Improved automatic cannon
US 15315 A
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4 SheetsSheet 1. c E'. BARNES.
Machine Gun. No. 15,315. Patented July 8, 1856.
N. PETERS. FHDTD'LITHOGRAPHER, WASHINGTONv D c.
4 Sheets-Sheet 2.
C. E. BARNES.
No. 15,315. Patented July 8, 1856.
Inventor 4 SheetsSheet 4. C. E. BARNES.
Patented July 8, 1856.
N. PETERS, FNOTO-UTHOGRAPNER. WASHINGTON. D Cv stitute a lucid, clear, and exact description of notes a plan or top view; Fig. 2, a side eleva- UNITED STATES PATENT OFFIC CHARLES E: BARN-ES, OF LOWELL, MASSAoHUsErTS, ASSIGNOR TO 0. E. BARNES AND M. W. OLIVER.
IMPROVED AUTOMATIC CANNON.
To all whom it may concern.- I showing its slot J with the crank-wrist B Be it known that 1, CHARLES EMERSON therein. Fig. 18 is a vertical section of the BARNES, of Lowell, in the county of Middlecap-wheel, cap-nipple, and breech-pin on line sex and Commonwealth ofMassachusetts, have 0 D, Fig. 1. Fig. 19 is an inner elevation of invented a novel and useful Automatic Can the cap-wheel D and an end elevation of the hon; and. I hereby declare that the following breech-pin H, and Side elevation of the slide-rod specification, in connection with the accompaa, for moving the caps from this wheel to the nying drawings and references thereon, connipple, and dog F in one of the notches G of ghis wheel, and the rod P for operating this The elevation of the cams and gears shown from Figs. 5 to 16 show them disconnected tion of the same; Fig. 3, a longitudinal and from my machine. vertical section on line A B, Fig. 1, showing Thenature of my invention consists in self the parts beyond or toward the bottom of the loading and discharging cannon by means of the construction and use of the same.
In referring to said drawings, Figure 1 dedrawing. Fig. at indicates a longitudinal and I the vibrating plunger which forces the carvertical section, also on line A B, Fig. 1, showtridge into the cannon, and which plunger coning the parts beyond or toward the top of the tains the hammer, so operated as to explode drawing. Fig. 5 denotes an elevation of the the cap; and the cap-wheel for self-capping the cams G2 and l fastened to the gears H and gun, together with the arrangement and op- J in position shown at Fig. 1. Fig. 6 is an eration of the working parts, these parts being elevation of the gears H and J which are operated by intermittent and reciprocating fastened to the cams C1 and 1 as shown in motions produced by my withindescribed arposition indicated in Fig. 5. Fig. 7 is an elerangement of gears and cams, substantially as vation of the cams G and I and part of the as within shown, so as to cause every move gear J to which the cam l is fastened, as in ment to be in harmony with the others to efiect position shown at Fig. 4. Fig. Sis an elevathe desired object by the turning of a single tion of the gears H and J attached to the crank. cams G2 and 1 shown in position at Fig. 4. To enable persons skilled in the art to which Fig. 9 denotes an elevation of the cams G and myinvention appertains to construct and carry 1 connected with the gear J in position as out the same, I will describe it as follows:
shown in Fig. 3. Fig. 10 denotes an elevation I construct an iron platen, (seen at A, Figs. of the gears H and J attached to the cams 1, 2, 3, and 4 of the accompanying drawings,) G and 1 shown in position at Fig. 3. Fig. to which is fixedthe principal working parts 11 denotes an elevation of the gears S and U of my machine. At the forward end of the fastened to the cams T and U shown in the platen A, I form two stands, (seen at B Figs.
position indicated in Fig. 1. Fig. 12 denotes 1, 2, 3, and 4,) which are so constructed as to an elevation of the gears R and U attached receive the cannon G by its trunnlons, (seen to the cams Q and U shown in the position at A, Fig. 2,)theybeing held down bythe boxas at Fig, 1. Fig. 13 is an elevation of the caps A and screws 0 Figs. 1 and 2. The forgears S and U connected to the cams T and ward end of the platen is connected to the U, in position shown at Fig. at. Fig. 14 is an axle-tree 0, Figs. 1, 2, 3, and 4, bytwo strong elevation of the gears R and U connected to hinges, (seen in dotted lines at, Figs. 2, 3, and the cams Q and U, shown when the machine 4,) which constitutes the turning-point forthe is in position as at Fig. 4. Fig. 15 denotes an platen A, one part of each of which hinges is elevation of the gears S and U connected to Secured to the platen and the other to the top to thecamsT and U, shownin position at Fig. of the axle-tree C, so that the gun and parts 3. Fig. 16 denotes an elevation of the gears for self-operating it may be elevated or low- E and U connected to the cams Q and U', in ered to hit the desired object at which the canposition shown at Fig. 3. Fig. 17 is a view of non-ball or projectile is being fired or pmthe breech-pin disconnected from the machine, jected by means of the screw F and wheel E,
Figs. 1, 2, 3, and 4, operated by hand, when desired, the lower end of this screw being sus-.
tained in the step 1 Figs. 2, 3, and 4, which is fastened to the cross-bar H Figs. 1, 3, and
Figs. 1 and 2.
