US 1514398 A
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NOV. 4 y
C. STEINBRENNER BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed OGL 13.. |922 attozne Patente Nov. 4, i924,
lltag CARL STENBRENNER, OF NIAGARA FALLS, NEW YORK.
Application led October 13, 1922.
T all whom t may concern Be it known that l, CARL S'rniNnRnNNnr., a citizen of the United States, residing at Niagara Falls, in the county of Niagara and State of New York, have invented certain new and useful lmprovements in Building Constructions, of which the following is a specification.
One of the objects of my invention is to provide a building construction in which the parts entering into the same are of smaller cross sectional area than like parts entering into the construction of a building of a similar type.
Another object is to provide a building construction in which the various members or parts are adapted to be cut and milled at a planing mill ready for setting up and `nailing together, and which parts are capable of being assembled and set up in a fraction of the time usually required for a building of like size constructed according to present day methods.
A still further .object is the provision of a building of novel construction having its walls and roof constructed of wood and composition material so that the building will be warm in winter and cool in 4summer.
A still further object is to provide a building construction in which the quantity of lumber employed in the construction will be considerably less than usually employed under presentday methods in the building of a fra'ne structure of a similar size, and .in which although a smaller quantity of lumber is employed and the various members thereof are of smaller cross sectional measurements than usually employed, a more rigid and solid structure will result therefrom.
l/Vith the above and other objects in view to appear hereinafter, the invention consists in a wooden building construction of the balloon-frame type, having a sill of special construction; also joists and studs of special construction, as well as rafters and other parts, all assembled and connected together in a new and novel manner.
lt further consists in the walls and roof thereof being constructed of wood and composition material so that the structure will be warm in Winter and cool in summer.'
It still further consists in the employment of studs of regulation width and in the Serial No. 594,361.
notching of the same to receive nailing strips for the exterior and interior closure surfaces, so that a thinner wall results therefrom without inipairing the strength of the same.
lt further consists in the novel features of construction, and in the arrangement and combination of parts assembled and secured together, as and in the manner set forth and more particularly pointed out in the subjoined claims.
ln the drawings Fig. l is a vertical transverse section through a portion of a building constructed in accordance with my invention, the studs between floors being broken away to indicate increased height for the stories of the building overl thatv shown in the drawing.
Fig. 2 is a horizontal section through one of the walls and a portion of a window in the wall.
Fig. 3 is a horizontal section through oney of the walls of the building.
Fig. l is a horizontal section through the wall of thereof.
F ig. 5 is a side elevation of one of the second floor joists with adjacent parts of the building structure shown in dotted lines so as to more clearly illustrate the relation and connection of said joists to said parts.
Fig. 6 is a side elevation of a portion of the inner sill member.
Fig, 7 is a side elevation of one of the ground floor joists with adjacent parts of the building construction shown in dotted lilies, so as to more clearly illustrate the relation and connection of the joists to said parts.
Fig. 8 is a plan view of a portion of the sill and the adjacent end portions of two joists dovetailed thereinto.
Fig. 9 is a horizontal section through a wall showing the same provided with two air spaces.
Referencebeing had to the drawing in detail, like numerals refer to like part-s throughout the several figures. l
A suitable foundation 9 is provided, which may be a wall, or piers spaced apart, and which may be constructed of concrete, stone, or any other suitable material. Anchor bolts l0 may be molded or set into the foundation so that they extend upwardly therefrom.
the building, at one of the corners L Resting upony the wall, or piers, is a sill comprising an outer member 11 and an inner member 12, both members being of the same height but the outer being considerably thicker than the inner member. The inner member is spiked or otherwise fastened to the outer member, and the upstanding portions of the anchor bolts 10' are passed through the outer member so that substantially a unitary sill structure is provided, although two sill members are employed'. The outer sill member is bored at intervals from top to bottom to receive the upstanding portions of the anchor bolts 10, and it is preferably counterbored to enable nuts 13 to be screwed onto the upper' ends of the anchor bolts so that no portion of the bolts need extend above the upper surface of the sill. ln this manner a perfectly smooth upper surface is provided for thesill. t
Atregular intervals along its length, the inner sill member is notched from itsy upper edge downwardly, as at 14, each notch being dovetailed, the flare of which is from the inner side of the inner sill member outwardly to the outer sill member.
