my breech mechanism can be operated solely by the recoil of the barrel without substantial change. When the barrel and receiver are arranged to recoil, as described in connection with Fig. 20, an additional bolt 102 is necessary to hold the central bracket member 105, corresponding to member 5 in Fig. 1, securely in position. Bolt 102 is preferably placed at the forward lower corner of piece 105 and passes transversely through the stock and bracket 105 at this point. It will be seen, moreover, that in the form of gun illustrated in Fig. 20, it is important that the bolts such as 101 and 102 benot tightened so much as to cause undue friction between the receiver flanges 10a and the grooves in strips 105, which form part of piece 105.

In the form of the invention shown in Fig. 20, the spring, such as &8, which acts both to throw the trigger forward and to hold the block 31 forward thrusts at its forward end directly against a depending lug 135*, fixed to part 135 of the trig er. In the form of the invention illustrate in Fig. 1, however, the spring 48 thrusts against a shoulder 31 in the block 31, ex cept when the trigger 29 is pulled back to rearward of this shoulder. The, central bracket pieces 5 and 105 both have a part of upstanding spaced shoulders, such as 200, at their rear upper corners,-these shoulders having grooves 201 therein adapted to receive the rear sight (not shown). The rear sight may be conveniently elevated or depressed by sl-iding it along grooves 201. It will be seen that my breech mechanism is very simple and that I eliminate the detaining of the firing pin when the gun is operated rapid-fire, while obtaining a reliable single shot action whenever it is desired to operate in this manner.

It will be seen, moreover, that the trig ger mechanism illustrated in Fig. 20 may be used in whole or in part in the form of invention shown in Fig. 1, but the preferred arrangement of my invention is to use the mechanism, as illustrated and described in connection with Fig. 1, although the arrangement for obviating the use of a trigger guard I expect to use largely.

In the arrangement of Fig. 27, the bolt is grooved out as shown at 158 to receive the enlarged end 159 of a cylindrical piece 160. Piece 160 is of the same outside diameter as the primer and rests against the primer at one end. The other end of piece. 160 rests against a shoulder 158 on sleeve 11. corresponding to sleeve 11 in Fig. 1.

The primer is thus supported over its entire face and any loss of power prevented,

which might otherwise occur owing to the spreading of the primer around the end of sleem 11*, as might occur in case of sleeve 11 (Fig.- 1) owing to the fact that the counterbore 37 is not filled. Piece 160 is assembled in the bolt by making two crossed slots (not shown) in its larger end and compressing the larger end so that it can be inserted. When enlargement 159 reaches groove 158, it snaps into place.

It will be seen that the actuators 8 and 108 are both cut away on their front faces,

as shown at 8 and 108* respectively. so

that the actuators may {pass the lugs on the receiver, and the lugs on the bolt while the bolt is being locked. Owing to cutting away the actuators in this manner, the front at both top and bottom is brought in direct firm contact with the barrel and front of the receiver, in which position it receives the full force of th recoil of barrel and receiver. Also, the actuator can extend farther forward at the bottom, thus obtaining more bearing on its bottom and permitting the receiver to be shorter than would otherwise be the case. It will be seen, moreover, that the front end of the actuator strikes against the front end of the receiver while the rear end of the bolt strikes in the bottom of a recess in'the actuator at the same time that the trunnions of the bolt strike the rear end of the cam grooves in the actuator. A blow on the trunnions at the forward end of the movement of the actuator is thus prevented.

While I have shown and described the best forms of apparatus known to me for carrying out the objects of my invention, I do not wish to be limited to the specific form or arrangement of parts herein shown or described, except in so far as such form or arrangement may be essential to the validity of the appended claims.

Having thus described my invention, I claim:

1. A gun of the class described comprising in combination, an automatically operable breech mechanism including a traversing weight carrying a bolt and firing pin which receives power by direct contact with the primer at the time of discharge.

2. A gun of the class described comprising breech mechanism, a barrel mounted to recoil upon discharge of the gun, means whereby the primer may move in the carmally operable trigger whereby said firing pin may be released when desired from sa d cocking means, to obtain a single shot action, and means whereby said trigger may be moved to disable said detaining means to obtain a rapid fire action.

4. A gun of the class described comprising breech mechanism, including a traversing weight carrying a bolt and a firing pin which receives power by direct contact with the primer at the time of discharge, of means for detaining said pin relatively to the said weight while the'weight is moving in one direction, and single trigger means whereby said detaining means may be disabled at will to obtain a rapid fire action.

5. A gun of the class described comprising in combination, breech mechanism including a traversing weight carying a bolt and a firing pin impelled by direct thrust from the primer, a two step sear for detaining said pin relatively to said weight while the weight is moving in one direction, 1 a single trigger mechanism having two positions, and means whereby the trigger of said mechanism disables said detaining means when the trigger is in one of its po sitions.

