US 1512598 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Oct. 21 19,24. 1,512,598
' e. w: R. HARRIMAN GEOGRAPHICAL COMPILATION Original Filed June 23 1916 2 Sheets-Sheet l Rmuse. 5&9. A
HARRIMAN S MUM GEOGRPHY I S [D g 6 /Q A. \wrmma fiaewseNfikkmmwm Patented Oct. 21, 1924.
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
Original application filed June 23, 1916, Serial No. 105,524. Divided. and this application filed December To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, GEORGE W. R. I'IAR minus, a citizen of the United States, residing at Malden, in the county of Middlesex and State of Massachusetts, have invented new and useful Improvementsin Geographical Compilations, of which the following is a specification.
The present invention relates to a geographical compilation and is particularly designed to present in condensed tabular form, in combination with a map of an area of territory, an index of the localities existing in the territory represented by such map; together with other information if de sired; and all arranged in a manner convenient for correlation of the index with the map, and of other charts, delineators or tables with one another.
More particularly the subject of the present application is the folder or compilation shown and described in my prior application filed June 23, 1916, Serial No. 105,524. on which Patent No. 1,362,939 was granted Dec. 21, 1920, of which application the present one is a division.
In the drawings forming apart of this application,
Figure 1 is a View showing the opposite faces of the sheet from which the folder is made, prior to being folded.
Figure 2 is a perspective view of the folder or pamphlet properly assembled and having its leaves out apart at the folds.
Figure 3 is a. perspective view of the folder showing the means by which the index may be brought into mechanical correlation with the map or other charts or delineators contained in. the folder.
Figure t is a perspective view of the folder opened wide showing two of the related charts which then appear side byside.
Figurefi is a perspective view of the folder in the closed and redoubled condition into which it may be folded for convenience in being carried by the possessor.
Figure 6 is a perspective view illustrating the use of a screen for finding the location on the map of specific localities. I
Figure 7 is a fragmentary representation on an enlarged scale of the index. of place Serial No. 431,644.
names shown in Figures 1, 2 and 3 with identifying and distinguishing symbols applied adjacent thereto according to this invention, and Fig. 8 is a diagram showing the principles of means for presenting statistical information.
The same're-ference characters indicate the same parts in all the figures.
The device which I am about to describe is called a folder because it is so made that it can be doubled or folded, as shown in Figure 5, into a form and size adapting it to be slipped into a pocket of thepossessor and otherwise to be conveniently handled and filed away. Essentially, however, it is a combination of a map and an index having a special relation to one another as pointed out herein and in the following claims, wherefore the term folder is not to be construed with any more restricted meaning than is required by the essential character of the novel invention.
Preferably the territory to which the information contained in any one folder relates is that represented by a map of the character of my atlas unit defined in my parent application aforesaid and previously disclosed in my Patent No 1,192,829 dated July 25, 1916,
of which patent said parent application is a l division.
Said atlas unit is a quadrangle bounded by meridians of longitude and parallels of latitude and is subdivided into equal areas on similar lines of closer spacing. Eventually the ultimate subdivisions are quadrangles, each the one thousandth part of the area of the atlas unit; and such ultimate subdivisions are designated index squares. Preferably the dimensions of the atlas unit are 2 of longitude in length and 1 of latitude in width, and the index squares are 3 in both length and breadth. Such dimensions make the areas of the index squares roughly commensurate with the areas of towns and villages; that is, so small that two villages would rarely, if ever, be found in the same index square. Thus by appropriating exclusive symbols to the individual in deX squares on an atlas unit, a compact means is provided for indexing all places existing in the area depicted on the atlas unit, whereby an index of all such localities, correlating their names with their location symbols, may be compactly arranged In the particular instance here shown the folder carries upon the right hand half of its first page an index A and on its fifth page an atlas unit map C. In the index are contained in any convenient logical arrangement, preferably in alphabetical order and in parallel columns, the place names of all localities existing in the area shown by the map C, or so many names as it is desired to contain in a folder, and opposite each name the symbol of the index square where it is to be found in the map, as shown in the en larged representation of the index in Fig. 7.
The leaves of the folder are hinged to-- gether on the line a, Figure 3, and are adapted to be folded double half way between the hinge and their outer edges along the line I) shown in Figures 2 and 3. Thereby when the folder is spread open and the first page is doubled over toward the page carrying the ma the index is brou 'ht directl on aosite the left hand end of the map in position for the most convenient and ready reference from one to the other.
The folder may also be closed, then folded double as to all of its leaves'on the line I) and then redoubled on line 0 to make a compact bundle as shown in Figure 5.
rovision is made for continuing the index, in case the list of names is greater than can be accommodated in the space shown at A, on the space A on the outer half of the second page. Thereby the continuation of the index may be brought into position op"- posite the map by turning the first leaf out into the fully spread open position from that shown in Figure 3 without so turning the intermediate leaf, and then, if desired, doubling back the parts of the first and second leaves intervening between the continuation of the index and the map.
