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Publication numberUS1524573 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJan 27, 1925
Filing dateMay 17, 1921
Priority dateMay 17, 1921
Publication numberUS 1524573 A, US 1524573A, US-A-1524573, US1524573 A, US1524573A
InventorsRoland B Respess
Original AssigneeRespro Inc
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Cement-integrated fibrous sheet and method of making it
US 1524573 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Jam, 27, 1925- 1,524,573


" unrrsn en rant caries," .f

Boutique. nnsrnss, on NEW YORK, n.1, ASSIGNO'R, BY Mnsnn assrenmnn'rs, T0 nnsrno Inc, or cmms'ron, RHODE ISLAND, A CORPORATION or nnonn ISLAND.

, cniarmnmrnerm'rnn FIBROUS SHEET AND mnrnon or MAKING. IT.

Application filed May 17, 1921. Serial No. 470,269.

To all whom it'mag concern:

Be it known that I, ROLAND B. Resrnss, 'a citizen of the United States of America, and resident of New York, in the county of- New York and State of New York, have in-' vented new and useful Improvements in Cement-Integrated Fibrous Sheets and Methods of Making Them, of which the following is a specification.

This invention relates to the manufacture of impregnated, compressed,-sheets of fibrous material, and comprises a method by which such sheets, in their final condition c0m pact, tough, flexible, and impervious, may be been proposed and described, and not a few of such methods have been practised. A usual object of'su'ch methods has been to produce a substitute for leather, and the com posite bodies made by these methods have been, either actually or in prospect, treated with the same kind of miscellaneous dressings and finishes as have been from time almost immemorial, applied to leather; these V difl'ering according to the specific useto 3 have been intended.

which leather, or its artificial substitutes,

-Leather itself is, as is well known, composed of fibres whichare bound together by natural adhesive material; and many leather substitutes have, as I am aware, exemplified attempts to produce artificially a similar constitution; the endeavor, in the manufacture of such substitutes, has been to approximate as closel .as possible, to the strength of leather bro and natural adhesive, respectively, and "at the same time to Produce a materiahwhich shall also approach leather in the qualities, oftoughness and flexibility 'which leather possesses to so eminent a deree. z? Fibres which are individually as strong as those of leather are easily obtainable; cotton,

' flax, ramie, ka 0k, and manyother seed-hair and cortex cel of fibre plants, for instance,

possess tensile strength in hi h degree, and are, moreover, when cleanse absorbent or capable of being individually Wetted by liquid or semi-liquid materials, so that a sheet or web of such fibres furnishes one of the fac tors necessar to the production of a material resemb ing leather; and cotton sheets, woven and unwoven, have been employed for the purpose in many instances. The as sociation of an eflicient binding material, or

'aTgglutinant, with such fibres in such manner that the composite product shall in degree as well as'in kind resemble natural leather, has been the chief and most difii'cult problem; and itis the object of the invention herein described, to solve that problem, and to produce an agglutinant andfibrous aggregate structure which shall, possess strength, flexibility, and elasticity in such degree as to enable the product to serve uses, both those of leather, and also others, for which a sheet having the'stated' physical characteristics is ada ted.

I it were and coat it with the maximum quantity of a dense, strong, semifluid adhesive (as for instance a strong, heavy, viscous rubber cement composition) and then lay a number of such cemented fibres in closejuxtaposition, andfinally subject the structure thus formed to heav pressure, so that-the adhesive material shou d fill all the inter-spaces or voids be tween the fibres, the resulting sheet, when the cementitious material had set to final condition, would possess a tensile strength nearly equivalent to or' greater than the ag regate tensile strengths of allrthe cotton fi res in a given cross section and a flexibility near- 1y if not quite equal to that of the cementitious material. The-method hereindescribed nearly ap roaches, in its various stages, and

ossible to isolate each fibre.

in its resu t, to the idealand I believe unattainable-method above suggested.

In the first place, in order to present fibres to the coating action of an adhesive cement substantially as if each fibre were an isolated individual, I employ for the fibrousbody which is to be treated, a loose,

flimsy ,Web' offibre'preferabl cotton--such as ordinary carded cotton atting. This material is usually about one quarter of an inch thick, but the fibres of which it is composed actually occupy only a minor part of the cubical content between the-outer ca hesive greater than the weight surfaces of, the fibre layer; the air spaces around the fibres are of far greater volume than the fibres themselves. Thus the individual fibres are as nearly separate and free, as individuals, as is consistent with the very feeble integrity of the sheet, as a sheet, and are therefore ready for individual absorption of cementitious material. Moreover, the net quantity of fibrous material is in such a flimsly web is relatively so small, that the fibres, if compacted together in a sheet'having the same superficial area as the original web, will constitute a very thin sheet, and therefore one possessing flexi 1,5 bility in high degree.

