US 1509929 A
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Sept. 30 1924. 1,509,929
- A. c. CABALLERO CRYPTOGRAPHIC APPARATUS Filed Sept. :21 1929 2 sheetswshut 1 v Uni 1'5 kin/Emmi:
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A. C. CABALLERO CRYPTOGRAPHIC APPARATUS Filed Sept. 21 1920 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 IN VEN TOR ATTORNEYS Patented Sept. 30, 1924.,
- STATE rarest seaeze rsice.
. ARMANDO' o. CABALLERO, or new YORK, N. Y, ASSIGNOR 'ro THE umvnnsan 001 me SYSTEM co. LTD, or VALPARAISO, C LE. A conron-nrron or CHILE.
Application filed September 21, 1920. Serial No. 411,700.
T aZZ whom it may concern: r Be it known that I, ARMANDo GLCABAL' LERO, a citizen of the Republic of Chile, and
a resident of New York city, .in the county and. State of New York, haveinvented certain new and useful Improvements in Cryptographic Apparatus, of which the following is a specification. My invention relates to a cryptographic the .production of such an apparatus, which is simpler and easy to use, certai1ra1idaccurate in its results and which ensures secrecy, rapidityand increased economy in .to any telegraphic code in any language, and serving to transform old code words into more concise and otherwise better code words and to enrich the vocabulary in any code. r r
My invention more specifically relates to the method of cryptography whereby a. code number (which may correspond in one of the codes to a given message) of a certain numher of digits, fivefor example, may be trans formed or translatedinto anartificial word of fewer letters or other signs, for example, four inthe case of a number with five digits two of which may be consonants and two vowels, the consonants. and vowels always formingsyllables; and the invention comprises apparatus which may assume many different forms, to facilitate suchi vtranslation. t jiVith my invention, two numbers of five digits each, for example, may be transformed or translated into an artificial word of eight letters, for example, containing four consonants and tour vowels, an extra check- 40 ing sylable being added, forming altogether a word of ten syllables. The saidextra sylable is a checker a controlby which it may be determined whether the numbers represented by the eightpreceding letters have been correctly translated or whether there has been any alteration in the transmission.
Qther features and advantages ofmy invention will appear more fully in the 01 apparatus, and has fol-its principal object the transmission of messages, being. adapted lowing detailed description and appended clai1ns.-.
.In order that the invention may be clearly understood, attention is hereby directed to the accompanying drawings forminga part ofthis inventionand in which Figure .1 is a )view in elevation of one form of apparatus embodying my invention:
.iFig l isa like view of the same but arranged for a difierent key; and
Fig. 2 is a section thereof taken on. line 2-2 of Fig. 1.
Fig. 3 is a View inelevation of a modification. f i
Fig. Lis a section of the latter on line d4 of Fig. 3. i Referring to the drawings, there are four sectors or quadrants marked at. their inner iportions with lettersSg, Md, Sp, and At,the sectors being separatedby the lines 1, 2, 3 and 4;.
Each sector contains five parts or subd visions markedA, B, C, D and E. The part or subdlv slon A is subdivlded into a number of equal portionseach of sion (1 is likewise subdivided, each subdivision containing a number formed of two dlgits. The numbers 111 subdivision C represent the thousands in the code numher.
The partsD and E contain subdivisions corresponding to the subdivisions in the columns A, Band C, the subdirisions of part D containing vowels and the sub-divisions of part E containing numbers formed of two digits. Thepart or. subdivision E i represents the tens and units? of the code number. As shown, thevanous parts A,
B C, D and Bare subdividedby radial lines:
the said parts being in the form of concentric rings. r r 1 The indications Sg, Md, Sp and At, Spanish abbreviations for.Following (Seguido), Middle (Medic), fSeparated (Separasonant.
AKXA; and At will indicate the arrangement AXAX.
In use, the first consonants of the word will be found below or-inwardly of the thousands of the number as shown by the part or subdivision C. The second consoname will be found immediately above'or outwardly of the hundreds of'the number as shown'in subdivision A, and if the riumher contains neither thousands nor hundreds it will be treated as if the thousands and hundreds nished with zeros.
