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Publication numberUS1530081 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMar 17, 1925
Filing dateAug 23, 1921
Priority dateAug 23, 1921
Publication numberUS 1530081 A, US 1530081A, US-A-1530081, US1530081 A, US1530081A
InventorsIgnatz Pechan, Jules Humbrecht
Original AssigneeFirm Of Optische Anstalt C P G
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Perisoope with entrance and deflection prism
US 1530081 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)


Filed Aug. 23. 1921. 2 sheets-sheet 1 Inventors March 17, 1925.


VInventors M #LLM/M l ff;

figgA f Patented Mar. 17, 1925.



Application led August 23, 1921. Serial 160,494,499.


3e it known that we, JULES H'Unnnnclrr, a citizen ofi the Gernnrn Republic, andresident, of Friedenau, near Berlin, Germany, and IGNATZ PEG'HAN, a. citizen ot lthe Austrian Re-p1 iblic, and residentJ of Steglitz, near Berlin., (irermany, have. invented certain new and useful Improvements in and Relating to rPeriscopes with .lilntrances and Deflection Prisms, of which the. following is a specification (tor whiehpatentapp1ications have been filed in (l ermany, February 25, .1916; Austria,,BledA December 13, 1917.; l'lungary, `filed December 31, .19.17 l

rlhisinventiim .relates to a..periseope, particularly for submarines,... of; that kind which.permits observation notonly in substantially horizontal direction but also vin a;

direction.towards objects waving in the air, such as laircrafts.: Periscopes of this kind. are provided `.with an: entrance reflector roteiablc about an axis transversely to the main tube ot' the instrument.y

T he inventionconsists in the construction of' a ,pe-riscope. of lthis kind with changeable` that it receives the rays coming frornthe.

entrance rciecl'or and emits same after double reflection inv they direction. of the mainr tube of the instrument.

Further objects ot'theinrention andconstructional means for securing same will appear frointhe following specifica-tion with reference to the annexed drawings.

Figi. 1 shows an axial sectionthroughs.the

upper end of a periscope in` accordance with.

the `inrentien and illustrates theoptical elements of. the instrument with omission of the` main part ot' the mechanical/means for adjustment.

Eig. Q shows a. longitudinal. section throughthe upper enel` of the instrument casing with. the mechanical-.means for adjustment with. omission of themaln part of the optical.. elements, and indicating some otzthnm in elevation.

Fig. 3 is a sectional View of an adjust ing device for one of the optical elements.`

Figs -il and ."5 show the construction of the operatinghandle near the ocular of the ins'tri'lmentin elevation and partly in section.

The. upper end of the periscope is designated with the `numeral 1. The instrument casing is made watertight at its upper end by :i plain glass, plate which is arranged inclined to the. tube 1. The light entrance reflector is tormet by a. righty angled` triangular prism 3. The deviation prism which inA accordance with the. invention is arranged behind the light entrance reflector is designated 4. In front of this deviation prism: an additional prism 5 is provided leaving a thinlayer ot' air between it and the deviation prism., The purpose of this additional prism` consists in securing. the: entrance ofthe axial ray into the glass. body at rightangles. to the entrance surface. The: two reflecting snrliaces of the deflection prism l are designated G, 7 .one part of thc surface'f being as Well the entrance surface for the light as a. reflection surface against which. the lighty isfthrow'n after re ficction fronithe Jfurther reflecting surface 7 and from which it is thereafter again reiected. The numeral 8 designates the oh. jectire for high magnification, said vobjective forming at the saine time. an element of the objective for low magnification, the two other elements` ofi this objective for low magnication beingV designated 9 and 10. The lenses 9 and 10` canE be at will inserted into the path otthe rays and'brought out of theV path of the` rays, whereas the objective 8 is arranged .in fixed position. 11 des-v ignates a collectingylens having its plain backside lying in the first image planenot' the instrument, such. image plane being oommon to hotltobjective systems. The image reif'ersing systemzand ocular may have any desired form. The'ocular casing is indicated only in Fig. 1 of the drawing and designated withv the numeralA 12.