If the product is to possess strength approximating to or exceeding the aggregate strength of its constituent fibres, the cementitious material must be incorporated with the fibres in such uantity as to'cover eaclifibre completely an thus afiord a maximum anchorage for each fibre, and must also be substantially continuous in the spaces between fibres, so that any strain in one fibre will'be communicated to and shared by its neighbors.

The maximum anchorage referred to is. a hold upon a fibre from which it cannot 'be' pulled without exceeding the ultimate tensile strength of the fibre. If therefore, it be,

attempted to coat the individual. fibres of a loose and flimsy web by immersion of the web in a solution of cementitious material, the solution, if thin enough to permit uniform and thorough fibre coating by immersion, will deposit on each fibre too little of the dissolved cementitious material to accomplish the pur ose. If the solution; be

very thick, and laid on the loose web, introduction will proceed slowly, and will be ac- -1 companied by filtration of the solute from the solvent, which in. real measure defeats the ob ect, roducing unequal coating of the fib'res-wh1ch compose the web.

By my method now to be described,-a

heavy, viscous'cementitious substance, .typi-j cally a solution extended by solvents to a minimum degree consonant with plasticity,- so that loss of volume'upon hardening may be relatively slight is forced-into a. loose,

' so fluffy web, as o cotton batting, and

s(%)ueezed lengthwise of'the web, while the fires themselves are shifted, also lengthwise of the web, and in relation to each other, so that one side of the, web, after impregna titm, is offset from its ori 'nal position byv a distance about'equal to t e original thickness of the web or batting. This localized drawing action, coupled withthe instrusion of a heavy cement lengthwise of the" web and the fibres (which are laid by carding pre dor'ninalntly in one direction, in an. approxij mation toparallelism) coats each fibre with a concentrated adhesive. The :web may thus be made to contain a wei ht of adg the fibres.

o -fi res enough cementitiousmaterial.

bf the web, in suc teasers The preferred adhesive is adapted to harden or set by evaporation of its solvents with anincrease of viscosity and adhesiveness disproportionate to the slight loss of volume y evaporation. The act of shifting one side of the batting lengthwise in the act of introducing cementitious material redistributes and interlocks the fibres so that they are laid like web.

g The action: of redistributing the ass is caused chiefly by the factthat one side time the liquid cement is introduced and surface while the other side of the sheet a thatch}. ing-the impregnated a;

of the sheet liesupon and adheres (at thewhich receives the liquid adhesive upon its surface is subjected to a gradually'increasing'downward pressure, whichja'ction forces the upper layers of the fibres, which compose the sheet, in a backward direction. in this action the fibres are pressed out of their of many individual fibres tendto follow the liquid, as it flows into the sheet, under ,centla ers and held in their new place by the ad esive. The web is heavily compressed i n the act of impregnation, but the cementitmus material still contains enough solvent to permit the natural elasticity of the fibres to assert itself and restore the web original position in the sheet and the. ends as a whole to a thickness about one quarter that of the thickness of the original batting' This opening of the fibrou s'structure facilitates evaporation of the cement solvent;

evaporated,- the cementitious material remaining lodged upon the fibres is highly adhesive, exceeding the power of the fibres to separate by natural resilience, and the.

For most purposes a single pass of the when the greater part of the solvent has fibrous material through the impregnating 1 oration will suflice to incorporate with tlfi more be desired, the sheet may be passed evaporation. V v

.In order to lay the fibres during impregnation, as well. as to lend: support to the mechanically weak batting, the fibre sheet should'he carried to the impregnating mechamsm upon amovmg supportmgsurface, as

a belt, and the viscous lmpregnating m'atcrial shouldbe ap lalliedto the other surface.

, manner as tobe pressed again, and again rid of volatile -sol vent by pregnating apparatus;

Fig. 2 re resents the operation of the apparatus an impregnating material, and

Figs. 9 and 4 illustrate the fabric after a first pass of the impregnating rolls and 10 during a second pass, respectively.