It is not indispensable that the map be upon the fifth page of the folder, since it may be upon any other odd numbered page (the index being also on an odd numbered page); that is, so related to the index that the latter may be brought, by folding of the page on which it is printed, into substantially the above described uxtaposition with the map.
Other information may be carried by the same folder, such as a route chart D (disclosed and claimed in my parent application Serial No. 105,52d), on the fourth page, that is, preferably on the page facing the atlas unit map C, in cases where the route chart refers to the same territory shown in the atlas unit map.
In the particular folder here represented there is shown on the third page a map B of the political unit (as a state or country) of which the territory shown in the atlas unit map is a part, and tables B and 13* of transportation systems and means existing in the territory; on the sixth page tables E, E of tide, rainfall, or other natural phenomena characteristic of the territory concerned; on the seventh page a chart F of the lakes, rivers, Seacoast, etc. of the territory; or other information of any desired char acter.
The particular nature of the atlas unit, with its subdivisions and identifying synr bols, is not of the essence of the present invention, but is claimed in my original parem: Patent No. 1,192,829 aforesaid, wherefore the particular invention which I here claim is not restricted to any specific character of map or chart, or S 111l30lS. It is concerned with the novel characteristics of the folder as a means for presenting correlated infor mation regarding localities, by means of the map showing such localities and the index of their names with informative matter concerning them, in position, manner and an rangement to facilitate cross references.
Figure 6 illustrates in connection with a fragment of the page showing the atlas unit, a transparent screen G divided oil into areas equal to the index square areas of the map and bearing the identifying symbols of the respective index squares. By placing this screen properly upon the map, the sunbols carried by the screen identify the index square areas of the map; and conversely the index symbols of place points re nrcsentcd on the map are indicated by viewing such place points through the screen, wherefore the use of this screen makes it unnecessary to delimit the index squares by lines actually drawn on the map. The particular screen here depicted is a quadrangle equal in are-.1 and dimensions to one tenth of the area of the map and is divided into one hundred in- .dex squares. Its use is illustrated by placement over the fifth one of ten equal areas laid off on the map. The place point g on the map which comes under square No. 48 of the screen is thereby shown to have as its index symbol the number 54-8, since it lies in square 48 of area number 5. This on planation is given by way of illustration of the preferred nature of the index symbols which are applied upon the index A opposite the names of the localities which appear on the map. It will. be thus understood that each actual existing locality of enough i1nportance to have a name is identified in exact terms and its location on the map is read ily found. Each symbol represents a definite position on the earths surface and applies exclusively to the particular town or village existing in that position.
I have particularly referred to route chart D. The letter, as more fully explained in my parent application Serial No. 105,524, (Patent No. 1,362,939) gives routes of travel, or for carriage of goods, in the territory represented by the map C, together with facts as to the character and the times of op eration of the conveyances there operated.
Commercial travel and transportation routes Z are designated on the map by identifying symbols 8, as set forth in said parent application, and such route symbols are likewise preferably applied in the index A, opposite the names of all localities which are served by a common carrier on, or may be reached by, such routes or channels of travel. Hence, the folder correlates the map, the route chart and the index each with one another and enables them in conjunction with one another to furnish a greater amount of aggregate information than is obtainable from either element separately. It may be said that the cooperation of the chart, map and index, with the symbols thereon, constitutes a means or apparatus for directly conveying information which could not be con veyed in words, at least not without requiring a great amount of space to convey in printed Words the information which is given by this means in compact form andat a glance.
In further reference to the tables shown at B and B on the second page of the folder, which contain 'lists of the ordinary transp'ortation lines, it may be noted that these lists show the namesof the physical lines, their ownership, the relationship which dif ferent lines bear to one another, and their terminals. In connection with these lists are applied the map location symbols of the terminals and the route symbols of the lines. These lists are carried by the left hand half of the third page, whereby upon doubling the outer half of this page upon a line corresponding to the line b, the table of transportation lines is brought beside the map C in convenient arrangement for reference from one to the other.
Inasmuch as the figures representing the structure of the folder are on too small scale to illustrate in detail the characteristics of the index above described, I have shown in Figure 7 a partial index of the names of places included within the particular terri- 'tory represented in the map C.
In said Figure 7 a column a contains the list of place names in alphabetical arrangement; column 0, gives the designation of the atlas unit in which each place is found and column a gives the index square number of each place and column a gives the symbol of the transportation route by which each place is'served, in connection with the names of places which are so served. When the inenough to occupy one entire column, the columns here described are repeated to the extent necessary to include all place names. In the case of a folder or compilation dealing only with the territory in one atlas unit, in which case all of the places indexed are found in the same atlas unit, the column of the atlas unit symbols here designated a may be omitted, for sufficient identification is given in that case by the index square symbol alone, but where the same compilation includes a number of atlas units, the column of atlas unit symbols is employed.
In connection with the list of names in the index there is preferably carried a series of symbols giving compactly the salient characteristics of the various localities in regard to natural resources, products of industry, facilities for business, travel, recreation, social activities, education, etc. The same or like symbols may also be carried beside the place names of the route chart D, as shown in my Patent No. 1,362,939. Certain of these symbols are shown beside some of the place names in the aforesaid index, for illustration thereof, but no attempt has been made to show in this manner all the characteristics and utilities of. all the places named in the index.
