US 1532592 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
' April 7, 1925.
M. E. LAYNE MEANS FOR FORMING WELL SCREENS 1923 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Original Filed April 19,
April 7, 1925.
Y M. E. LAYNE MEANS' FOR FORMING WELL SCREENS 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 rimlnal Filed April 19, 1923 l l l Patented Apr. 7, 1925.
UNITED STATES PATENT,OFF1CE.
lMAHLON E. LAYNE, OF HO'UVSTON, TEXAS, ASSIGNOR T0 LAYNE & BOWLER CORPORA- TIONrOF LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA, A CORPORATION F CALIFORNIA.
MEANS FOR 'FOB'MING WELL SCREENS.
Original application led April 19, 1923, Serial No. 633,084..l Divided and `this application led January 22, 1924. Serial No. 687,717.
To all whom t may concern,.-
Be it known that I, MAHLON E. LAYNE., a citizen of the United States, residing at Houston, in the county of Harris and Stato of Texas, have invented a new and useful Means for Forming Well Screens, of which the following is a specification.
This invention relates to the general subject of well-screens, and is particularly directed to a device adapted to. be lowered down into a well casing installed in position in a Well for forming in the well casing perforations for admitting fluid through the casing and into the well. This application is a division of my co-pending application, Serial No. 633,084, filed April 19, 1923, issued July 8,y 1924, Patent No.1,500,829.
An object of this invention is to provide a device for forming well screens by which the screen aperture may be positively initially opened to a predetermineddegreeand subsequently positively opened to a greater degree. i
Another object is to provide adevice for forming well screens, by which the screen apertures may be repeatedly andl accurately engaged after the screen hasbeen installed within a well, by means manipulated from CII the well surface and under full control of the operator. a
A further object is to provide a device for forming well screens, which permits a screen having normally vclosed screen apertures to be inserted into a well bore and to be subsequently positively opened by means operated from the well surface and functionj ing in a manner to positively insure a unirate re-engagement of previously opened apertures.
Another object is to provide a mechanism adapted to be lowered into a well casing and manipulated from the Well'surface and-vertically translatedto form vert-ical rows of relatively spaced screen apertures with the rows circularly spaced atpredetermined intervals.
Another object is to provide a mechanism comprising a perforator element normally inoperative .for a perforatin operation, and a cooperating member opera le to follow said mechanism into the well and condition Said element for a perforating operation.
A further object is to provlde such coop erating member with an independent operating connection leading to the well surface,
and to provide means associated with the perforator mechanism for operating said cooperating member when its operating connection is not available for such purpose, through breakage or through dropping thereof into the well.
Another object is to provide a mechanism which is particularly adaptable for use in connection with double Wall Well-screens in which the inner wall is provided with ver tical rows of holes with which the perforator element has a rack and pinion engagement, and an outer wall normally closing said holes and in some instances scored or slit in the region of each hole to facilitate a perforating operation.
Various other objects and advantages will be. more fully apparent from the following description ofthe accompanying drawings which form a part of this disclosure, and which illustrate a preferred form of embodiment of the invention.
Of the drawings:
Figure 1 is a vertical section through a well-screen casing showing the tool of the present invention in elevation therein.
Fig. 2 is an enlarged section through the well-screen casing and tool showing the parts positioned for a perforating operation.
Fig. 3 is a side elevation of the tool looking` at the left-hand side of Fig. 2.
Fig. 4. is a section similar to Fig. 2, illustrating the use of the emergency connection for preparing the tool for withdrawal.
Fig. 5 is a section on line 5 5 of Fig. 2,
Fig. 6 is a section on line 6-6Iof Fig. 2,
Fig. 8 is a detail vview showing a modified form of perforating element.
The device hereinv described is especially adaptable for use in the formation of well screens which are manufactured with normally closed screen apertures to be subsequently opened after the screen is positioned in a well bore at the desired point of production, and is more particularly adapted for"use in the formation of double wall well screens in which an inner apertured casing functions as a means of positively guiding a mechanical 'perforating device or tool in a perforating operation to open screen aper-A tures in the .Outer Wall 0r caslng.
methods are objectionable, first fonthe reason that vin producing a pressure Within the casing of a degree suiiicient to open the in some cases the explosion was so sharp to open orfstretch the connectlng couplmgs screen apertures, and especially in the use of explosives, there is great danger of injury to the well casing, it having been found that as to such an extent that when attempting tolift the casing the couplingswould'slip oif the threads of the casing sections, and second for the reason that the vdegreeto which the screen apertures are opened can-- not be accurately determined or controlled,
' for instance those screen apertures which happen to be adjacent hard formations will not beopenedto the same extent as those adjacent softer formations.