The first vowel will be found immediately below or inwardly of the tens.and units of' the number as shown in the part or subdivision E. The second vowel will be found in the part or subdivision D directly above or outwardly of the'figure representing the hundreds of the number in part or subdivision A. r I
When the exact thousands is not shown or contained in part or subdivision C the first consonant is determined by taking the next smaller number of thousands in the subdivision C to determine the first consonant, the thousands remaining being associated with the hundreds by being placed before the same in the determination of the second consonant.
' Where the exact tens and units are not found in the part or subdivision E the places were furnext smaller number inthis part or subdi-.
vision is taken to determine the first vowel; and the difference between the tens and units of the number being translated and of the number selected in the part or subdivision E will indicate the number in the part or subdivisim A for locating directly outwardly of the same the second vowel.
The collocation of the vowels and conson-ants will be determined from the notations Sg, Md, Sp and At which occur in' the sector in which the tens and units of the numher being translated are. found. In instances wherethetens and units found in subdivision E' are not the precise tens and units of the number but the nearest lower tens and units, the collocation is still determined by the sector containing the Ftens and units found, that is, the sector of the first vowel.
Applying the invention to a transmission of a secret message let us take for example,
the message-Throwingout covered cargo went agroundfover her anchors. This message 1s represented in code by figures and ordinary code words, as follows:
lVith my invention, the message as expressed in numbers is translated into one word FACIOLlVOTA-hn the following manner, the word or letters FAG-I cor-respending with the number 08208, the word or lettersOlflVOcorrespondin to the numr 1 7 an he letters Ti giving. the control or check. By the addition of'words formed in the same way as FACT and OLl/V'O to a code, a material increase in the vocabulary of the code may be made;
Referring to part or subdivision C, the thousands 08- indicate the first consonant F. The 2, the hundreds inpart or subdivision A indicateG, as the second consonant. The 08 representing tens and units is not found in part or subdivision E so that the next lesser number in said subdivision is taken, to wit O5 to indicate the first vowel. This vowel in this case is A. To determine the-second vowel the 05 used to locate the first vowel is subtracted from 08 which represents the actual number of the actual tens and units in the number translated, which gives 3 as the numeral inpart or subdivision A for locating the second vowel; This numeral indicates the vowel I. As the tens and units 08 are found in the sector or quadrant which is marked Sg the vowels should follow the consonants and accordinglythe word corresponding to the number 08208 is found to be'the word FACT. By reference to the foregoingdescription, it can be easily ascertained thatthe word corresponding to the number 19874 is OLWO. Referring to part or subdivision G, the next smaller number of thousands (18) indicates the first consonantL. The remaining thousand when associated with the hundreds gives 18 hundred which, referring to subdivision- A, gives -YV' as: the second consonant. Referring to the subdivision E, the next smaller number of tens and units gives -()'for the first vowel and Sp (separated) for the collocation. 'The remaining units (4), referring to subdivision A, give O' for the second vowel; The word corresponding to 19.874 is accordingly OLWO.
To. determine: the checkingv letters the second number is written immediately after halves, leaving 1 the first number and the resulting number is decomposed into numbers each comprising two digits by spacing ofi two digits ata time beginning at the left hand end of the resulting numben, y
These numbers comprising each two digits are added together and from tl1etens. and units of the sum a consonant andvowel are determined, the exact or next lower tens andfunits in subdivision E determining the consonant and the remaining units in subdivision A determining the vowel. In the case in question we have 08+20+81+98 +74cz28l. 80, the next lower tens and units in part or subdivision E indicates the consonant T and the remaining 1 in part or subdivision A indicates the vowel A. The checking syllable is accordingly TA so that the complete word into which the numbers are translated is F ACIOLWOTA.
Translation of a message,
. The final or check letters areseparated and the remaining eight letters are. dividedinto FACI-OLWO TA Reversing the process explained above, E, 1st consonant, equals 08 thousands. C, 2nd consonant, equals 2 hundreds.