The lower or rst floor joists, designated by the numeral 15, are substantially of the same depth or height as the sill., and at the outer or wall ends of these joists, each is provided with a dovetailed tenon 16, best shown in Figs. 7 and 8, which is fitted Vinto one of the dovetailed notches 14- in the inner sill member 12 and thus ties the joists to the sills without the use of spikes or nails. These joists also rest upon the foundation 9 provided for the building, and each joist is notched at its upper edge at regular intervals along its length, as at 17, the end notches having their outer walls in line with the inner end of the dovetailed tenons at opposite ends of each joist; cor lesponding;` notches in all joists being in alinement.
It is also to be noted that the lower ends of the tenons rest against the inner walls or bottom of the dovetailed notches formed in the inner sill member. Nailing strips 1S are fitted into the notches at the upper edges of the joists 15. The nailing strips at the ends of the joists, by reason of the arrange-- ment of the end notches in close proximity to the dovetailed ends of said joists, bearing with their outer edges against the inner side of the inner sill member 12, as best sh wn in' Fig. 1.
I wish to state that in the ordinary type of balloon frame, building joists are usually arranged on a 16 inch to 16 inch center basis, but as the construction employed permits the use of joists considerably thinner than those usually employed, I prefer to have said joists spaced at 12 inch centers. n
A. plate 19 is provided, which extends lengthwise over the sill and rests thereon,
and thisl plate is rabbeted on its under side along its inner edge, as at 20, for a purpose to appear hereinafter. The plate is spiked to the sill and its inner portion, by reason of its being rabbeted as described, is spaced from the sill.
It is to be noted that the grouping of the outer or end nailing strip 18, the sill, and the plate 19 so that one bears against another, provides an exceedingly solid structure, without the possibility of any of these parts yielding under strain, such as a building of this type would be subjected to.y
Resting upon the plate 19 are the lower licor studs 21 which are thinner than the studs usually employed in a building of this type and are preferably arranged at 12 inch centers. The studs are nailed to the plate 19 and their inner and outer edges are notched at regular intervals along their lengths, as at 22, the notches along the inner edge of each stud being in planesy passing centrally between adjacent notches at thek outer ede; all studs being correspondingly notched so that several horizontal seriesr of alined notches are provided at the inner edges and the outer edges of the studs. In these notches, nailing strips 23 are arranged, the strips being nailed or otherwise fastened to said studs. The uppermost nailing strip at the inner edges of the studs supports the second floor joists 241, the ends of each second Hoor joist being out away on three levels 25, 26, 2'?, respectively, to form a step by step support for superposed parts, the lowest step 27 being in alinement with the lower walls of the uppermost series of notches 22 at the edges of the studs 21 so that when the joists 2s are placed in position to restI upon the uppermost inner nailing strip 23 of the lower studs 21, the uppermost nailing strip 23 at the outer edges of said studs rests upon the lowest step 27 of said cutaway portion.
Resting upon the second step 26 and upon the upper edge of the uppermost nailingl strip 23 at the outer edges of the studs 21 is a plate 28, which is rabbeted on its up per side along its inner edge, as at 29, and the upper surface of which rab'bet is in aliueinent with the upper edges of the joists 24E so that the uppermost step 2; of the cutaway portion at each end of the joists is converted into a notch, the inner edge of the plate 28 serving as one of the side walls of the notch. At regular intervals along the length of Vthese joists 24, the upper edges of the same are notched, as at 80, and in these notches, as well as the end notches formed by the uppermost step of the end cut-away portion and the plate 28, nailing strips 81 are secured.
The end nailing strips at the upper edges of the joists 21.1-, the uppermost nailing strip at the outer edges of the studs 21, and the plate 28 are therefore grouped together and lie one in Contact with another so as to form a solid structure. Nailing strips 32 are also fastened to the lower edges of the joists 24, the end nailing strips having their outer edges in contact with the inner surfaces of the uppermost nailing strip 23 at the inner edges of the studs 21.
` Notched into or resting on the plate 28 are the upper or `second story studs 33, which are of course alined with the lower studs 2l, and these studs are notched in like manner to the studs 2l except that the notches of the lowermost series at the inner edges of the studs are at the eXtreme lower ends thereof. In these notches nailing strips 34 are placed and nailed or otherwise fastened, the lowermost nailing strip 34 at the inner edges of the studs having its lower edge alined with the unrabbeted portion of the upper surface of the plate 23 so as to convert the rabbe-t of said plate into a pocket, for a purpose to appear here inafter.