-VVith the herein described apparatus, the screen apertures are positively openedto a predetermined degree regardlcsspf the 'na- `ture of the formation contacting the various portions thereof. And further, with the present apparatus it becomes possible to open the screen perforatons to a limited extent in the iirst instance and to furthel` opensaid perforations as conditions may require, and with a certainty of accurately reengaging the previously formed perfor-a4 tions. This is of great advantage in bringing in Wells under high initial pressure necessitating a screen vWith only Alimited openings .or screen' a ertures, and Where Y later the pressure su' sides and a more liberal opening is needed. Further, in Wells '40 in sand formations, the fineness or coarseness of the screen' openings should var v according to the finenessor\coarseness of the sand in such formations and should be* under positive control -.of the operator. 'so that in a Well bore through formations of different characters itis possibleto open one portion of thel screen more than another. `It willl be Vunderstood that thatportion of lthe screen adjacent hard formations should be. opened to a greater degree' than that Whlch is adjacent softformations for the reason (that large screen apertures adjacent.
soft formations will usuallyadmit too much sand into the.' well, and further it will be 'evident thatwith the heretofore proposed methods of opening the screen apertures by hydraulic or explosive pressure the reverse' will be true, that is',` inA hard formations there is a greater resistance to the opening of the screen apertures, resulting in limited' apertures where, larger' .apertures are deslr'ed and 1n soft formations where lsuch resistance is least the -apertures will be relatvely' large where smaller apertures arel desired. a
With those types of mechanical perforators which are not positively guided Iin entire screen.
My improved device permits lne to posi- '80 tively open the screen apertures in any pQ1.'-'y tion ofthescreen to any degree desired, and after the screen lhas been set in the Well bore, andto subsequently, accurately and positively" re-engage said apertures to increase the degree of .opening or to clean out ysuchhof the apertures as may have become clogged or cemented shut by the lime or other incrusting contentsof the 'formations-.f
In the drawings Ihave illustrated, a well.- -99 screen structure which consists of an inner casing l1 having a plurality of circularlywff spaced roxys of holes 2 equally spaced vertically, and an outer casing 3 vvhich is vertically slit as at 4 with each slit extending 95 across one of the holes 2 in the inner casing." The slitsx are normally closed and -in such condition the screen is. Wered into 'the wellto position of\use,and l eans'are sub.
sequently manipulated within the screen to 100 Widen theslits toform screen apertures '5 in\ communication with `the respective holes 2 of thelinnercasing. A'screen structure" of this type is fully illustratedand described in my copending application'entitled Well screenand meth.- od of making'same. Case B, Serial No. 633,083, Vfiled April 19, 1923, issued July y8, 1924, Patent No.` 1,500,828, to which reference maybe had if desiredl .It..W-ill=be statedl that in-so far as-the presenti invention is concerned, the. specific construction of the screenA isA immaterial so long as 'it embodies the general character ',istics of the type of screen shown, it being 115ievident that other specific forms of screens are adaptable' for vuse Witlithe mechanism 'j disclosed herein, one 'of such other forms i.
being shown and described inv my copending application entitled Well screen and method of makin@r same Case A, Serial No. 633,082, .filed pril 19, 1923,-andsti11 anotherin'the Patent #1,304,493 to Ollyn part body-comprising a tubular member 10 which carries the penfor'atingf element, andv a head 11. slidable withinthe upper portion of the member 10 and screw-threaded into c the lower end of a'. tubular' shank 1 2 which 13 40 half-circular recesses 18?- and 22a cooperat-l preferably consists of a plurality of tubing sections extending to the well surface, from which point the tool is manipulated. The two body members 10 and 11 are joined by a pin and bayonet slot connection comprising, in the present insta-nce three radial pins4 13 carried by the head 11 and projecting into slots 14 in the member 1() (see Figs. 1 to 5). With particular reference to Figs. 1 and, 3, it will be seen that normally 'with the pins 13 in the lateral portions of the slots 14, the two body members may be longitudinally translated within the well as a unit and a rotation of the shank 12 and head 11 in one direction will correspondingly rotate the body member 10. Further it will be evident that upon an independent reverse rotation of the head 11 the pins 13 will vbe brought into the vertical portions of the slots 14 and the head 11 then permitted a limited independent vertical movement, the purpose of which will later be explained.
The tubular body member 10 is longitudinally slotted as at 15 and pivoted on a pin 16 carried by. the vmember 10 is a depending frame comprising two relatively spaced plates 17 joined together by a block 18.. The frame 17 is positioned within the slot 15 and journaled to rotate on a stud 19 carried by the lower end of said frame, is a per fora'ting element or wheel 20 having circularly spaced punch members 21 projecting from its periphery in the mannerYV of a sprocket wheel. Attached to the inner wall surface of the tubular body member 10 and adjacent the block or shoe 18, is a companion blockor shoe 22, the adjacent surfaces of the blocks or shoes 18 and 22 having tapered ing to form a tapered `bore for cooperation with a wedge element or mandrel 23, said mandrel being in the form of a round rod having ataperedlower end, and provided with means 24 at its upper end for attachment to a cable leading to the well surface.