The web of cotton bat-tin W, is taken by the belt B, which t-raves on rolls, of which R is the lower of two pressure rolls, R being the upper. The surface of the belt B becomes slightly tacky by reception of a little cementitous material, so that the web WV clings to it, and is given a broad supportand sure traction to the point where the cement, which in the heavy pressure is applied. A heavy, viscous referred case is a rub- .bercement solution, lintfor other purposes may be an appropriate cementit-ious solution of amorphous substances such as other gums, gutta-percha, glue or bichromated glue, or compounds of or substitutes for such substances, and so viscous that any attempt to draw such a web as cotton batting through it would probably result in destruction of the web. is deposited on the batting just in front of the roll R. The supply of cement is keptup so that the mass in front .of the nip of the roll R is usually an inch to an inch and one-half thick. I

As the traction of the belt B on the web 515 W draws the web into the nip of the rolls for a primary compression, the cementis pressed against. the web and pushes the upper layers of fibre backward and then downward. The leading ends ,of the fibres become engaged with each other and with the impressed. cement, so that the change of location and distribution of the fibres is much the same as would be the case if the upper layers of fibres were moved toward the lower layer in circular paths of which the maximum radius is the length of a fibre between the surfaces. The progressively increasing condensation of the fibres, coupled with the local drawing movement of the fibres in re- 4 preferably applied between the rolls of a lation to each other and the squeezing action of the curved surfaces of roll R and the opposed surface of the belt B carries the Vis cous cement len thwise into and upon the fibres as the we asses under the cement mass and between te rolls.

The displacement of fibres-is indicatedin Fig, 2, when, if P, P, be points directly opposite each other on the original batting, as seen at the right of this roll R. these points P, P will be found displaced as seen at the left of. this roll. As the web emerges from the rolls, the elasticity of the fibres causes the web to swell or open up; it acquires a thickness about one-fourth that of the original thickness of the cotton batting, and

presents everywhere interstices between the coated fibres. Thus the eva oration of the cement solvent, or other sti ening-reaction, is facilitated; the impre nated web is carried through a-dryingc amber D and on emergence therefrom is ready for a. further, and secondary, compression. If it be desired to impregnate the web with still" more cementitious material, it can be passed again, preferably before drying, through mpregnating rolls, and again treated to compressive 1mpregnat1on with cementitiousmaterial. The same, or a similar, apparatus, as that above described, may be employed for a second pass of the web (see Fig. 4); but the web impregna.te;l--by one pass such as described possesses such integrity and strength that the precautions observed at the first pass, against injury or disintegration, will not be necessary in making a. second'pass. Preferably the length a, b. of the web, if given a second pass, will have the cement-itious material applied to that side which lay on the carrying-belt uring the first pass, and will be reversed end for end, as shown in Fig. 4, so that any further offset of one side of the web in relation to the other will be added to, and not subtracted from, the offset produced by the first pass.

Comparative microscopic examinations of the cotton-batting web before and after impregnation by the above described method shows clearly that each fibre has acquired a substantial cementitious coating which when a heavy cement is used, may quite equal the coated fibre in thickness; the

coated fibres present a much coarser appearance than the uncoated; and the expansion subsequent "to the release from the primary compression has everywhere opened up interstice; between the coated fibres, which are nevertheless held together by partial cemented contacts. The web, impregnated as described, is wrinkled, and'in subjecting the Web to final consolidation, it should be subjected to sufficient tension to smooth out these Wrinkles before the final compacting pressure is applied.

The secondary compacting pressure is calendering machine, to which the web is fed under tension which takes out the wrinkles and thus guards against the formation of creases in the calendered product. As the drying operation. eliminates nearly all of the cement solvent, the cement remaining on and between the fibres is highly adhesive. and, under the compressive action of the calender-rolls, binds the fibres together in an impervious thin sheet, in which each fibre is embedded in an adhesive. cementitious anchorage, which is substantially continuous between fibres. The fabric is smoothfaced, of uniform thickness, and the fibres in it are predominatly longitudinal, sloping from faceto direction, but in interlacement,every fibi'eltypically having artsflyingotherwise than in the predominant direction, and many .of the fibres.-

lying wholly otherwise. .The product, as

completed by the final compression of the dried impregnatedfibrous web, possems tensile strength in high 'degree,. being nating rolls,

described product are perha shes p 4 v I fiedbyits'behavior when su jected-to;moId+- Whil 1 hav fl s F stronger than leather, split to the same thickness. It is also --,extensible,f and 1 will stretch considerably ...11nder.-tension in. the general direction of thejfibresbefore frac: tureh "In adirection transverse to the. eneral lay of the .fibres it is "extensible a so its'maximum tensile strength is, of course,

in the direction parallel with the general The cement purposes, is essentially" a rubber cement. containmg about 20% -rubber gum or compound and 80% volatile solvent, such as naphtha or gasolene. Other gummy materials, similarly soluble, maybe added. I