Resting on and connecting the upper ends of the upper or second floor studs 33 is a plate 35, preferably made up of two pieces lying one on top of the other, these plates being spiked, or otherwise fastened' to said studs.
36 are coiling or attic joists which rest upon and are spiked or otherwise fastened to the plate 35, and to the lower edges of these joists, nailing strips 37 are secured.
Rafters 38 are provided which have V- shaped notches 39 at their inner edges to receive portions of the plate 35, and which are arranged to bear againstthe sides of the ceiling or attic joists and be spiked or otherwise fastened thereto. The outer edges of the rafters are provided with notches 4() at regular intervals along their lengths, the notches being alined to provide spaced horizontal series, and in each series of notches a nailing strip 4l is fastened. rfliese nailing strips, as well as all other nailing strips in the structure notched into other frame members, have their outer faces iush with the outer or inner edges, as the case may be, of said frame members. From the lowermost notch, each rafter is cut at an obtuse angle, as at 42, to the outer edge thereof to form the outer or lower end of said rafter, and to the ends of all rafters a gutter 43 preferably formed of wood, is secured, this gutter being nailed to said rafters and fitted against the outer or lower edge of the lowermost nailing strip on said rafters.
Arranged between the rafters 3S are filler pieces 44, the inner edge of each of which is provided with a V-shaped notch adapted to fit the plate 35 and the outer edge thereof is flush with the outer edges of said rafters, one side of each of said filler pieces resting against and being fastened to a nailing strip 41. The ends of these filler pieces are nailed or otherwise fastened to the rafters. By the use of these filler pieces a solid structure is provided 'between one of the nailing strips and the plate 35. At the same time said filler pieces and the nailing strip 41 adjacent the same, provide a finish at the upper end of the wall and serve to close the attic at this point, due to the fact that the rafters projecting outwardly and downwardly beyond the wall, are exposed. ln addition to providing a solid structure by this means, a neat finish and inexpensive arrangement for entirely closing the attic is provided.
Fastened to the outer member ll of the sill is a water table 45, which extends down wardly over a portion of the foundation, and facing the outer side of the wall from said water table to the filler pieces 44, covering material in the form of composition sheets or siding 46 is secured, the same being fastened to the outer edges of the studs 21 and 33, and if desired, to the nailing strips 23 and 34 at the outer edges of said studs.
i.p} 3lied to the Hoor joists 15 and 24, is sanitary composition flooring 47, the same being nailed to said joists and, if desired, to the nailing strips 18 and 3l notched into the upper edges of said joists. This composition flooring extends into thev rabbeted portion of the lower plate 19 and into the rabbeted portion of the plate 28, or as it may be stated, into the pockets formed by said rabbets when taken in conjunction with adjoining parts.
Fastened to the nailing strips at the bottom of the second floor joists 24 and the ceiling or attic joists 36, and also to the inner edges of the studs 2l and 33, and if desired to the nailing strips 23, 32, 34 and 37 at said inner edges, is a sanitary composition ceiling or wall board 48. Composition material 49 similar to the composition mateiral 46 is applied to the roof, as shown in Fig. l, but it is to be understood that roof boards and shingles, or other roofing material may be substituted for the composition material on the roof; that sheathing and clap boards, or shingles,lor any other suitable material may be substituted at the outer sides of the walls; that any other kind of flooring may be employed for the composition flooring shown and described; and that the interior of the walls and the bottom of the floors separating the first story from the second and the second story from the attic may be finished with lath and plaster, or given any other desired iinish, without departing from certain features of my invention. or sacrificing any of the advantages thereof.
lt will be clear from the foregoing that bi the use of the nailinsY stri 9s 23 and 34 y C a the studs are tied together rmly, thus proof two walls arranged at a vidi-ng a rigid structure, and when the outer and inner finish-ing material 46 and 48 are applied to the studs and nailing strips, the wall is providedL with an air space, thus assuring a cot-nparatively cool housein summer and a warm house` in winter. There, however, is no claim laid to this siT air space, as all balloon-frame buildings, so called, are provided with air spaces et this kind.
l/Vhere walls meet at en angle, hollow corner posts 5t? are provided. 'llhese posts are built up troni vertical strips nailec together, each strip overlapping one strip and being overlapped by another, the cross sectional dimensions ot the posts corresponding to the depth or width of the studs 2l and TwoA sides et said posts are there tore jin alinement with the two outersides Y ht angle, and to the remaining sides ot said posts, two of the studs 2l or 33, as the be, are nailed, the inner edges et the said studs torming the inner angles oi said wells, clearly shown in Fig. 4. The wall covering 46 faces said posts, 'the outer side thereof angle pieces 52 are secured, said pieces reachii iront the water table 45 to a liller piece or pieces 44 at the root.