The actuationfi as wellof the entrance r llectcn as ot the lenses 9,10` is effected by two toothedy racks 13, 14 which by coupling members 15, 16. are connected to racks 17, 18 `provided at the lower end of the'instru.- meut. The racks 13, 14 are in; mesh with a pinion 19 on' a shaft 2O which is provided at the end opposite the end carrying the pinion 19 with a crank 21 rwhich by av link 22 is connected with the rotatingv 'entrance 're-Hector 3 lia-ving its pivot at 23. 24 designate-s a toothed segment mounted on shaft 2O laterally of pinion 19, said segment j adapted to come in meshk with a toothed lens element 9 of the objective.

' ment 10 of the objective for low magnificaiack 25 provided on the carrying member of the lens element 9. Formed inone piece with the toothed segmentv 24 is a circular` segmentf26 wliichis shown vin Fig. 3 as resting in an arch-.shaped cut 27 of the body of rack 25. rl`flie circula-i. segment 26 locks lthe ".tootlied rack 25 iii position as long tion'is mounted in a rotatable body 28 having its pivot at 29, vthe rotatable carrier 28' of theA lens element 10 is provided with an angular slot 30 forming a guide for a pin 31 fixed to rack 13.l y.On'raising' and loweringof rack 13' a pin31 moves in one branch of the angular slot 30, sov .that the. rotatable Y body 28 with the -lens 10 isfnot affected-'by such raising 'and lowering.,r of rack 13, but is on the contraryv locked in position. Dur-` ing the movement of pin 31 within slot 30 the circular segment 26 locks the rack member 25, so that the lens elements 10 and 9 are locked yin position at the saine time. On

f arriving of pin 31 at the .edge32 of the angular slot 30 the rotatable body 28 is rotated Vtill the branch of the angular slot 30 which was inv horizontal position is brought to vertical position. If now rack 13 is furtherrased, pin 31 is displacedv witli-in this partof the angular slot 30. During this I period of Amovement'the toothed sector 24 f is in mesh with, rack 25 Vand p-roduces a displacement :of the lens element 9. Such displacement continues ltill the ycircular segment 26 yenters the arch-shaped cut 27a of rack member 25. i

42'is an arc-shaped slot 4within the rotatable body 28 and 43 afixed pin entering l said slot 42, suoli pin limiting the rotativev 'movement ofthe rotatable body 28. The

actuation of racks 13, 14 and 17, 18 is effected by ahaiidle 33 provided at the ocular end of the instrument, said handle being inountedon arotatable shaft34. Shaft 34 provided with teeth 35 in mesh with a ltoothed wheel 36 adapted to actuate the racks 17, 18. Therefore, on rotating the handle 33 about shaft 34a-n actuation of ri f 1,530,081l

racks 13, 14 takes place'in such a manner -that each time one rack is raised simultaneously with the lowering of the other rack. A y

The ai'raiigementis conveniently nrade in vthis way, that the direction of the handle 33`coincides with the direction of vision of tlieinstrument. `The handle 33 is mounted on av core 37 in the form of a toothed rack slidable in a socket 38.

rlleeth 39 of core 37 are iii mesh with teeth 40 on shaft 34. A displacement ofthecore 37 within the socket 38, therefore, produces arotation of shaft 34 and consequently an .operation of racks 17, 18, 13,14. The dimensions of -the several parts are so calculated that by moving the handle 33 with the core 37 within the sockety 38 from one end position to the other, the lenses 9, 10 'are transported fromrest position to operative position, so that siichendwise movement of the 'j handle effects a'change in' magnification, whereas the. rotation ofliaiidle 33 with socket38 controls the adjustment `of the entrance reflector.V 41 designates a locking pin for `the core 37 limiting a sliding movement in the two opposite directions.

" 'The' operation ofthe instrument as a ywhole is as follows:

f Assuming observation is to be miade with low magnilication, then thelens elements 9,

`10 of the objective system are brought into the. position appearing from the drawing. By rotating thehandle 33' with the socket 38v about shaft 34 the `instrumentis adjusted into the desired direction of vision. If now a change in magnification shall take place theliandle33 is moved in longitudinal direction, so that the core 37 is brought from one end position within socket 38 to the other ,end position. During such movement the entrance reflectorv3 makes a full up and down swinging and atft'he end'of this movement is again inthe same position as at the beginning'. If thecore 37 is returned to its yoriginal position the magnification of thev instrument is again changed and all parts of the instrument are returned to their original position.