9 6. A gun of the class described comprising in combination, an automatically operable breech mechanism, including a traversing weight carrying a bolt and firing pin which receives power by direct contact with 5 the primer at the time of discharge, said bolt locking the cartridge in place, said weight having a central part extending through and forming a bearing for the bolt and contacting with the primer at the time of discharge, so as to transmit energy from the primer.

7. A gun of the class described, comprising an automatic breech mechanism including an actuator; a bolt carried on said i actuator and a combined starting, cocking and locking means within said actuator.

8. A gun of the class described comprising in combination, a receiver, transverse bolts on which said receiver may move to l a limited extent, and a fixed central menber having a groove and flange connection with said receiver.

9. A gun of the class described, comprising in combination a receiver having inwardly projecting flanges, an ejector, trigger mechanism and a central member secured to the stock and having a groove and flange connection with inner edges of said receiver flanges, said ejector and trigger mechanism being mounted on said member.

10. The combination in a gun of a stock and a trigger mounted thereon, said stock having an opening therein capable of re ceiving said trigger, mounting means for said trigger adapted to permit said trigger being moved substantially wholly within the stock, and means whereby said opening may be covered when the trigger is within the stock.

11. A gun of the kind described, comprising in combination a stock, a block removably mounted in said stock, a trigger mounted on said block, means normally retaining said block in said stock, and means whereby said block may be released upon moving said trigger forward from its neutral position.

12. A gun of the kind described, comprising in combination a stock, a central piece fixed to said stock and having two spaced strips lying on opposite sides of the centre line of the gun, a cross-bar between said strips, a block releasably held on said cross bar, a trigger pivoted on said block, and means operable upon moving said trigger in one direction whereby said block may be released.

13. A gun of the class described in combination, a receiver slotted along its lower face and having re-entrant flanges forming the edges of the slot, means for supporting the free edges of said flanges, said means lying between said edges and defining a space between itself and the inner surface of said receiver, and an actuator mounted to slide over said flanges in said space.

14. In a gun of the class described in combination, a central bracket member, a receiver slotted along its lower face and having reentrant flanges forming the edges of the slot, said central member supporting the inner edges of said flanges and defining a space between itself and the inner face of said receiver, and a traversing actuator having a portion resting on said flanges within said space.

15. A traversing actuator or weight, the forward end of which is reduced and adapted to carry a bolt within itself bearing on and slideable on said reduced central part and having opposite spiral openings through both sides to permit said actuator to go to its forward position and turn the said bolt, and recesses in front to receive the lugs of the bolt and the receiver the lugs of the bolt being free to turn on the lugs of the receiver.

16. In a gun in combination, a receiver having inwardly projecting flanges, a central member between said flanges adapted to support a trigger mechanism, a magazine between said flanges forward of said mem her, and an actuator arranged to travel over said magazine and central member and having overhanging walls mounted to slide over said flanges.

17. In a gun, an actuator, a firing pin thereon having a head, said actuator having means within the actuator for enclosing the head of the firing pin within itself, and

means for contacting said head of firing pin with a recocking member.

18. The combination of an actuator having spiral slots therein, a bolt mounted to slide and rotate in said actuator and having opposite trunnions adapted to turn in the actuator spirals, said bolt being arranged to engage the actuator thereby preventing the backward thrust of the bolt from falling on the trunnions.

19. In a gun, the combination of traversing breech mechanism comprising a bolt, having a dovetail groove in its forward face, an extractor mounted in said groove limited in its downward movement by shoulders in said groove and having its outer face substantially flush with that of said bolt, said bolt having a transverse groove near its front end, and a spring having a coiled portion in said transverse groove and pressing on said extractor.

20. The combination of an actuator having spiral slots therein a. bolt mounted to slide and rotate in said actuator and having trunnions adapted to turn in said actuator spirals, and a receiver covering sai actuator and having grooves on the inside to form a track for the bolt trunnions.

21. In a gun the combination an actuator, a starting piece within said actuator and a receiver having an opening forming a passage for said starting piece, said receiver having means at both ends of said opening permitting simultaneous retraction and turning to locking the said piece on said receiver at both ends of said opening.

22. A fire arm comprising in combination a. receiver, automatic breech mechanism mounted within said receiver and comprising a main spring, said receiver having a trigger carrying bracket adapted to carry and take the thrust of the main spring, to close the rear end of the receiver and to form a bottom wall for the main spring, a trigger block, and a rear sight, said bracket also carrying said trigger block and having walls and having inner slanting grooves for gradual elevation of said-sight.

