US 1515529 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
4 1,515,529 H. C. WELL l 1 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE Nov. 11, 1924- 2 she ets-sheet 1 Filed Aug. 15, 1922 W/TNES'SES gym/7% 7i 0 at A TTORNE Y8 Nov. 11, 1924' 1,515,529
H. C. WELL INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE Filed Aug. 15, 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 T; f T7. 5-
A TTORNEYS Patented Nov. ll, lg d barren stares inane JEI'UGID C. .WELL, OF NEW YORK, N. Y.
x Alb-COMBUSTION mrem'n.
To all whom it mm:
Be it known that I Ho'eo O. Wm, a citizen of the United tates, residing in the city of New York, borough of Manhattan, in the county and State of New York, have invented a new and useful Improvement in Internal-Combustion Engines, of which the following is a specification.
My invention has for its object to provide a two-cycle internal combustion engine with few moving parts which will perform the required four functions necessary to opcrate such an engine successfully, with the least possible waste of energy.
Another object of the invention is to pro vide a chamber carried by the piston, and into which a combustible mixture is drawn on the power stroke of the engine, the combustible mixture being forced from the chamber into the cylinder during the com-, pression stroke of the engine.
Still another object of the inventidn is to compress "air in the crank case of the engine by the piston during the power stroke, the compressed air being forced into the cylinder for scavenging purposes at the end of the power stroke. Qther objects of the invention are to provide the engine cylinder with auxiliary firing chambers to provide a combustible mix ture inlet communicating with the chamber on the piston, and valves which control the passage from the combustible mixture inlet to the chamber and from the chamber to the engine cylinder.
Additional objects of the invention will appear in the following specification, in which the preferred form of my invention is described.
In the drawings similar reference characters' refer to similar parts in all the views, in which Figure 1 is a sectional elevation showing in invention.
igure 2 is a sectional view on the line 2 2 of Fig. 1.
Figure 3 is a sectional elevation showing a modified form of the invention.
Figure 4 is a sectional view on the line H of Fig. 3.
Figure 5 is a sectional view on the line 5-5 of Fig. 3; and
Figure 3 is an enlarged sectional view illustrating the carburetor means with which the en ine is provided.
011 referring to the drawings it will be seen that a cylinder is provided, in which is disposed the usual piston 11. The cylinder 10'has a head 12 with an opening 13. Extending from this head 12 around the opening 13, there is a cylindrical extending portion 14 which is preferably integral with the head 12. This cylindrical extending portion 1 1 is closed by a head or cap 15 from which extends inwardly a fluid inlet 16. Mounted on the piston 11, there is a sleeve 17 which is disposed for sliding between the cylindrical extending portion .14: and the fluid inlet 16.
The chamber 18 in the sleeve 17 communicates with the interior of the cylinder 10 through the opening 19, and the orifices 20. These orifices may be as small as may be desired and as numerous as required to break up the combustible mixture which flows from the chamber 18 into the cylinder 10. Between the opening 19 and the orifices 20 there is a valve seat 21, which is commanded by a valve 22, this valve 22 having a valve stem 23 which is disposed in bearings 24. The valve 22 is held yieldingly on its seat 21 by means of the spring 25 which engages one of the bearings 24, and a collar 26 secured to the valve stem 23. Mounted on an extending portion 27 of the fluid inlet 16 there is a carburetor 28. This carburetor has ports 29 and 30 each commanded by a needle valve 31, one of these ports serving to introduce one kind of hydro-carbon, while the other port may be used to simultaneously introduce another hydro-carbon. For
instance,-the port 29 may be employed to introduce gasoline, while the port 30 may be used to introduce kerosene. These ports 29 and 30 are commanded by a valve 32, this valve 32 not only commanding the ports 29 and 39, but also seatin on a valve seat 33 leading from the air inTet 3d. There are preferably orifices 35 in the valve 32 to permit a very limited flow of air by the valve, even when the said valve '32 is seated on the seat 33. a
At the inner end of the valve inlet 16 there is a valve seat 36 with which co-operates a valve 37. To this valve 37 there is seciired a valve stem 38, this valve'stem 38 being mounted in bearings 39, 40 and 41, and there being a collar 42 mounted on the valve stem 38, so that a spring 43 may be disposed between the collar 42 and the bearing n to hold the valve 37 yieldingly on its seat 36.