The 1product,manufactured by the above.

described;.method'--and; with the aforesaid specific cement,jc'onta ins as muc'lrcementitlous material asgfibreiby weight and may be made to contain more, as by passing the sheet more than-on ithrough jth impregcharacteristicsfo th above Thephysica-l se ening' manipulations, which demen plasticity. For instance," a strip this material, by reason of its 'highdmlectric strength, constitutes an, eflective insulating material, and, when wound tightly around a cable or coil of .wire can be. locally stretched, and molded when "overlaid in several thicknesses, to accommodate the .insulation thus produced-,td-coniormity with objects such. as slotted metal cores or wind-. ing formers. Or, when se'lverahplies of this. material are doubled toi for'm a laminated structure, with. cementitiQu material com pressed between and into the several-layers or plies, the thicker sheet thus formed-can be molded into such shapes as shoe tips or counters, without developing-wrinkles. or creases. This physical characteristic is dueto the residual vlscidity of the 'binding"-material, which, while .adhering'tenaciously to the fibres nevertheless permits the com os it e sheet to stretch either in the general irec lay; this extensibility "ofthe sheet is demonstrable by manipulation of a sheet of the material, such as a ribbon or tape. 1 The fibres slip, straighten and move in the viscous binder, the binder itself elongates in the direction of tension. The behavior of the sheet is comparable to that of extensible leather in a stretching machine, and substantiates the structural similarity of the,

" ual fibres by the cementitious material. My

object is served by the production of a thin impregnated and compacted sheet of fibres individually and uniformly coated with cementitious. material, specifically and preferabIy rubber, in quantity not less-sub stantiallythan the fibieitself, by weight. Having such material for a basis,'1' am enabled to produce therewith. as by- .doubling and cementing together several. such'she'ets,


or byitreating them either with's olutibns or vent or rubber,- will carryfthejdissolved ior dressing and leather,-'anf indefinitely large yariety of useful products. Where product'jmay be-jiuilcanized' if desired.

" preferred cementitious substance capa 1c of emulsions of which the militants, being solo a sus ended materialfs'fintoadini'xturewiththe,"

rub r binder-eats fol-instance, sundry gum varnishes 'ofby-sjurface-dressing them with I 5.

the materials used heretofore for 9 rubber cement istheinaterial employed, the v i'hardenin "top'a'sticky la tic-mass. by. air;

evaporati org-t Solventftheiingiregnation broader with a ncreased hardness and viscosity with increased adhesiveness of sp (if m invention "is'-"conoerned"* i'n. its

the. agglutinant substance throughout the fabric pricr .;w its secondary compression,

ratherflthanwith the precise character of i the substance, or of thefieaction by which hardeningincreased viscosity and increased adhesiveness is obtained.

For instance, 11 martini we the :-fibres by primary-compression and allowed- 'thetexture of the mass tofope bytheir inherent resilience and recovery of original ,;-"$h ape, as de'scribed, the cement coated fibres jgja're' then interstitially opento fluidireactions,

{and it is not emntialthat the reaction.

should be an evaporative reaction Thecem- I 'entitious substance jmight an oxidizable ,b sme s mp n y'-. i e tion'bf the lay of the fibr'es, or across the: substance capable of. being" rendered more viscid and more adhesive by. tIeatment;-and the hardening mp migh. be, for example,

plastic adhosiveness by any other reaction- .-;treatment by a penetrating fluid reagent apmaae'za propriate tocause the particular cementitious substance used to become stifier or ,more'viscid ,and to remain adhesive and high in tensile strength per unit cross-sec tional area, highly plastic, and slightly adhesive) to the individual capacity of every fibre, attained between the primary and secondary compressions, to carry into the mass resulting from the secondary compression a sufiicient charge of a properly stiffened c'ement in a quantity and a state adapting it to homogeneous adherence together and filling of all voids in the final fabric. These qualities, attained by the way of making, a-reindependent of the particular viscous binding substance which may be chosen for particular qualities of the finished fabric.