'Instead of effecting the adjusting movements rbyfmoving the'handle 33 in longitudinal direction. and by rotation of same about shaft 34. the longitudinal movement could be substituted by a rotation of Athe handle about'the axis Iof core 37. s

The arrangement of the fixed lobjective y8 behind the deviation prism4 is of special advantage in so far'that it lallows topposition the first image plane, which is common ,to both obj eotive systems, at considerable distance from the'light entrance endy of thev instrument. This is important for securing a1 comparatively smalll `diameter .for thev light entrance end of. the instrument till a considerable distance froml plate 2,

1, cados i;

owing., to the' fact that thel bulli-1 ofthe'.

rays broadens itselfy laterally behind' the` image planell, .so thatiitrbecomes necessary` tobroaden also the instrument tube behind the image plane 1l.

' ment:inserted4 in the path ot. the raysfcoxnev ing; from the entrance reflector said last:`

named prism` adapted 4to deflect: the rays-inrfv pinginp. thereonA by two successive` reflections into the direction; of themain tube ofi the instrument.

2; In` :1 periscope particularly for subma-A rines, al light entrance reflector: rotatable. about an. i axis -transversely tozatlrei mainfitnbes of the instrument, a prisnrdevi'ce insented.

insthe path of rays vbehindthietelrtrance reflector consisting. of a.' main: dexi'intioni prism. provided wit-hi two reflecting;A surfaces, one oft them formingta` lightentnmncef surf face' of the prism and'an.Ladditional.prima;` ini front ot' said entrance surface ot: the` main prism. so shaped and lmsitioatedthat lits entrance surface is at rightangles to the axial .rafy Vof' the instrumentd 3. A periscope particularly for sabina-1- rmes comprising a tube shapedcasmg conY taining theoptical` elements off the instru-4 ment, said casing closed aty the lightV en trance end by a'plane transparent plate=-1n-- clined tothe axis of? said tube, an objec# tive firmly' mounted within saidinntrument tube'and a prismfdewice positioned4 between; said inclined transparenty plate a'nd.Y smidrv fixedly mounted objective, said prism device comprising a4 light. entrance rellector rotatable aboutian axis transversely to the axis of the instrument tube and so; positioned that a` section made through the instrument at right angles to its wxis containing the axis ol the rotatable reflector crosses the axis of the instrument tube between said reflector axis and vsaid inclined transparent plate.

4. In a periscope particularly for submarines, a light entrance reflector rotatable about an axis transversely to the main tube of the instrument, a deviation prism behind said rotatable entrance reflector adapted to deflect the rays impigning thereon into the axial direction of the instrument tube, objective systems for different magnification, the objective device for the lower magnification comprising a negative element removably positioned between the rotatable entrance reflector and the deviation prism.

5. In a periscope particularly for submarines, a light entrance reflector rotatable about an axis transversely to the main tube of the instrument, a deviation prism behind said 'rotatable entrance reflector.y adapted to defleetthe rays impigning' thereon; into thil axial direction; ot the instrumenttube,ob ject'ivey systems for differentI magnification, the-objective device for the lowersmagnification comprising-3a negative element re,- movablyv positioned between the rotatable `entrance reflector' and theA deviation prism,

thefiobjective for thehiglglen magnification firmly mounted: behind the deviation prieur.,

6i Inf` a periscope particularly' for submarines, ailightentrance reflector' rotatable about an axistransversel-y to the main tu-bcv ofthe-1 mstrumena deviation prism behind;v

saidv rotntable'entrance reflector, objective systems for different magnification, and a.

guide-Way'between thev rotatable entrance reflecbosz and thev deviation;` prism, the: ob-

jective device for thelower magnification.

comprising'a negative element-slidably arranged" on f said `gnide+-way and. adaptedato be at. will inserted intothe pathv4 of the rays annlmemoved. thel'eIfOm'- Ti In. a periscope particularly for sub-` ma rines, a. light L entrance reflector rotatable; i

about anaxis transversely tothe: main tube ofxth'e instrument, a:deviation` prisinbclrind said rotatable entrance. reflector andwairac.- tuatimg crank shaft,- a.. pinion thereon meshing with said` toothed: rack andA a link connecting.

