US 1527807 A
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feb, '24, 1925. f A. .LLQGUIN ROTARY MOTOR, PUMP, COMPRESSOR, OR LIKE' Filed June 21, 1924 2 sheets-sheet 1` 'Y A. J. LoGUlN ROTARY MOTOR, PUMP, COMPRESSOR, OR THE LIKE 2 Sheets-sheet 2 :File-d June 21, 1924 25 ,qlemnder per Patented Feb. 24, 192.5`
ALEXANDER JOSEFOVICI-I LOGUN, 0F `STIL)(KI-IOLll/, SWEDEN,
ROTARY MOTOR, PUMP, COIVIPRESSOR, 0R THE LIKE.
Application filed June 21,
To all whom t may cof/wem:
Be it known ,that ALEXANDER Josnrovrcn Locom, citizen of Russia, residing at l0, Kungsholmstorg, Stockholm, Sweden, has invented certain new and useful Improvements in or Relating' to Rotary Motors, Pumps, Compressors, or the like, of which the :following is a specilication.
The invention relates to a rotary machine for converting the energy oit" an elastic fluid into mechanical work of rotary motion, or vice versa, for obtaining compression or rare-faction of a gas by the expenditure ofmechanical work of a rotary motion.
The invention thus refers to rotary ,motors or engines on one hand, and to rotary compressors or eXhauster-s on the other,
Since the basic principle ofthe invention has not been vdescribed previously to the best of my knowledge, the theory of t-he operation of the machine will first be explained with reference to a diagramma'tical,illustration of .the invention in Figures 1,5 of the accompanying drawing.
Two cylindrical shells l, 2, Figures l and 2, of unequal diameters but of the saine axial length are placed one inside of the other with `,their axes parallel to each other, `the `smaller one being enclosed in the larger one between two pla-ne discs B, l forming fixed end walls of the larger shell, while the smaller' shell is slidable `:inside the larger Cylinder and arranged to be guided 'by its ends bearing' against the said end walls. The cylinders are connected one with another by means of a spirali elastic partition `or `band `5 inserted between the shells and surrounding thersmaller one of them, said band being wide enough to span the distance between the end .walls 3, l so as `to be guided by its edges bearingV against `said end walls, while having a sliding lit to them like the inner shell. One end `of the spiral rplate is attached tothe inner surface of the outer shell, while the yother end of it is attached `to theouter surface of the inner shell. The band must be elastic enough so as to keep its own vshape and to resume Hthis shape after having been forcibly deflected and released again, while on @the other hand it must be soft enough `to yield `fto ythe pressure tend ing to deflect -it to its extreme position within -the outer shell. Near the points where .the spiral is attached to the shells,
1924. 'Sew'.all No. 721,472.
orifices 6 A,and 7 ol" the shells. v Y
Thus the annular space between the `cylinders l, `2 in Figure l' ispartitioned so las to torni a continuous spiral channel with the orifices 6, in commu-nication with one another, the walls of said spiral channel bein-g formed by the elastic band. However, *i'l3 the inner cylinder, as shown vin Fig-ure 3, be displaced towards the wall of the outer cylinder tar enough to :press the intermediate convolution-s et the elastic band -into full contact with each other and with the cylindrical surfaces, the said `spiral Channel will be interrupted at the lines of cont-act and instead vrof one continuous spiral channel between the orifices l6,v '7 there will be :termed a series of separate chambers l2, 13, 14. The extremeV vchambers may communicate through Athe orifices G and '7 with the outside space and with the hollow ot the drum 2 respectively, but the intermediate ones are entirely closed. p Suppose further that the inner cylinder 2 is free to perform a circulating 4movement about the axis of the outer cylinder, while maintaining its axis parallel with said axis and without turning about .its own axis. By the circling movement of the vinner cylinderv all the surfaces `which are in contact will obviously slide one over another without rolling, while at vthe same time the points ,of contact will move in circular paths along kthe convolutions of the spiral.