I claim:

1. The art of making cement-integrated fibrous sheets comprising as a step compress ing an unwoven sheet of the fibre in the presenceof an excess of viscid cement, and advancing one face of the sheet in respect to the other face during such compression.

2; The art of making cement-integrated fibrous sheets comprising as a step supporting an unwoven sheetof the fibre atone face, compressing the sheet of fibre in respect to its support in the resence of an excess of viscid cement applied to its other face, and displacing said other face of the sheet in respect to the supported face during such compression. v

3. The art of making cement-integrated, unwoven fibrous sheets, which comprises temporarily reinforcing a loose open texturedweb of fibres by'adhesion to a moving support, conveying said sheet on said support to a viscous cement-solution, pressing said solution into the web while on and adhering to said support, causing the solution to intrude into the web in a direction opposite to the movement of the web, and displacing the unsupported fibres in the same direction, compressing the cement-impregnated web; allowing the said web to expand after compression, evaporating the cement solvent from the web. and compacting the dried web by pressure.

4. The art of making cement-integrated, unwoven fibrous sheets, which comprises the fabric.

site to the movement of the web, and displacing the unsupported fibres in the same direction, compressin the cement-impregnated web; allowing 1: e said web to expand after compression, evaporating the cement solvent from the web, and compactingthe dried web by pressure under tension.

5. The art of making cement-integrated unwoven fibrous sheets, which comprises compressively intruding a viscous cementsolution into a loose open textured fibrous web longitudinally of the same, and at the same time displacing the fibres at one surface of the web longitudinally in relation to" fibres at the other surface and thereafter.

compressively setting the fibresin their new positional relation.

6. The art' of making cement-integrated fibrous sheets comprising as steps, causing interpenetration of a flocculent sheet of a fibres'by a solidifiable viscid cementitious substance by a primary compression of the sheet and a masof said substance, releasing pressure on the treated sheet to permit resilient recovery of coated fibres to a reticular, relatively open state; exposing the expanded sheet and the substance carried therebyto the reaction of a penetrating fluid increasing the viscosity and adhesiveness of said substance, and subjecting the sheet to a secondary compression sufficient to solidify 7. The art of making cement-integrated fabrics comprising a primary simultaneous compression-of a sheet of resilient fibres and a viscid mass of cementiti-ous substance, permitting the treated sheet to expand by the inherent resilience of its fibre component, subjecting the expanded sheet to treatment adapted to increase the viscosity of the coatm5 ing throughout the fabricby interpenetration of the interstices of the expanded fab- .ric by a reagent fluid, and thereafter subjecting the material to a secondary compression in the direction of its thickness in sufli-- 1m cient degree to compact and solidify the fibres and their. coating into an impervious solid. .7 8. The art of making cement-integrated fibrous sheets comprising as steps; compressaccess to the interstitial spaces of the bat'of a cement-hardening fluid reagent, and finally compressing the material.

' support,'-conveying said sheet on said suptemporarily reinforcing a loose open tex- 9. The art of making cement-integrated tured web of fibres by adhesion to a moving fibrous sheets comprising as steps, compressing together a mass of viscid cement and a sheet or bat of fibres, the operation inolud ing drawing the fibres longitudinall in respect to the anchorage of fibres at t e faces J of the bat, releasing presure and permitting 1 port to aviscous cement-solution, pressing said solution into the web while on and adhering to said support, causing the solution to intrude into the web in a direction oppo- 1 tothe interstitial spaces of the bat of aflcenient-hardeni sufficient. time to increase the adhesivene'ss of the cement to a point preventing" resilient ,fluid reagent, during a separation of the fibres, and finally compressing the material to cause mutual ad'- herence of the fibres in an. impervious sheet.

10. The art of makin cement-integrated unwoven fibrous sheets w 'ch comprises compressively, forc ng a viscous rubber cementv hot-h transversely and longitudinally .into a loose open texturedweb of fibres from'one "side of ,saidf'web, while displacing fibres in the web in the same longitudinal direction and comprossin the web as a whole, the maximum longitudinal fibre-displace.- mentbeing of fibres on that side of the web into which the cement is intruded, the lon- 'gitudinal displacement of fibres within the Web diminishin in extent proportionate to their original dlstance from the surface.