. The upper portion of the valve stem 38 is sleeve 17, and in a position threaded at 44, and this threaded portion 44 of the valve stem passes through an opening 45 in the valve 32. There are two nuts 46 and 47 on the threaded portion 44 of the valve stem, the nut 46 being disposed above the valve 32, and the nut 47 being disposed below the valve 32 for engagement by a spring 48 which serves to hold the valve 32 yieldingly on its seat. The position of this valve 32 relatively to the valve 37 may be ad'usted by means of the nuts 46 and 47.
ecured to the engine cylinder there is a crank case 49, but it will, of course, be understood that this crank case may be made in two or more sections, with one of the sections integral with the engine cylinder. This crank case has a passage 50 leading to the port. 51, which may be opposite the exhaust rt 52. The crank case is air tight, and is provided with an inlet valve- 53, which is held yieldingly on its seat by the spring means 54 shown in Fig. 1 of the drawings.
A. bafiie-plate is mounted on the top of the piston 11 against the bottom of the to be opposite the port 51. When the piston is positioned at the end of the power stroke, this baffle-plate serves the purpose to direct the flow of air from the port 51 around the sides of the cylinder. The cylinder is, of course, provided with the usual spark plug 56.
In the operation of the engine it will be understood that when an explosive mixture is fired in the cylinder 10 when the piston is in its uppermost position, the gas pressure wi drive the piston downwardly, therefore performing the working stroke. As .the piston moves downwardly, it will move with it the sleeve 17, creating a partial vacuum in the chamber 18 which draws down the valve 37 and also the valve 32, a combustible mixture being in this way drawn into the fluid inlet 16 and into the chamber 18. At the end of the downward stroke, the valves 37 and 32 will close. When the piston uncovers the exhaust port 52 the gases of combustion will escape therethrough, and as the piston immediately after uncovers the port 51, the air which has been compressed in the crank case 49 rushes through the port 51 against the baflle-plate 55 around the cylinder thereby assisting in driving out of the cylinder the gases of combustion. This air will not only assist in driving out of the cylinder the gases of combustion, but it will also serve in a measure to cool the cylinder. It will be understood that the air is drawn into the crank case 49 on the compression stroke of the e no around the valve 53, and that this air 1s compressed by the iston on the power stroke. As the expos surface atthe underside of the piston 11 is greater than the exposed area at the upper side of the piston 11, it will be r" M i that a large amount of air will be compressed in the crank case 49 relatively to the inner area of the cylinder 10;
Three of the four functions in the operation of an internal combustion engine have now been described, that is, the power stroke, the suction and the scavenging. The combustible mixture which has been drawn into the chamber 18 is forced from the said chamber 18 on the up stroke of the piston 11 through the valve seat 21 and the orifices 20, and .into the cylinder 10. Substantially all of the combustible mixture in the chamber 18 is in this way forced into the cylinder 10, for at the completion of the up stroke, there is practically no space between the valve 37 and the bottom of the sleeve 17. The combustible mixture is, therefore forced into the cylinder 10, thereby increasing the pressure in the cylinder 10 and mixing the combustible mixture with the air which flowed into the cylinder through the port 51, and which has been compressed by the piston 11.
In the modilied form of the invention shown in Figures 3, 4 and 5, it will be seen that the construction is substantially the same as the construction shown in Fig. 1 with the exception that one or more passages 50 connect the crank case 49 with the auxiliary firing or expansion chambers 57 At the auxiliary firing or expansion chambers 57, there are valve seats 58 which are commanded by valves 59, these valves being held yieldingly on their seats by resilient means 60 shown in the drawing. In other respects the form of the invention shown in Fig. 3 of the drawings corresponds with the engine which has been described.
