US 1528848 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
March 10, 1925.
A. PRADER ACETYLENE LAMP Filed July 22, 1920 INV TTORNE S.
Patented Mar. 10, 192 5.
UNITE D STAT E PATENT OFFICE.
ANDREW PRADER, OF SPOKANE, WASHINGTON, ASSIG'NORTO BROGK-GOGHBANE COM- PANY, A CORPORATION OF DELAWARE.
Application filed July 22, 1920'- Seri'al No. 398,146.
To (4Z7 whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, ANDREW PRADER, a citizen of the United States, residing at Spokane, in the county of Spokane and State of Washington, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Acetylene Lamps, of which the following isa specification, reference being had therein to the accompanying drawing. p
This invention relates to acetylene lamps, such for instance as those illustrated in the Brock Patent No. 1,193,985. These lamps comprise, generally, a burner, a water reservoir, an underlying carbi'd receptacle, and a water supply tube extended downwardly from the bottom. of the water reservoir and terminating at a suitable point within the carbid receptacle. In the. use of the lamps, the pressure of the generatedand especially at the outset. frequently rises to such extent as to shutoff the water flow and force the water up the supply tube and back into the reservoir. As the water is thus backedup in the feed-connections. there is less and less resistance offered to the expanding gas, which therefore escapes through the water and continues to do so until the water finally stops such escape. When th s occurs the water rushes down the supply tube in considerable volume. due to the greatly reduced gas pressure in the carbid-receptacle, thereby causing the further generation of an excessive amount of gas. whose pressure soon rises and again overcomes the opposing l'iydrostatic pressure. withthe foregoing results. This oscillat ng action continues for some little time during the initial operation of the lamps, and recurs Whenever the carbid mass is agitated, as is occasionally done. to enable the water to reach the unslalred portions of the carbid. It is apparent. therefore, that until the opposin pressures of the s stem settle down to a condition anproaching equilibrium the gas pressure will fluctuate violently and produce an imperfect light. which at one time will be quite brilliant due to the high gaspressure, and at another time very faint due to the extremely low gas pressure,-not to mention the considerable waste of gas which materially shortens the period of use of the lamp for a given charge of carbid. It is sometimes attemptedto regulate the gas pressure by adjusting the Water controlling valve. but such attempts are usually unsuccessful because of the inherent difficulties involved, and especially in the hands of unskilled workmen who use the lamps and who are general ly ignorant of the conditions.
The present invention is intended to overcome the foregoing objections and aims,v not only to insure amore regular gas production andih'enc'e a more uniform light (and this, incidentally, without involving any ad justments of" the water controlling valve which may be opened wide), but, in addition, to permit the building up of a much greater gaspressure than has heretofore been possible before the gas begins to escape or blow off through the water,all as will fully appear from the detailed description to follow.
In the accompanying drawings:'
Fig. 1 is a sideelevation, partly in sec tion. of a lamp constructed in accordance with this invention:
Fig. 2 is an enlarged vertical section taken through the lower portion of the water-feed connections: v r
Fig. 3 is a transverse section taken on the line 3-3 of Fig. 2 looking downwardly, one' of the elements being partly broken away; and v Fig. tis an elevation of the several elements of the water-feed connections in un assembled condition.
Referring toFi-g. 1, the improved lamp comprises as usual the water reservoir 1, and the carbid receptacle 2. which latter is screw-threaded to the former n the customarv wav so as to be de achable therefrom at willfor filling or refilling purposes. Water from the reservoir 1' is conducted to the carbid of the receptacle 2 through asupply tube 6 fired to the bottom of the reservoir and extended downwardly into the carbid receptacle, the adm ssion of water to the supply tube being controlled by the adiustable valve slee e 16. which is screw-threaded to the top of the water reservoir. The flow of the water through the supply tube 6 is limited by the enclosed centrallv located rod 7 depend ng from the valve sleeve 16 and extended downwardly beyond the lower end of the supply tube so as to be embedded in the carbid when the receptacle 2 is screwed into place. the rod 7 being provided at its lower end with the tapered head 9 which facilitates the embedding action. As the acetylene gas is generated by the mixture of the ill) water and carbid in the receptacle 2, it passes upwardly through the perforated plate 2 and felt-piece 2 into the burner tube 3, which latter extends horizontally through the water receptacle and is provided with the customary burner head 4 located within the reflector 5. The foregoing parts, except as hereinafter pointed out, are substantially as described and illustrated in the Brock patent above referred to and are indicated substantially by the same reference numerals.