Referring tothe explanatory table shown in Figure 8, the general principles of the means for giving this information in con densed form are shown. A geometric form is taken as the basis for graphic classification of products and modifications of this basic form are applied to specific main classes. Thus the forms N N N N N N and N are applied to the products, respectively of agriculture, animals, the forests, minerals, the sea, manufacture and trade. These basic symbols are further combinable with a. geometric form such as a triangle, circle, square, oblong and oval, and with horizontal, vertical and oblique lines, either single or parallel, to designate specific subsidiary classes of the main classes. I have employed the form of the triangle to represent characteristics of a locality having to do with the products of nature and manufacture; the circle to denote physical operating or governmental characteristics; the square as relating to industrial establishments and to define the predominating industry in various localities; and the oblong to denote structural instrumentalities of transportation and commerce. The line symbols are applied respectively to public or quasipublic buildings (the vertical line); social organizations, sports, etc. (the oblique line) and public utilities and service (the vertical. parallel line). These geometric forms modified by the inclusion within their boundaries of one or another of such forms or by of terminal variables, furnish a code applicable to express all activities of man and resources of nature.
The terminal variables referred to include those designated at R in FigureS and others. The terminal variables may be annexed to the line symbols in different positions thereon, as shown beside certain names in the index, and according to the position of such terminals the symbols have various meanings.
lVit-hout intending thereby to establish fixed and invariable meanings to the symbols I may for illustration state what the symbols located beside certain of the place names in Figure 7 may mean. Beside the name Albion in this figure are four symbols to which I may tentatively ascribe the meanings, respectively, of agricultural community, inland town, ex ress office, and money order post ofiice. eside the name Augusta are three symbols to which I may ascribe the meanings of agricultural community, state capital and river town, respectively. Beside the name Bangor are eight symbols which may be considered to represent, respectively, trading center, river town, theatre, newspaper, custom house, city club and electric service. Beside the name Rockland are eleven symbols to which may be tentatively ascribed the meanings of agricultural community, seashore town, theatre, hotel, town hall, bank, court house, clubs, electric lights, telephone service and water service.
lVhat I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
1. A geographical compilation comprising a series of leaves bound together, one of said leaves bearing a map ofa section of territory and another leaf'bearing an index of localities existingin such territory; the leaf bearing said index being hinged in a manner permitting the index to be placed beside the map.
2. A folder comprising in combination a plurality of leaves, one of said leaves hearing a map, a second leaf bearing an index of the, places represented on said map and being hinged between its ends, the location of said index on said leaf being between the hinge and the outer end of-the leaf and on the side thereof corresponding to the side of the leaf on which the map is borne, whereby the index may be placed beside the map by spreading open the leaf which carries the index and then folding said leaf on its hinge.
3. A geographical compilation comprising a map bounded by parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude and subdivided into index quadrangles, each of said index quadrangles having a distinctive symbol, and an index of names of the localities represented on said map, including beside each locality the symbol of the index quadrangle on the map Where the position of said locality is represented.
4. A geographical compilation comprising a map representing the positions of 1d calties existing in the territory shown in said map, together with the commercial transportation lines by which said localities are served, there beingv applied to the representations of such lines on the map identifying symbols, in combination with an index containing the names of places represented in the map and carrying beside such names the distinguishing symbols of the routes by which said places respectively are served.
5. A geographical compilation comprising the combination, with a map represent ing so much of the earths surface as includes a plurality of political units or areas, of an index containing the names of places represented on the map and carrying beside such place names graphic symbols showing in condensed form the characteristics of such places with respect to natural resources.
6. A geographical compilation comprising the combination, with a map representing so much of the earths surface as includes a plurality of political units or areas, of an index containing the names of places represented on the map and carrying beside such place names graphic symbols showing in condensed form. the characteristics of such places with respect to activities of man.
7. The combination with a map represent ing a section of territory and showing the relative locations of communities existing in such territory, said map having its area subdivided into index units on the parallels of latitude and the meridians of longitude, and each index unit having its exclusive identifying symbol, of an index of names of said communities represented on said map and having beside such names the symbols appropriated to the index areas of the map wherein the communities respectively are located, said map representing also the common carrier lines and varying distinc t-ive symbols adjacent to the several, lines so represented, and the index including also the same symbols beside the names of loculi ties which respectively are served by aid lines.
8. The combination with a table of names of existing localities or communities, a series of graphic symbols representing in code the natural resources, products, industries and social and recreation facilities of the various communities.
9. A code system of conveying statistical information comprising the combination of Jun geometric forms, lines and terminal variables, representing natural resources, products and activities.
10. In a system of graphic representation of facts relating to communities, the combination of the geometric forms of the triangle, circle, square; the location of said forms one Within another producing distinctive symbols adapted to convey definite and specific information, With regard to the 10 products, business and facilities of such communities.
In testimony whereof I have aflixed my signature.
GEORGE W. R. HARRIMAN.