Q1-L1The method. of making cement-inte- 'gratedunwoven fibrous sheets, which comprises subjecting a loose open textured web *of fibres to progressive rolling pressure, 1n-' truding a viscous rubber cement both transversely and longitudinally into the web,

from one side thereof engaging the leadin ."endsof'the fibres within'tru e I progressively increasing intimacy while-- nally of; the web, to distances decreasing as the distance of fibres from the cement-applycement wit progressivelv displacing fibres longitudi- 1 ing surface increases. 4

a sheet fabric comprising individua coated fibres predominantly arranged inone dimension of the fabric and predominantly. sloping from one face to another in the same" 12. An impervious cement integi'atedfibre y cementdirection of slope and bound together by a plastic and'adhesive binder.

' 13. ervious cement-integrated thin 5 sheet fabric aving therein inherently resili I entinterlacedvegetable fibres predominantly direction of slope matted with adhesive 'cement, the weight ofthe cement being not substantially less than the weight of the fibre.

slopin' from one face to. another in the same compression in the direction of. its thickness.

from one face to -another in the same 15; Cement-integrated fibrous sheet, comprising unwoven. cotton fibres predominantly sloping fromlone' face to another in the same 'rection of, slope matted with adhesive "rubber cement, the'weightof the cement being not substantiallyless than the wei ht of the fibre.

i 5 '16. A stage-product of the hereinabove ,de-

scrib pr comprising a sheet of. in-


herently resilient vegetable fibres predominantly sloping from one face to another'in the same direction of slope individually coated with a heavy coating of a plastic adhesive cement, the fabric having interstices between the coated fibres everywhere in its substance and the weight of the cement being not substantially less'tha n the weight of the fibre. 1 I

17. Cement-integrated fibrous sheet, comprising unwoven fibres predominantly sloping from one face to another in the same diment, the latter possessing suflicient permanent viscidity' to permit extension. of the sheet and being substantially' not less in weight than the weigth of the fibre.

re,ction of slope matted with adhesive ce- 18. Cement-inte rated fibrous sheet, comprisingunwoven fibres extendin predominantly in one dlrectlon and pre ommantly sloping from one face to. another 111 the same direction of slope, matted together with a relatively large proportion of adhesive ce-- ment, said cement being flexible and ads herent in the completed structure, the fabric as a whole being plastic and having its maximum tensile'strength in the predominant direction of the fibres. I v a 19, Cement-integrated fibrous sheet, comprisingunwoven cotton fibres extendin predominantly-in one directionand prefiominantl slo ing from one face to another in the s, me irection of slope, matted together with a relatively large proportion of rubber cement, said cementbeifig flexible and adherent in the completed structure, the fabric as a whole being plastic and having its maximum tensile strength in the predominant direction of the fibres.

20. As a new article of manufacture, a

' flexible fabric, comprisin unspun,.unwoven fibres coated substa-ntiia throu hout the thickness 0 the-fabric wit abin ing material, without com letely filling the interfibre spaces, said fibres eing united at 'their'intersections and points of contact by the cohesion of their coatings, said coated fibres being maintained in the fabric in slightly. separated relation. and forming minute interstices between their coatings throughout the fabric. '21; As a new article of manufacture, a

flexible elastic fabric, comprisin a base fabric of unspun, unwoven fibres, the

llltl fibres being coated substantially uniformly throughout the thickness of the fabric with elastic binding material, without completely filling the interfibre spaces,said fibres being united at their-intersections and points of cont'act-bv the cohesion of their coatings .and' held yieldingly in slightly separated relation; L

22. As a new. article of manufacture, a

waterproof fabric consisting of an unwoven fabric; the fibres of which are coated and united throughout the (fabric by and main too stantially impervious to Water.

23. The herein described process which consists in applying to a roller of a calender an adhesive coating of binding material plastic at the time of application and passing between said coated-roller and another opposed roller of the calender a non-woven fabric composed of unwoven, unspun fibres, toforce the said binding material into the fabric andaround and upon the individual fibres to unite the fibres in'said fabric.

Signed by me at Boston, Massachusetts Q thissixteenth day of May, 1921.


Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US5374448 *Jun 22, 1992Dec 20, 1994Bayer AktiengesellschaftApplying powder form of hydraulic binder to flexible substrate ,stamping, pressing, winding into rolls; mixing with reactive binder before compaction
U.S. Classification442/153, 427/211, 5/484
International ClassificationD06N3/00
Cooperative ClassificationD06N3/00
European ClassificationD06N3/00