The first vowel is found in the quadrant Sg, as shown by the arrangementof consonants and vowels, so that A, 1st vowel, equals 05 tens and units and a 1, 2nd vowel, equals 3 units (subdivi sion A) The first number is accordingly 08208, obtained by associating the thousands, hundreds, tens and units into onenumber, the
units being added to the tens and units.
Similarly the second number is found. to
be 19874: as follows:
L, first consonant, equals 18 thousands.
W, second consonant, equals 18 hundreds.
The first vowel isfound in quadrant sp. as shown by the arrangement of consonants and vowels, sothat O, first vowel, equals tens and units! O, second vowel, equals 4: units.
As the maximum difierence between consecutive tens and, units in subdivision E is -5-, the units for thesecond vowel must be less than 5 and lable, as described above. If the checking letters are found by the receiver to be the same as the final letters of the message it is must be in the quadrant ,proven that the message is received as sent.
D, E and one central disk A concentric therewith. These rings B, C, D, E and the disk A contain the data already described in connection with the parts or subdivisions bearingthe same reference letters.
One of the principal objects of this apparatus is to facilitate the changing of the key, which is done by rearranging the rela* tive positions of the difi'erent parts A, B, C; D, and E among themselves, according to the combination which itis desired to agree upon between two correspondents. In this manner, it is possible to translate the same number into distinct words, as varied as the keys which it is desired to agree upon, the apparatus affording a considerable number of changes. i
i The apparatus of Fig. 1 corresponds, to the system whose key is: 05-A-02B--1, thesebeing in radial alinement.
The key may be varied, as desired, to maintain the greatest possible secrecy. As shown, the disk A hasarms 5, 6, 7, 8 arranged at right angles to each other and containing the quadrant defining lines 1, 2,
tions 11, 12, 13 and 14:, respectively to facilitate shifting of any one or more of the rings. The arms 5 6, 7 and S bear upon the said rings and tend to hold the same in position when the disk A is secured inposition.
I shall now explain with a practical example transmitting with the apparatus described abovetwelvedigits in a perfectly legible word of ten letters, which amply fulfills cable conditions, and moreover has a check or verification. i
Take, for exampleflzhe l/Vestern Union codebase or key :-45U36 H-1. (See Fig. 1 i i Commercial House Western signification. With my system. Code number. Code word.
157071 Vuloatuis Ontarie (Ontario) 7 i 138969 Fapujaria 1 116x534 2 HAASVORIOW.
To send the code number; of the telegram when the digits, as in this case, are six to each word, one works asfollows:
From each numberis subtracted a suf ficiently large amount to bring the number within therange of the apparatus. In thls Proof o1 First telegram. Second telegram. check 157077 138969 (15) 7 -12000u 4120000 7 7 (13) 3707 7correspond- 18969correspond- 8 9 ing tomy Word ing to my word 6 9 HAAS. VQRI.
Wei-a which results- (HAASVORIOVV).
In deriving the word I-IAAS: 36 thousands, referring to subdivision G, give Fig. 1 -I asthe first consonant; 10 hundreds, referring to subdivision A, give S-.- as thes'econd'consonant; 7 5 tens and units, referring to subdivision E, gives -A for the first vowel and Md (middle); for, the collocation; the remaining 2, units, referring to subdivision A, give -A as the second vowel.
In deriving the word VOBI: l8 thousands give V-- as the first consonant; 9 hundreds give -.R as the second consonant; 65 tens and units give O:- as the first vowel and Sg- (following) as the collocation; 4 remaining units give --.I- as the second vowel.
As to the check, the addition above give O5 tens and units. Referring to subdivision -.E"-*, these tens and units give VV as the consonant.- There being no remaining units, subdivision A indicates O for-the vowel.