In ,order to explain the mode of operation of the machine it may beV assumed that the inner cylinder 2.has been rotated in the direction of the arrow from the Vinitial position shown in Figure 3 into the position are provided in the walls `shownin Figure-l which is90o distant from vthe initial position. -Hereby the points of Contact, which were originally located `in a lplane on the diameter lO-*ll, have also been rotated tor an angleoffl". The chamber 12 which in Figure 3 encloses the axis 8 entirely, in Figure a only extends over an angle of 2700, thus having been shortened, while at the same time the width of it has decreased owing to the diminishing of the .radius oi' curvature ot the element of the spiral 5 constituting' the outer wall of it. Accordingly a part olf the contents of the: chamber l2 rhas been 'forced ythrough. the critics?a into the hollow ot' the cylinder' 2. After one full revolution oli 'the cylinder 2 the chamber 12 has been emptied entirely. The chambers 13 and 1f are submitted to similar reductions of volume during the movement, their contents being thereby successively Compressed. Simultaneously there will be developed a new chamber 15-Figure 4, communicating with the orifice 6 and sucking gas through said orifice, while increasing in volume. After one revolution the chamber 12 becomes non-existent, the chamber 13 occupying its original position and volume, while the chamber 111 constitutes the middle space and the new chamber 15 forms the outermost space. It is evident from this that one outermost chamber will be developed for each revolution of the inner cylinder, while one inner chamber becomes non-existent for each revolution emptying its content into the cylinder. At the saine time the intermediate chambers decrease in volume. Each quantity of the gas admitted through the orifice 6 will be subjected to a process comprising three periods. During the first period involving about one revolution of the cylinder 2, gas will be sucked through the orifice 6 into the developed expanding chamber 15, during the following period, in this particular case involving about two revolutions, the gas will be compressed, and during the third period involving one revolution, the gas will be forced into the cylinder' 2. As will be seen, the quantity of gas considered is being moved during the iprocess along a spiral path around the axis 8, said spiral including lthree convolutions. ln the case of the number of convolutions of the spiral band 5 being large the second period of the process will be extended in a corresponding degree.
rlhus the mechanism works as a compressor, which takes gas from the outside space, gradually compresses it, and finally forces it into the cylinder 2. if the direction of rotation be changed, the process will be reversed, and in this case the mechanism will work as an exhauster, which will rarefy the gas-within the cylinder 2.
The mode of operation ofthe machine is obviously reversible and, should either of the' orifices be connected with a reservoir containing compressed gas, while the opposite orifice communicates with an atmosphere of a lower pressure, the machine will work as a motor so long as a difference in pressure at the two orifices 6 and 7 exists.
1t should be observed that during one short interval the orifice supplying the compressed gas is covered by a contacting element of the elastic band 5, whereby a dead point is constituted, from which the motor can not start to move if previously standing still in this position. In order to obviate this difficulty more than one spiral may be used.
Figure 5 shows diagrammatically a construction of the machine with two spirals, one of which beingshown with a full line, while for the sake of clearness the other one is represented by a dotted line. To each spiral there corresponds one orifice in each of the cylinders. By this arrangement the dead point will obviously be eliminated, for, while one of the linlets 16 or 17 may happen to be closed, the other one would be fully open and would permit starting of the motor from this position.