Coming now to the present invention, it is first pointed out that the water supply tube 6 is extended downwardly along the enclosed rod '7 to within a very short distance of the tapered head 9, whereas in said Brock patent, the corresponding tube terminates at a considerable distance above the head and at a point located near or above the upper surface of the carbid mass when the latter is in its unslaked condition. As thus extended, the water supply tube 6 is sur rounded or enclosed at its lower end by a second tube 20, which, as shown. is open at the top for the discharge of the water therefrom and is closed at the bottom by the tapered head 9, on which it is supported and to which it is integrally joined, as by soldering or otherwise. In the present instance, the length of the tube 20 corresponds substantially to the added length of the supply tube 6. so that its upper end, or the water discharge opening (like the discharge opening of the tube 6 in the Brock patent). is located near or above the upper surface of the carbid mass in its unslaked condition. The tube 20 is in turn surrounded or en closed by a third tube 10, which is of only slightly greater length than that of the tube 20 and which is attached at its upper end to the circular perforated plate or disk 19 resting upon the upper surface of the carbid mass. Initially, the lower end of the tube 10 may touch the upper surface of the tapered head 9, and it is therefore formed at such end with openings or perforations 10 to allow the water to escape therefrom under such conditions. hen the carbid receptacle 2 is screwed into place, the tapered head 9 pushes the carbid lumps aside and allows the tube 10 and the other parts of the water-feed connections to be embedded in the carbid mass along with it;
The action of the parts is as follows: When the lamp is ready for use. the valve sleeve 16 is opened wide so as to allow the full volume of water to pass from the reservoir 1 into the supply tube 6. down which it then flows at a rate permitted by the en closed rod 7. From the tube 6, the water flows into the surrounding tube 20. wherein it gradually rises until it reaches the upper or discharge end of the tube. when it overflows into the surrounding tube 10. The
water then passes down the tube 10 and finally escapes from the lower end thereof into the carbid at the bottom of the recep- Hide 2, flowing over the top surface of the tapered head9 and, if need be, through the perforations 10. Upon the mixture of the water with the carbid, the acetylene gas is generated and passes ed to the burner where it is ignited and consumed.
While the action of the tube 10 when considered alone is substantially the same as set forth in the Brock patent before mentioned, it is pointed out that in the present combination it plays an important part in bringing about the described results. In the first place. it acts as a shield for the tube 20. protecting the latter from the carbid at all times. As a matter of fact. in the present arrangement, the only obstruction offered to the flow of the water is that produced by the sludge which accumulates about the lower end of the tube 10 itself. due to the slaking of the carbid under the action of the water. This obstructing tendency of the sludge, however, is overcome by the gradual raising of the tube 10 under the influence of the expanding carbid. Thus, as the water is introduced into the lower portion of the carbid mass, the expansion which takes place raises the lumps of unslaked carbid and thereby lifts the perforated plate 12 and carries the attached tube 10 upwardly therewith. This movement of the tube, which takes place slowly and gradually, not only raises the level at which the water escapes into the carbid mass, but it also acts to break up the sludge resulting from the slaking of the carbid and permits the water to escape through the sludge to the unslaked carbid. The tube 10 therefore avoids any liability to interruption of the water flow due to the carbid and allows the production of the gas to proceed under the control of the pressure system as will later appear. It may be noted that. during the entire upward movement of the tube 10. it continues to protect the enclosed tube 20 from. the carbid, which is therefore atforded no opportunity to close in around its upper or discharge end. Hence. it is desirable, when possible. that the tube 2 be made of a length at least equal to the extent of movement of the tube 10. if the lower end of the tube 10 becomes choked with sludge (as when the tube nears the completion of its movement), the water will rise within the tube and overflow onto the upper surface of the attached plate 12 and find its way into the carbid through the perforations in such plate.