In the modified form, the combustible mixture is compressed in the chambers 57 as well as in the main body of the cylinder 10 on the up stroke of'the piston 11, and when the combustible"mixture is fired, the gases will fire the combustible mixture in the chambers 57 which will augment the ex-- panding gases, thereby increasing the wer. WVhen the piston reaches the exhaust 61 the gases of combustion will escape, and with. the release of pressure in the cylinder 10 and in the chambers 57, the valves 59 will be forced upwardly by the compressed air in the crank case 49 and the flow of air through the valve seats 58 and the chambers 57 will enter the cylinder and move in'the direction of the exhaust, thereby forcing out the gases of combustion and filling the cylinder with cool air.
As shown in Figures 3 and 4, a plate 62 with orifices 63 may be secured at the bottom of the fluid inlet below the valve 32. The passage of the combustible mixture through the orifices serves to break up the combustible mixture to obtain a ture when the parts unite below the plate 62.
If desired the-grooves ma be made in the sleeve 17 to permit some 0 the combustible mixture to escape from the sleeve on the compression stroke and thereby limit the pressure.
Having thus described my invention what 'I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
1. In an internal combustion engine, a cylinder, a piston in the cylinder provided with a chamber,'a fluid inlet communicating with the chamber and having a valve positioned at the chamber a resiliently held valve munication between the chamber and the cylinder operable by a difference in pressure in the cylinder and the chamber.
2. In an internal combustion engine, a cylinder having a fluid inlet, a piston in the cylinder and having a sleeve forming a chamber, the sleeve being provided with an opening communicating with the interior controlling comof the cylinder and having sliding engagement with the fluid inlet, a valve at the fluid inlet and a valve at the opening operable by a difference in pressure in the cylinder and in the chamber.
3. In an internal combustion engine, a cylinder having a fluid inlet, an exhaust port and a crank case, a check valve in the crank case, a piston in the cylinder having a sleeve with an opening communi- .cating with the interior of the cylinder, and
slidably engaging the fluid inlet, valves at the inner end of the fluid inlet and at the opening, and a passage in the cylinder from the crank case which piston for scavenging purposes.
4. In an internal combustion engine, a cylinder having a fluid inlet, an exhaust port and a crank case, a check valve in the crank case, a piston in the cylinder provided with a sleeve having sliding engagement with the fluid inlet, the sleeve having an opening ad'acent the piston permitting the contents 0 the sleeve'to flow into the cylinder, a check valve at the said opening which prevents communication from the cylinder to the interior of the sleeve, a check valve at the inner end of the fluid inlet which permits fluid to pass from the fluid' inlet to the interior of the sleeve, but which prevents a return flow, there being a passage in the cylinder from the crank case at all times, and
the sleeve is uncovered by the which is uncovered by the piston for scavenging purposes.
5. In an internal combustion engine, a cylinder having a fluid inlet, a check valve at the inner end of the fluid inlet, a lurality of ports at the outer end of the uid inlet, a valve commanding the ports, a valve stem secured to one of the valves on which the other valve is slidably mounted.
6. In an internal combustion engine, a cylinder having a fluid inlet, a check'valve at the inner end of the fluid inlet, a plurality of ports at the outer end of the fluid inlet, a valve commanding the ports, a valve stem secured to one of the valves on which the other valve is slidably mounted, a piston in the cylinder provided with a sleeve having sliding engagement with the fluid inlet, said sleeve having an opening adjacent the piston permitting the contents. of
check valve at the said opening which prevents communication from the cylinder to the interior of the sleeve.
In an internal combustion engine, a cylinder having a crank case, a check valve in the crank case permitting air to flow into the crank case, .a piston in the c linder, an inlet means extending upwar ly from the piston, a baflie plate at the said means, and an exhaust port, there being a passage in the cylinder from the crank case to the interior of the cylinder, the exhaust port and the passage beingadjacent the crank case and being uncovered by the piston at the end of the power stroke.
8. In. an-internal combustion engine, a cylinder, a piston in the cylinder provided with a chamber, a fluid inlet communicating with the chamber and having a valve, and-a resiliently held valve controlling communication between the chamber and the cylinder by a difference in pressure in the cylinder and the chamber,
to flow into the cylinder, and a In an internal combustion engine, a
inlet, a valve at fluid inlet, a port fluid inlet, a valve.
moving the valve stem relatively to/ Whe fluid inlet.