Figs.1 and 2 indicate the first position of my inachine--viz., when the plunger Y isdrawn to its extreme backward movement. Fig. 3 shows the second position, in which the cannon is just ready to be discharged, and the third, in Fig. 4, shows the position of the various parts just after the cartridge has been deposited in the cannon-barrel.
The barrel G of the cannon is drilled entirely through from end to end, as seen at J Figs. 3 and 4., Then a squarehole is formed'trans versely through and near the breech,into which is fitted the sliding breech-pin, (seen'at H, Figs. 1, 2, 3, 17, 18, and 19,) so that it may freely slide back and forth. I thenxform an iron stand, (seen at Z Figs. 2,3,and 4,) and firmly secure it to the platen A by the screws A Figs. 3 and 4, and recess this stand, as seen at K Figs. 3 and 4, for the crank U to clear as it revolves. The two sides of the stand Z project up to receive the ways or slides X, Figs. 1 and 3, which are fastened down by the screws 0, Fig.1. 1 then construct a plunger or ramrod of iron, (seen at Y, Figs. 1, 2, 3, aud 4,) the forward portion of it being made round to fit the hole .in the cannon after sliding through the guide Z, Figs. 1, 2, 3, and 4, and the back end is made square, as seen at A and grooved so as to fit and slide on the inner edges of the ways X, which constitute the back guide for the plunger Y to slide upon.
To the platen A, I fasten the stand 0 Fig. 2,.which constitutes, with the cap Q, Figs. 1 and 2, the outer bearing for the drive-shaft N, Fig. 1, while the inner bearing is formed by drilling a hole in the stand Z 1 construct a crank-shaft, (seen at U, Figs. 1, 2, 3, and 4,) and suspend it so as to freely revolve in bearings formed in the stand Z The caps W and screws f, Figs. 1., 2, 3, and 4, hold down this crankshaft, on the inner end of which is secured the gears S and B and cams T and Q, Figs. 1, 2, 3, 11, and 12, which are operated by gears U and U and earns U and U (seen at Figs. 3, 11, and 12,) whichare secured to the inner end of the driveshai'tN, by which they are revolved.
The peculiar construction and shape of these cams and gears are shown in Figs. 11 and 12. The drive-shaft is supposed to revolve continually as the arrow points when the cannon is being fired, and the plunger Y must have an intermittent motion. Consequently a sufficient number of teeth of the gears S and R and U and U are removed, and the cams must be shaped as seen at Figs. 11 and 12 in the first,
and 13 and 1.4 in the second, and 15 and 16 in the third position of the movement of my cannon.
About midway of the drive-shaft N, I fasten a bevel-gear, P, which gears into and drives another similar bevel-gear, m, Fig. 1, fastened to the back end of the secondary drive-shaft 1, Figs. 1 and 2,which shaft has its bearing in the stand P held to the platen A by'the screw R, with its cap it held down by the screwsU and .the other bearing is formed by drilling a hole into the stand B.
To the forward end of the shaft I, I fasten the gear J 2 and cam 1 which connect with and operate the gear H. and cam G2 on the secondary crank-shaft A, which turns in bearings formed in the top of the standard B, the box caps 10 19 forming part of these hearings, they being held down ,by the screws F The crank It drives the breech-pin H by the wrist B ,which fits a slot formed through the breech pin, as seen at J Fig. 17. y
I construct a connecting-rod of two pieces of metal, (seen at V, Figs. 1, 2, 3, and 4,) which are held together by the screws S, same figures. One end of this connecting-rod is fitted to the wrist Z Figs. 3 and 4, of the crank U, and the opposite end to the plunger Y so that by turning the crank U it will vibrate the plunger Y by its wrist Y Figs. 3 and 4, being connected to the rodV, as will be hereinafter seen. The plunger Y is made hollow to receive the hammer Y Figs. 3 and 4, which is fitted so as to slide freely within the plunger Y. A portion of the back end of this hammer is turned or made smaller than the front part, around which reduced part is coiled a spiral spring, (seen at D Figs. 3 and 4,) one end of which presses against the shoulder F near the back end of the plunger Y, and the other end against the shoulderE, formed on the hammer Y by turnin g its back end smaller than the forward end of it, so that when the forward end of the latch c is raised'by its part b coming in contact with the lower end of the screw'g, Figs. 1, 2, 3, and 4, the hammer Y will instantly fly forward and strike and explode the cap V on the nipple L in the breech-pin H,'as seen in Figs. 3 and 18 and of course discharge the cannon.