, I indicatethe control or check of the same telegram with thevowehplaced before the consonant, whereas for a number below 40,000 it is placed after. the consonant. In
' the check, the entire tens and hundred thousandsof each number are considered as one digit and are added in-the column in which the number would have been placed had it contained one digit. Thus inthe above example thenumber 157077138969 is divided (15)7 07 7 (.13) 89 69 as indicated above, the sum being 405. The 4 is dropped and the number 05 in tens and units gives 0 W for the check. In the, receipt of the message, the arrangement of letters in the final syllable shows a subtraction w/as originally made, the vowel being placed before the consonant; The number to be subtracted is agreed upon in advance when: the code used has. more code numbers than the apparatus, in this particular case in question 40,000. i
In Figs. 8 and 4, I have shown a modification of my invention employing 5 concentric rings A, B, C, D, E, each movable relatively to the other upon the base The expression At, Sg, Md, Sp, designating the collocation of' consonants and vowels, are
placed on thebasew. This structure allows adjustment of all therings relatively to the base, and an increased: number of changes of key may be therefore obtained. The rings may be held in placeby the armso, 6' 7, and=8 similarly as the arms 5, 6, 7 and 8 of Figs. 1 and 2 hold'the corresponding ringsin place.
Having thus describedmy invention, what I claim and" desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United States is:
'1. Inapparatus of the class described, a device having subdivisions corresponding respectively to certain collocations of signs and having other subdivisions containing signs and figures for translating a number into signs and vice versa.
' 2. In apparatus of the class described, a device having sector shaped subdivisions corresponding respectively to certain col locations of, letters andhaving within said subdivisions other subdivisions containing letters an'dfiguresfor translatinga number into the letters of a word, and vice versa.
3 In apparatus of the class described, a device having sectorshaped subdivisions corresponding respectively to certain col locations of; letters. and having within said subdivisions arcuate subdivisions, one of which contains vowels, another consonants, and others digits or combinations of digits, whereby a number maybe translated into a legible word, and vice versa.
4-. In apparatus of the class described, a device having subdivisions cor-responding respectively to certain collocations of consonants and vowels, and having within said subdivisions parts orsubdivisions, one of which contains vowels, another consonants, and othersnumerals representative respectively of thousands, hundreds, and tens and units of a. number. i
5.. In apparatus of: the class. described, a device having sector shaped subdivisions corresponding respectively to certain collocations: of consonants and vowels, and having-within said subdivisions arcuate parts or subdivisions, one of which contains vowels, another consonants, and others numerals representative respectively of thou.- sands, hundreds, and tens and units of a number.
' 6. "A device having parts, one of' which contains vowels, another consonants, and others sets of digits or combinationsof digits whereby a number may be; translated into a legible word, and vice versa, there being separate partscorresponding to certain decimal positions in the number to be separately transformed.
' 7. A device having parts, one of which contains vowels, another consonants, and others digits or combinations. of" digits wherebya number'may be translated into a leg ee d, and vi e er t e e bein separate parts corresponding to certain dec imal positions in the number to be separately transformed, one of said parts being movable relatively to the rest to change the key of the apparatus.
, 8. device having parts, one of which contains vowels, another consonants, and
others digits or combinations of digits whereby a number may be translatedinto a legible Word, and vice versa, there being separate parts corresponding to certain decimal positions in the number to be separately transformed, each of said parts being movable relatively to- Qevery other subdivision to change the key of the apparatus. 9. In apparatus of theclass described, a device having subdivisions corresponding respectively to certain collocationsof consonants and vowels, and having within said subdivisions parts or subdivisions, one of which contains vowels, another consonants, andothers numerals representative .respec' tively oi thousands, hundreds, and tensand units of a number, each of said parts being movable relatively to every other of said parts to change the key of the apparatus. 10. The combination of a base, having a plurality of concentric members movably mounted thereon, one of said members con taining vowels, another consonants, and a plurality of other members containing numerals representative respectively, of thousands, hundreds, and tens and units.
11.. The combination of a base, having a plurality of concentric members movably mounted thereon, one of said members containing vowels, another consonants, and others numerals representative respectively of thousands, hundreds, and tens and units, oneof said members containing subdivisions corresponding respectively to certain ,COllOCfttlOllS of vowels and consonants.
means for securing said members in position on said base.
In testimony whereof, I have signed by name to this specification.
ARMANDO C. CABALLERO. i