. 23. In a fire arm in combination, a slid.- able block, a trigger mounted thereon, a magazine with which said block is adapted to engage, and a spring acting directly on said trigger and thrusting said block forward to engage with said magazine.

24. In a fire arm in combination, a firing in, a magazine, a trigger, and means whereby said trigger may either release the firing pin from cocked position or release 1e magazine as desired.

25. In a fire arm in combinatioma magazine, a slidab-le block having a catch thereon normally holding the magazine in posi tion, a trigger member on said block, normally fixed bracket in Which said block is mounted, and a transverse member on said bracket arranged to contact with-the trigger when the latter is thrown forward whereby the block is retracted to release the magazine.

26. In agun of the class described, "an

actuator a bolt and a firing pin'carried thereon, means for detaining said bolt and pin relatively to the said actuator a sear, and a releasable catch integral with the sear carried on said pin for holding the pin in retracted position relatively to said actuator. v

27. In a gun of the class described, an actuator a bolt and a firing pin carried .thereon, means for detaining said bolt and pin relatively to said actuator a scar, and a releasable catch integral with the sear carried on said pin and bearing directly on said ac- 1 pin relatively to said actuator, and a single member comprising a combined retaining catch and releasing sear mounted on said pin and bearing directly on said actuator to hold the pin in retracted position and the sear in firing position.

29. In a gun of the class described, an actuator, a firing pin mounted on said actuator, a detaining means in the path of said pin, comprising a pair of members yieldingly pressed together, and trigger means whereby said members may be separated to release said pin.

30. In a gun, an actuator, a firing pin mounted on said actuator, detaining means for said pin comprising a pair of members yieldingly pressed together, and trigger means whereby said members may be separated either once for each shot or once for a plurality of shots, as desired.

'31. In a gun of the class described, in

combination, a firing pin, detaining means comprising a palr of leaves yleldingly pressed toward each other and having a pair of projecting lugs thereon, a trigger having a split end adapted to spread said lugs on its downward movement and to itself spread and pass around said lugs on its upward movement. 11'.

32. In a gun in combination, a releasable block, a trigger mounted thereon, and means affording a fulcrum for said trigger said trigger having a finger portion which. acts as a lever in releasing said blockk 33. In a fire-arm in combination, a firing pin, a trigger mechanism for holding and. releasing said firing pin, said mechanism ineluding a trigger, a stock in which said mechanism is mounted and which is adapted,

to receive substantiallyall of said trigger, and a trigger stop, said stop adapted to hold said trigger within said stock.

34. In a fire-arm in combination, a trigger mechanism including a trigger, a stock in which said mechanism is mounted and which is adapted to receive substantially all'of said trigger, means for mounting said trigger permitting it to be swung within said stock, and a trigger stop, said stop being adapted to hold said trigger within said stock.

35. In combination, a starting piece, a firing pin, and a receiver, saidreceiver having an opening to form a track for the starting piece and also having means at both ends of said opening permitting turning and lock-' ing said piece, said piece having means thereon whereby said pin may be locked against firing at either end of said opening.

36. A traversing actuator having a reduced forward portion a bolt within said v actuator having lugs and trunnions, said reducedportion extending through and forming a bearing for said bolt, spiral openings' within the walls of said actuator in which said trunnions travel, a receiver, lugs and recess on the forward end of the actuator into which the said receiver and bolt lugs are adapted to pass, said lugsbeing arranged to lock on each other by turning of 30 said bolt.

JOHN T. KEWISH.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2892385 *Aug 29, 1956Jun 30, 1959Macdonald John LCartridge positioning cam for automatic revolver guns
US3648562 *Apr 28, 1970Mar 14, 1972Loeble August FSafety cam pin assembly
US3651736 *Jun 11, 1969Mar 28, 1972Ingram Gordon BBolt handle and pistol grip magazine for an automatic firearm
US4579034 *Sep 15, 1983Apr 1, 1986Holloway Robert CBolt assembly and cartridge feed mechanism for automatic firearm
US7886470Feb 15, 2011Doiron Gerald JBolt assembly for a firearm
Classifications
U.S. Classification89/140, 42/75.2, 89/172, 42/18, 89/141, 42/69.2, 89/179, 89/159
International ClassificationF41A19/00, F41A3/26, F41A19/31, F41A15/00, F41A15/12, F41A5/00, F41A5/24, F41A21/24, F41A21/00, F41A19/33, F41A3/00
Cooperative ClassificationF41A15/12, F41A5/24, F41A21/24, F41A19/33, F41A19/31, F41A3/26
European ClassificationF41A5/24, F41A19/31, F41A21/24, F41A19/33, F41A3/26, F41A15/12