It will be understood, of course, that the dimensions of the water feed connections .will be made to correspond to a particular size of lamp. Thus, it is evident that the length and diameter of the tubes 6 and 20 jtll) llO will be much less for the smaller lamps,- such as miners cap lamps, than for the larger lamps, such as. the so-called hand-lamps. However, for any given size of lamp, the dimensions of the parts may be variously modified as well. Thus if desired, the tube 20 may be made longer or shorter or of greater or lesser diameter, so long as it is capable Oif functioning in the manner above set forth; and. similar changes may also be made in connection. with the supply tube 6 and the inclosed rod 7,. if need be. Generally speaking, such changes Will depend upon the gas pressure desired and the volume of water required to give such pressure, etc. In any case, however, it is possible, and it is preferred, to so n'oportion parts that the gas pressure will not. rise to such extent as to force the gas up through the water and out of the reservoir. Actual practise has shown that, if the parts are so proportioned, the gas will be generated at a regular rate to produce a steady flame and a uniform light.
The employment of the tube 20 in the water feed connections as above described gives rise to certain features of importance and advantage, which are believed to be broadly newx Thus, in one aspect, the tube acts as an equalizer to maintain the opposing pressures of the system in-cquililn'ium practically at all times, wl1icli action may be explained as follows; Due tO" l l18 great volume of water initially introduced into the carbid mass, the pressure of the gas generated inevitably exceeds; the given hydrostatic pressure underwhichthe water is discharged into the carbidi receptacle, and as determined, of course, by the vertical distance between the upper or discharge endiof thetube 20 and the surface of the water within the reservoir. 'Consequently, this excessive gas pressure stops the fiowof' watax from the tube 20 and forces the water down the :tube and backup into the reservoir. However, as the level of the water within the tube 20 is thus lowered, the"pressure-head is correspondingly increased, due to the greater vertical distance between such lower water level. and the surface of the water in the reservoir. 7 Inother words,and' as will be seen from the drawings, the waterhead becomes greater and greater as the gas pressure "rises higher and higher above the given hydrostatic pressure, the head being at its maximum when the water level is at the lower end of the supply tube 6. It is apparent, therefore, that the gas pressure may greatly exceed the given hydrostatic pressure without cruising the gas to escape through: the water-inthe reservoir. Under such conditions, as the gas pressure. becomes less and less from the consumption of the gas at the'burner. the water column moves slowly toward the discharge opening and finally reaches such opening at or about the time the gas pressure becomes normal, that is, substantially equal to the given hydrostatic pressure. When this condition is reached, the quantity of'w'ater permitted to flow from the equalizer tube is the proper amount required for the steady generation of gas. 'lhereafter, the pressure of the gas gem erated is maintained sr'ibstazntialfl'y normal throughout the operation of the lamp, althoughpermitted to exceed the given hydro static pressure atan-y time (by reason of the pressure-equalizer) without causing any appreciable fluctuation of the gas'fiame. In this connection, it is pointed out that the lengthening. of the supply tube 6 and the addition oftlie equalizer tube 20 to the feed connections materially increase the area of the water contacting surfaces, which therefore exert an appreciable drag upon the wa ter as it is backed up within the tubes, with the effect of intensifying the viscuous frie tion, capillary action, etc. resistance thus offered to the movement of the water column by the gas pressure when it rises above the given hydrostatic pressure is very appreciable and is capable of. sustaining a considerable excessof gas pressure. The enclosure of the supply tube 6 within the equalizer tube 20 is particularly advantageous, as bysucharrangement, the tube 6 acts within the'tube 2O much in the same wayas the rod 7 does in the tube 6. Furthermore, this frictional resistance serves to dampen the oscillations of the pressure sys tem and exerts a decided influence in main taining the opposing pressures in a condition of stable equilibrium.
In another aspect, the tube 20' maybe said to constitute a supplemental reservoir into which the supply tube 6" discharges the water from. the main reservoir 1 and which, because of" its greater diameter, is capable of containing a larger volume of water than an equal. extent of the supply tube; Inaddition, by such arrangement, the opening be tween the tubes 6 and 20 functions in the nature of a restricted throat or pipe bend located ata point between the inlet opening and the discharge opening. Hence, be
cause of the greater time and work involved in expelling the water from the tube 20, there will be less liability of the gas to blow off through the feed connections than if the water were discharged directly into the carbidv from the supply tube 6, as in prior constructions.