I construct a percussion-cap wheel (seen at D Figs. 1, 2, and 3) with a central hub, (seen at F, Fig. 18,) which turns on the stud T Figs. 1, 17, and 18, fastened to the. stand B by the boX-cap r. This cap-wheel is constructed with several recesses in its periphery, (seen at Q", Figs. 1 and 18,) in which are placed what are called hat-caps, V Figs. 3, 18, and 19,
the rim on them preventing their dropping through the recesses Q into the center of the wheel.
The cap-wheel D is placed directly back of the breech-pin B, so that the cap-nipple L5 in it will be directly forward of one of the caps V when the rod to will he slid forward by the pin U in the plunger Y coming in contact with the stand or arm 0;, held onto the rod u by the screw X and move one of the caps V end is fitted to the notches G from the recess Q in the cap-wheel D and deposit it on the nipple L (Seen atFigs. 3 and 18.)
I construct a cap-rod (seen at to, Figs. 1, 2,
l8, and 19) which freely slides in the stands 10,
cussion-cap recesses Q therein. I form a ratchet-arm, F (seen at Figs. 1, 3, and 19,) kept or pressed into the notches G3 of the cap-wheel D? by the spring L Fig. 2, held to the stand to by the screw M its upper end being fitted to turn on the stud T Fig. 1., while its lower About midway between the center of the stud T and lower edge of-the cap-wheel D I connect one end of the rod P Figs. 1 and 19, by the pivot P*, Fig. 19, while near at the opposite end of it passes through andis guided by the projection A", Fig. 2, and is bent around and passes between the stands 00 and 3 held to the rod to by the screws V and W Figs. 1 and 2, as
seen athi Fig. 2, so that these stands will move the rod P by the moving of the rodu to push the cap V from the cap-wheel D onto the nipple L I form a catch on the hammer Y as seen at A Figs. 3 and 4, so that the forward end of the latch 0, Figs. 1, 3, and 4, turning on the center d, Figs. 1, 2, 3, and 4, may be forced down forward of the catch A by the spring G Fig. 4, to hold the hammer Y after the hammer has been held by its pin B coming in contact with the surf'aceD, Fig. 4, of the stand Z until the spiral spring D Figs. 3 and 4, has been pressed against the shoulder E Figs. 3 and 4, of the hammer Y sntlicient to force it forward, when liberated,to explode the cap V Figs. 3, 1S, and 19, so that when the plunger and hammer are drawn back by turning the crank M by the handle L, Figs. 1, 2, and 3, until it arrives at the position indicated at Fig. 3, then the projection or beveled end b,
Figs. 1, 2,3, and 4, on the back end of the latch 0, Figs. 1, 3, and 4, comes in contact with the lower end of the screw 9, Figs. 1, 2, 3, and 4,
which presses it down, and consequentlyraises the opposite end, so as to nncatch it from the hammer Y which is then instantly driven forward by the spring D with sufficient force to explode the cap V and discharge the cannon.
Iconstruct a cartridge box stand (seen at 0 Figs. 1, 2, and 4) and secure it to the platen A, just back of the breech of the cannon. To this stand I fit the cartridgebox, (seen at J, Figs. 1, 2, and 4,) so that it may freely slide back and forth in the stand (1 A recess or mortise is formed entirely through the cartridge-box J, as seen at K, Fig. 1, into which the cartridge Y Figs. 3 and 4, is laid I or dropped just before the breech-pin is slid forward.
I construct a cartridge-receiver, which is a part of the, stand 0 as seen atS, Figs. 1, 3, and 4, the lower part ofit being semicircular, as seen at'i, Fig. 1, and the same diameter and height as the bore of thecannon. Into this cartridgereceiver the cartridge Y is dropped from the cartridge-box J when,it is moved forward, and this movement is effected by being connected to the breech-pin H bythe arm I, Fig. 1, so that the same movement .which is imparted to the breech-pin H is conveyed to the cartridge-box J, as will be understood. The cartridge is by this movement dropped into the receiver S as seen at i, just in time for the plunger Y to push it into the horeof the cannon.