Having now explained the theoretical principle, I shall proceed with a description of a practical embodiment of my invention with reference to the Figures k6 and 7. t The main frame 18 constituting the outer shell. of the machine is supplied with a. base 19 for mounting on the floor and flanges 20, 20, Figure 7 for fastening sideplates 21, 22 by means of bolts 23. The inner curvilinear surface of the outer cylinder is machined so as to represent in its cross section an equiangular spiral, having in each point a constant inclination of its tangent to the radius of the shell through the same point. The radial pitch of this spiral is chosen so as to be equal to the thickness of the spiral movable partition 24. At 25 this partition is fastened flush with the corner wall of the outer shell by means of rivets having countersunk heads, then it makes several turns in this case two) around the inner cylinder 26 and is fastened to the last mentioned cylinder with its other end. The fastening of the inner end of the partition may be effected in a manner similar to that employed in fastening the outer end of it, or as shown in Figure 6, by making one extra. turn of the partition tapered down to zero thickness, winding the tapered end around the cylindrical drum 26 and fastening it to the drum by riveting or welding. The object of this arrangement is to ensure in each position of the drum 26 quite airtight contacts of the convolutions of the spiral band, mutually as well as with the cylinders, while having constant eccentricity of the drum 26 in regard to its centre of revolution. As stated above, the movable parts are arranged to be guided by their edges bearing against the plain surfaces ofthe end walls 21, 22. The inner drum has a number of holes 34;, near the point where the partition 24 starts t0 wind round the drum, said holes serving to put the hollow of the drum in communication with the first inside chamber. The first outside chamber communicates with the outside atmosphere through a port 35.
The plate 22 is provided with three bearings 27 located at the apexes of an equilateral triangle coaxial with the machine. The opposite plate 21 is provided with three similar bearings 28, each of which is located in front of one of the bearings 27, and three crank shafts provided with cranks 29 are mounted by means oi' the three pairs of corresponding bearings. The upper one of the cranks 29 is the operating crank transmit ting the torque and the lower ones are used only for guiding the Vmovable drum so as to prevent its rotating about its own aXis. The crank pins are mounted in three bearings 30 rigidly connected with the movable drum, said bearings beinglocated within the drum at the apexes of an equilateral triangle coaxial with the drum 26. Through the upper bearing 28, 'which has an airtight bushing, the operating shaft projects and a pulley 3l is mounted on it. The inlet to the movable drum Q6 is disposed at 32 and the outlet from the fixed drum is indicated at' 33.
The mode of operation of the machine is the same as that described above with referenceto the diagrammatical figures. By means of the operating crank a circular movement may be imparted to the drum 26, while the rot-ation of the drum about its own axis is prevented by means of the guiding cranks.
This machine, according` to the above description, will work as an air compressor when the operating shaft is rotated in a clockwise direction as seen in Figure 6, taking free air at 33 and delivering compressed air at 32. It would work as an exhauster when rotated in a counterclockwise direction.
If fed by compressed air or steam the machine will work as a motor and the pulley will rotate in the one or the other direction, according as the pressure above atmosphere is supplied at the orifice 32 or the orifice 33.
I claim i l. A rotary machine consisting of a cylin* drical casing, a crank shaft journalled therein, a cylindrical body enclosed in said casing and mounted on the crank ot said shaft eccentrically with respect to the axis of the casing, a number of elastic partitions in the form of spiral bands slidable against the end Walls of the cylindrical casing and connected at one end with the inner cylindrical body and at the other end with the cylindrical casing the eccentricity of the cylindrical body being such as to cause the spiral band to lbe lying in close Contact with the casing and the cylindrical body at the shortest distance between them, and means for controlling the How of an elastic fluid to and from the variable working chambers formed by said partitions.
2. A rotary machine as claimed in` claim l, in which the bandshaped partitions are wound in a plurality of turns about the inner cylindrical body.
3. A rotary machine as claimed in claim l, in which inlet and outlet openings are provided in the walls of the easing and the cylindrical body and adapted to be closed and opened alternately by the elastic partitions.
A. A rotary machine as claimed in claim l, in which a plurality of spiral bands are arranged to co-operate with inlet and outlet openings in the walls of the casing and the cylindrical body so as to cause at least one inlet or outlet respectively to be open in each angular position of the cylindrical body.
5. A rotary machine as claimed in claim l, comprising means for guiding the cylindrieal body so as to prevent it from being rotated. about its own axis.
6. A rotary machine as claimed in claim l, in which the inner cylindrical body is mounted on three crank shafts journalled in the casing, so as to prevent it from being rotated about its own axis.
ln testimony whereof I aliix my signature in the presence of two witnesses.
ALEXANDER JOSEFOVICH LOGUIN.
L. BEYVDINDE, GscAR GRAHN.