It isquite possible that, in the use of the tube-20, there may be other features as important as or even more important than those above mentioned, and it is therefore to be understood. that the present invention is not committed to any particular principle of construction or operation except in so far as this is required by the'appended The; frictional claims wherein the novel features, both in their specific and broader aspects, are set forth. It is particularly noted that the specific arrangement herein illustrated is extremely simple and comprises but few parts which can be made cheaply and fitted together without the slightest difficulty or delay and without involving any radical al teration in the existing parts which may therefore be manufactured in the usual way. In addition, the arrangement is strong, durable and compact, and is capable of ready assemblage or disassemblage to permit cleaning or repair. However, it is repeated that the invention, in its broader aspects, is not limited to the precise construction shown and described, as many changes may be made in the details thereof without depart ing from its spirit or sacrificing its chief advantages. Thus the tube 20, instead of being made to surround the lower end of the supply tube 6 might be disposed to one side of the supply tube and kept in communication therewith through an intermediate connection, and the same effect may be produced in other ways not necessary to mention. It is to be understood therefore that the invention is not limited to any specilic form or embodiment exceptin so far as such limitations are specified in the claims.
Having thus described my invention, its construction QDCl'lDOClG of operation, what I claim is as follows 1. In an acetylene lamp, the combination of a water reservoir, a carbid receptacle, a water supply tube extended from the water reservoir into the carbid receptacle, a rod supported within said tube independently of the water level in the reservoir and extended below the lower end of the tube, and a second imperforate tube supported by said rod and surrounding the lower end of the supply tube and in constant communication therewith, the said second tube being closed at the bottom and having a discharge opening located above its point of communication with the supply tube.
2. In an acetylene lamp, the combination of a water reservoir, acarbid receptacle, a water supply tube extended from the water reservoir into the carbid receptacle, a rod supported within said tube independently of the water level in the reservoir and extended below the lower end of the tube and formed with an enlarged head portion, and a second imperforate tube supported by said rod and surrounding the lower end of the supply tube and in constant communication therewith, the said second tube being closed at the bottom by the enlarged head portion of the rod and having a discharge opening located above its point of communication with the supply tube.
3. In an acetylene lamp, the combination of a water reservoir, a carbid receptacle, a water supply tube extended from the water reservoir into the carbid receptacle, a second imperforate tube surrounding the lower end of the supply tube and closed at the bottom and having a discharge opening located above the lower end of the supply tube, and a third tube surrounding the sec ond tube and into which the water from the latter is discharged, the said third tube being open at or near its lower end and movable upwardly by the carbid in its expansion under the action of the water.
i. In an acetylene lamp, the combination of a water reservoir, a carbid receptacle, a water supply tube extended from the water reservoir into the carbid receptacle, a rod arranged within said tube and extended below the lower end thereof, a second imperforate tube surrounding the lower end of the supply tube and closed at the bottom and having a discharge opening located above the lower end of the supply tube, and a third tube surrounding the second tube and into which the water from the latter is discharged, the said third tube being open at its lower end and movable upwardly by the carbid in its expansion under the action of the water.
5. In an acetylene lamp, the combination of a water reservoir, a carbid receptacle, a water supply tube extended from the water reservoir into the carbid receptacle, a rod arranged within said tube and extended below the lower end thereof and formed with an enlarged head portion, a second tube surrounding the lower end of the sup ply tube and closed at the bottom by the enlarged head portion of the rod and having a discharge opening located above the lower end of the supply tube, and a third tube of less diameter than that of said head portion and surrounding the second tube and into which the water from the latter is discharged, the said third tube being open at its lower end and movable upwardly by the carbid in its expansion under the action of the water.
6. In an acetylene lamp, the combination of a water reservoir, a carbid receptacle, a water supply tube extended from the water reservoir into the carbid receptacle, an imperforate pressure equalizer tube in constant communication with the supply tube and having a discharge opening within the carbid receptacle, and a third tube surrounding the second tube and into which the water from the latter is discharged, the said third tube being open at its lower end and movable upwardly by the carbid in its expansion under the action of the Water.
In testimony whereof, I have affixed my signature hereto.