53 Adesignates a window `iarnb, one ot which is arranged at each side a window opening, and similar jambs or trames'may be used for door openings, modified oni);y in respect to the difference in requirements for a door over that ot window. The jamb 53 is notched at its outer and inner edges to receive the ends ot the nailing strips 23 or 34, as the oase may be., as clearly shown in liig. 2, the inner side or the jamb at the outer edge being provided with an integral rib 54 against which one of the windows 55 slides. said window being confined between said rib and a parting stop 56 inserted into the groove 'formed in said jamb. The inner window 55 slides in contact with said parting stop and with what is termed the inside sash stop 57.
rlhe inner and outer edges ol' the jamb are laced with. inner and outer casings 58 and el), respectively, said casings extending over the composition mater Vl 46 and the corn position material or wall board 4S, case may7 be. The jainb el course, has a width or depth corresponding to that of the studs 2l or plus the thickness oi the composition material 46 and 48.
The walls ot the building` may be ccnstructed as above described, but in some climates l prefer to provide a double air space in each all, as illustrated in Fig. 9, in which the studs of the building, designated in this figure by the numeral 2l., have the outer nishing material 46 and the in ner finishing material 48 applied thereto,
as and in the manner shown in. thei precedrigures ot the drawing and, if desired, the nailing strips 23 may also be employed but are not so shown. The studs 2lv are grooved lengthwise at opposite sides thereot, as at 60, and in the spaces between the studs, sheets et composition material 6l or,
desired, wooden sheathing or other material are placed, opposite edges or opposite ends of such material being i'itted into the grooves et the studs so that an air space 62 prriivided between the material 6 1 and rhe outer finishing material 46, and an air 'i ice 6.3 is provided between said material l and the inner finishing material 48. The naterial 6l, which may be referred to as h riding material, magy7 be entered into the \I-rooves or' the studs by sliding the same downwardly trom the upper ends of the studs atter the latter are erected', or in any other approved manner.
llaving thus described my invention, what l claim is:
l. fr buii v structure having a foundation, a sill resting on said foundation comprising thiol; part and a thin part fastened to the inner side ot" said thick part, said parts being of equal height and said thin parts having dovetailed grooves er;- tending from its upper edge downwardly and terminating short of its lower edge, each groove being tiared troni its inner side toward said thick part, and joists provided at their ends with dovetailed tenonsy entered in said dovetailed grooves.
2. fr building structure having a sill, j oists having their ends secured to said sill, each joist having notches at intervals along its length, one of the notches ot each joist being adjacent said sill and corresponding notches in said joists being in alinernent parallel with said sill, and nailing .strips in the alined notches of said joists, the nailing strips in the alined notches adjacent said sill having their outer edges in contact with the inner surface of said sill.
3. A building structure having a Yfoundation, a sill resting on said foundation and provided with dovetailed grooves, joists having dovetailed tenons at their ends entered. in said grooves. each of said joists having notches along its upper edge, one of said notches vbeing adjacent said sill, nailing strips litt/ed into alined notches of said joists and the nailing strip in the notches acent said sill bearing with its outer edge against the inner surface of said sill, a rplate on top of said sill, and studs secured with their lower ends to said plate.y
4. i building structure having a sill, oists secured at their ends to said sill, a plate on said sill having a rabbet on its under side along its inner edge, stud/s set upright on said plate and tlooring fastened to s aid joists and extending into the rabbet of said plate.
5. A building structure having a sill formed of a thick part and a thin part secured to the inner side of said thick part and provided with dovetailed grooves ei;- tending from its upper edge downwardly, joists provided with end tenons entered into said grooves and having their upper edges in alinement with the top of said sill, a plate on said sill having a rabbet on its under side along its inner edge forming an elongated `pocket of which said sill serves as one of its walls, studs secured with their lower ends to said plate, and composition flooring applied to the upper edge of .said joists and extending into the elongated pocket formed by said sill and plate.
' 6. A building structure having stucs spaced at intervals and provided with alinedlnotches at their inne-r and outer edges, the notches at the inner edges being in planes between the notches at the outer edges of said studs, and nailing strips applied to the i notches at the inner and outer edges of said studs.