The cartridges are formed of tin or anyother desired substance, as seen at Y Figs. 3 and 4, the back end, of course, being cloth in all cases. The powderis seen at 'W and the hall at X Figs. 1 and 2.
There is one cam under the cam Q, and a gear under the gear lt, Fig. 1, both being seen at U and U Figs.3 and 11, and are l'astcned to the inner end of the drive-shat'tN; nlso tlie gear U? and cam U Figs. 1, 2, 1t, and 16, are fastenedto theinner end of the driVe sh-aft N. The elevation of these cams and gears, (shown from Figs. 5 to 16,) indicating thethrce positions mentioned in the beginning of this specification, conveys all the necessaryinformation and description of them, as they are shown in the machine and connected to it, and these ele- -vations disconnected from the machine will give any competent person knowledge to con"- struct and arrange them, their shape in full being seen in these elevations. r
At j is formed a recess in the platen A, Fig. 1, in which may be placed a wet sponge, if desired, to wet the breech-pin at each discharge of the cannon, to keep it cool, it necessary.
I form a stand (seen at K, Figs. 1 and 2) for the breech-pin H to slide in, to give it an outward support while it is being operated by the crank k, Fig. 1, and wrist B Fig.17. A hole is formed through the breech-pin, (seen atZ", Fig. 17,) which is the same size ot the bore of the cannon, (seen at J, Figs. 3 and 4,)so that when the breech-pin H is drawn one way it will allow the cartridge Y to be pushed into the cannon through the hole Z in the breechpin H by the plunger Y,and when the breechpin is driven back it will inclose the cartridge in the cannon,ready for tiring, as will be readily understood.
The nipple L can be seen, as it is fastened to the breech-pin H, and the hole K Fig. 3, through or over which the cap V is exploded by the hammer Y to tire the cannon. When the cannon is fired the force or the explosion through the fuse will be sui'ficient to throw the hammer Y back to catch on the shoulder A which constitutes its (JOt king. lt' theforee of explosion should fail or miss to cock the hammer Y then the pin or stud 1:. in thishamnier Y will come against the surface O of the stand Z when the hammer'and plunger Y are being in the plungi-rs hould not he cocked or thrown back by the force of the discharge of the cannon or the stud B coming in contact with the surface Fig. 3, sufficient to allow the catch on the under side of the latch c to catch onto the shoulder A which holds this hammer Y in place until the latch c is moved or pressed down by its bevel (seen atl) coming in contact with the lower end of the screw 9 to explode the cap and fire the cannon, as before mentioned. This stop arrangement is to effectually prevent accidents in case of hangfire and clogging the cannon with a surplus of ammunition, which will be of the utmost importance to do, as will be well known to persons skilled in the art to which my invention 'appertains. I
1. The arrangement by which I impart a reciprocating and intermttent motion to the breechpin- H by gears H and J and cams G and 1 Figs. 1, 2, and 3, or their equivalents, so that the gun or cannon may first receive the cartridge. and then close the bore of the cannon back of the cartridge, bringing the nipple on which the percussion-cap is placed in the center and immediately back of the end of the cartridge, ready for firing, essentially in the manner and for the purposes fully set forth.
2. Giving the ramrod or plunger Y a recipr'ov eating and intermittent motion for placing the cartridge Y within the gun, and firing it, when so placed, by means of a hammer, Y, in the plunger Y operated by the spring D Figs. 3 and 4, and latch 0, Figs. 1, 3, and 4, arranged and operated essentially in the manner and for the purposesfully set forth.
3. The cap-wheel D Figs. 1, 2, and 3, and
its slide-rods u and P Figs. 1, 2, 18, and 19,
so arranged and operated as to place or deposit the cap upon the nipple L Figs. 3, 17, and 18, when the breech-pin H is drawn back, so that it can be then advanced or slid into the gun, with the cap placed on the nipple L therein, ready for firing, essentially in the manner and for the purposes fully set forth.
4. The cartridge-box J, Figs. 1, 2, and 4, so arranged and operated by the breech-pin, or otherwise, as to deposit the cartridge Y into the receiver S ready for the plunger Y or ramrod, to force it into the bore of the gun, essentially in the manner and for the purposes fully set forth.
5. The catch 1', or its equivalent, on the latch 0, or otherwise formed, arranged, and operated to stop the movement of the firing apparatus, to prevent accidents and clogging the cannon with surplus ammunition, essentially in the manner and for the purposes fully set forth.
' CHAS. E. BARNES.
JOHN P. CRANE, E. W. Sco'r'r.