saidl crank shaft With said entrance re.- Hector.y

8.= ,In.l a periscope particularly forA submarines, a i light entrance-reflector rotatable about` an@ axis transversely to the `main tube f of the instrument, a f deviation `prism behind- Said rotatableentrance reflectoi, objective systemssfomrdiferent magnification and comprisingelementsaadanted to be inserted into the path off the` raysy and` to be removed therefrom and anaactuating; device. fori-said entrance reector and f movable object ,ela ss elements;,sairl-1 actuating; device comprisingl at least one toothed rack in operative connection as well with, the entrance reflector as with the movable lens elements, the connection with the movable lens elements being ot such kind that a reversal of the lens positions is only effected on a full Working stroke of the rack.

device for said entrance reflector con'1pr1smg at least onel toothed racine, ay



tive lens .comprising at least one toothed rack in operative connection with the rotatable entrance reflector, and a toothed segment adapted to mesh at predetermined positions with the rackconnected to the slid-.-

able negative lens element.

10. In a` periscope particularlyI for submarines,l a light entrance reflector rotatable aboutan axistransversely to the main tube of the instrument, a deviation prism behind said-rotatable entrance reflector, objective systems for different magnification, the objective device for the lowermagnification comprising a negative element, a guide-way for same, said guide-way arranged between the rotatable entrance reflector and the de-` viation prism, a toothed rack slidable with the lens, an actuating device for said rotatable entrance reflector, a slidable negative lens comprising at least one toothedv rack in operative connection with the rotatable entrance reflectonand a toothed segment adapted to mesh at'predetern'iined positions with the rack connectedfto the slidable negative lens element, a locking device for', the slidable negative. lens being' pro-k vided adapted to lock it at both its end posi tions, said Y locking device comprising an larcuate segment adapted to enter in arcuate cuts of the lens carrier.

ll. In a periscope particularly for submarines, a light entrance reflector rotatable about. an axis transversely to the main tube of the instrument, a deviation prism behind said rotatable entrance reflector, objective systems for different magnification, theobjective devices comprising a slidable `negative lensfelement, a fixed lens element andv a rotatable lenslelement, a guide-way for the slidable lens element positioned betweenl the rotatable entrance reflector 'and the def viation prism and a rotatable lens element, an actuating device for said rotatable entrance reflectorand movable lens elements, comprising a toothed rack in operative oo nnection with said rotatable entrance reflector and movable lens elements, the connec-v tion with the lrotatable lens element being effected by a pin ron the actuating rack Working iny an angular'slot of the rotatable lens element and locking it in position while the angular slot but giving it a rotation of'definite angular Width on passing from one lateral branch of the slot to the other.

l2. In a periscope particularly for submarines, a light entrance reflector. rotatable about anaxis transversely to the main tube I moving in yeach of the lateral branches of v of the instrument, a deviation prism behind said rotatable entrance reflector, objective systems for different magnification and comprising elements adapted to be inserted i into the path of the rays and to be removed therefrom and an actuating device for said entrance reflector and movable object glass elements, said actuating device comprising a slidable toothed rack in permanent operative connection with the entrance re-v axis transversely to the a-xisof the instrul ment tube, the transmission of the gear being so calculated that lthe position of lthe lhandle-permanently indicates the actual direction of vision ofthe instrument.

a In testimony whereof we have signed this specification in the ypresence of two subscribing witnesses.


l/Vitnesses: y



Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3015249 *Mar 14, 1949Jan 2, 1962Northrop CorpTracking telescope
US3485548 *Sep 7, 1966Dec 23, 1969Commissariat Energie AtomiqueStereoscopic telescope for the remote viewing of objects placed in a sealed examination cave
US4138192 *Feb 4, 1977Feb 6, 1979Olympus Optical CompanyFoward-oblique viewing optical system
US4140364 *Dec 5, 1977Feb 20, 1979Olympus Optical Co., Ltd.Variable field optical system for endoscopes
US4600277 *Feb 13, 1984Jul 15, 1986Murray Jr Joseph ETelescope with multiple image-viewing assemblies
US6754004 *Dec 12, 2002Jun 22, 2004Alvis Hagglunds AbOptical sight
US20030128425 *Dec 12, 2002Jul 10, 2003Hagglunds Vehicle AbOptical sight
U.S. Classification359/405, 359/672, 359/421
International ClassificationG02B23/02, G02B23/08
Cooperative ClassificationG02B23/08
European ClassificationG02B23/08