7. A building structure having spaced studs provided on their outer edges at their upper ends with alined notches and at their inner edges in a plane beneath said alined notches with a second series of alined notches, nailing strips secured to the outer and inner notches, joists resting on the nailing strip at the inner edges of said studs and provided with cut-away portions at their outer ends conforming to the nailing strip at the outer edges of said studs and receiving said strip.
8. A building structure having a wall formed of spaced studs provided cn their outer edges at their upper ends with alined notches, a plate bearing against the upper ends of said studs and serving as the top walls of said alined notches, a nailing strip secured in said alined notches and bearing with its upper edge against said plate, oists having stepped ends to lit said plate and nailing strip and having their outer ends iiush with the outer face of said nailing strip and the outer edge of said plate, and means on said studs for supporting said joists.
9. A. building structure comprising a wall having spaced studs, a plate secured to the upper ends of said studs` said studs havingu notches at their outer edges adjacent said. plate, a nailing strip secured in said notches and bearing with its upper edge against the under side of said plate, and joists having triple-stepped ends, said nailing strip fitting the first or outer steps and said plate fitting the second steps of said joists, and a nailing strip fitting the third steps of said joists and having its upper face flush with the upper edges of said joists and its outer edge in contact with the inner edge of said plate.
l0. A building structure having spaced studs and spaced joists secured to said studs, said studs having alined notches at their inner edges and said joists having alined notches at their upper edges, nailing strips fitting the notches of said studs and joists, nailing strips secured to the lower edges of said joists, and composition wall board and ceiling material secured, respectively, to the nailing strips of said studs and said joists.
ll. A building structure havingstuds arranged at intervals, a plate secured to the upper ends of said studs and having' a rabhct at its upper side along its inner edge, icists secured to said studs and having their upper edges alined with the bottoni wall of said rabbct,v and flooring material secured to said joists and fitting said rabbet i2. A building structure having spaced studs forming one story of the building, a plate secured to the upper ends of said studs and being rabheted at its upper side along its inner edge, studs forming the wall of another story of the building and receiving support from said plate, said studs having alined rabbets on the inner edges at, their lower ends, a nailing strip secured in said alined rabbets and having its lower edge in alinement with the upper surface of said plate, said nailing strip co-operating with the rabbet of said plate to form a pocket, joists secured to the upper ends of the studs forming thewall of the first story of said building and having their ends out to fit said plate, the upper edges of said joists being alined with the lower wall of said pocket, and flooring material secured to the upper edges of said joists and extending into said pocket.
13. A building structure having a side wall, rafters secured to said side wall, roofing material applied to said rafters, and a filler piece extending transversely between adjacentrafters from the outer edges thereof to the upper end of said side wall, the inner edge of said filler piece having a V- shaped groove extending lengthwise from end to end thereof and having the walls of said groove bearing against the outer side of said side wall and the upper edge thereof.
14.-. A building structure having a side wall formed of spaced studs and a plate secured to the upper ends of said studs, rafters provided with alined V-shaped notches fitting said plate, nailing strips at. the outer edges of said rafters, roofing material applied to said strips and rafters, and a filler piece extending from said roofing material to said plate and bearing with its under side against the upper edge of one of said nailing strips.
15. A building structure having a roof formed of .spaced rafters provided on their outer edges and at their lower ends with alined notches, the lower ends of said rafters being cut atan obtuse angle to their outer edges, a nailing strip fitting into said alined notches, and a gutter applied to the lower ends of said rafters and bearing against the lower edge of said nailing strip.
v16. A building structure having spaced studs land a frame having an opening, said studs and iranies heilig provided with alined notches, nailing strips fitting into said notches, Wall finishing inaterial at the outer alnd inner sides of'. said studs and nailing strips, and casings applied to the outer? and inner edges of said `frame.
17. A building structure vhaving Walls at an angle to each other, each Wall heilig overlaps another and is overlapped by another9 said corner post being of square ormation in cross section and of cross sectional dimensions conforining to the width of said studs, two of said studs being applied to the inner sides of said corner posts, nailing strips Yttting the notches of all said studs, covering material applied to the outer edges oli said corner post, studs, and the nailing strips applied to the outer edge of said studs, Wall finishing material applied tosaid studs and the nailing strips at the inner edges of said studs, and angle pieces lit-ting onto the angular portion ot' said covering inateriai at the corners ot said walls.
ln testimonyv whereof I aiiii: my signature.