The mandrel 23 is adapted to slidably engage through a bore'25 in the body memberv'll which bore is aligned with the tapered. ybore formed by the recesses 18a an'd 22iL n the shoes, the upper surface of the vbody member 11 being formedto guide the man- Cil drel 23 into the bore 25 when lowered through the tubular shank 12, a shoulder 26 on the mandrel 'limiting its insertion into said bore 25. A
In the practice .of the present invention the well screen with the vslits 4 closed, is positioned in the well bore. The perforatleffected by grail'ity of reason ,of the pin 16 being located 'considerably to one side of the vertical axis of the tool.
With the punch members 21 so enaged the mandrel v23 is lowered into the tu ular shank ot the tool and entering through the bore 25 in the body member 11,`drops downwardly between the wedge shoes 18 and 22, k
forcibly separating saidshoes and forcing the frame 174 and its perforator element lat' erallyto drive the punch members 21 outwardly through the holes 2 inthe inner casing 1 to open the slits 4 in theouter casing 3. In this operation the opposite wall of the tool body 10 engages against the inner p e- I riphelgy of the screen.
he tool will next be longitudinally translated to open a row of slits 4 to form the screen apertures 5, the perforator wheel 20- cooperating with the holes 2 in the inner casing 1 in the manner of a rack and-pinion.
Upon-completion of the first row of screen apertures, thev mandrel 23 is withdrawn `from between. the opposed sho'es 18 and 22 to release the perforator frame 17, after .which the tool is elevated or lowered above o1' below vthe rows of holes 2 so that the punch members 21 engage an unbroken portion of the inner` casing 1. The tool is then slightly rotated to bring the. 'unch membe'rs21 -between the row of ho es previously engaged and the nextv row and is then translated to bring the punch members 21 between said rows and subsequently rotated until the punch members find and engage in said next row.
The mandrel`23 is then again loweredv and the tool operated as above explained, this sequence of operation being repeated until all of the screen apertures desired, are formed, after which the tool is withdrawn from the well.A
In some instances it may hap-pen that the mandrel cable is lost in the tool shank or that said cable become broken, and in this event the bayonet'slot arrangement provides a means by which the tool may be conditioned for removal independently. of a manipulation of said cable.
' To accomplish this result, the shank 12 of the tool will-be rotated in a left vhand-direction to bring the pins 13 in line with the ing tool, with .the-pins 13 lin the lateral por-vertical portions of the bayonet slots 14 and tions of the slots 14, is then lowered into the well casing to location'of the screen. Due to the absence of the mandrel 24, theframe 17 carrying the perforator element, 1s free the tool shank-12 then elevated relative to the body member 10. By reason of the vengement of the body member 11 with the oulder 26 on the mandrel 23 this independent vertical movement of the tool shank 12 and body member 11 will cause the mandrel to be elevated and withdrawn from betweenthe shoes 18 and 22 and in this Vmanner allow the 'frame 17 and the perforating roller to' freely swing inwardly. lVhen the pins 13 reach the upper ends of the bayonet slots 14, (see Fig. 4) a continued upward movement of the tool shank 12 and body member 11 will also carry upward the body member l() and associated parts in a removal of the tool from the well.
In Fig. 8 I have shown a slightly modified form of perferating element-in which the round nose punch members 21n are de.
signed to punch through van outer casing which has notlbeen previously slit, the term perforating as used herein having a broad meaning including punching or forming of screen apertures.
While the form of mechanism herein illus- 't'rated and described is well adapted to aol fulfill the objects primarily stated and to carry into effect lthe herein described method,it is to be understood that I do not wish to limit the invention to specic`embodiment herein disclosed, for itI is susceptible of embodiment in various other' forms all'c'oming within the scope of the following claims. f l
1.1'A well-screen forming tool comprising a body' adapted to be longitudinally transvlated in a well casing in a perforating operation, a member pivoted on the body, the body and said memberi having opposedshoes, a perforator elementjournaled in said pivoted memberand diametrically disposed to; rotate in a vertical plane, said element having a lurality of relatively spaced punch memvliers projecting from.its periphery, and an` independently voperable wedge element Vadapted to have a'wedge engagement between the opposed shoes to force the perforator element outwardly to cause the punch members to form screen apertures in the casngsuccessively as the perforator element is rotated bya longitudinal translation of the tool.
` 2. A well-screen' forming tool comprising a body adapted to be longitudinally translated in`a well casing in a perforating operation and having a tubular shank extending to the surface of the well and by which the tool is manipulated, a member pivoted on the body, a perforator element journaled in said member and diametrically. disposedto rotate in a vertical plane, said element'having a vplurality of relatively spaced punch members projecting. from its periphery, a wedge' element .translatable within the tubular body shankand adapted to have a wedge engagement between the body and said pivoted member to force the perforator element outwardly to cause the punch members to form screen apertures in the casing successivelyT as the perforator element is rotated by a longitudinal translation of the tool, and a cable attached to the wedge element and extending to the well surface.
3. A well-screen forming tool comprising a two-part body adapted to be longitudinally translated in a well casing in a perforating operation, said body including a lower member and an upper member operable from the well surface, perforating mechanism carried by the lower body member, independent means operableto condition said mechanism for a perforating operation and engaging the upper body member when in operated position, and means permitting a limited separation of the two body members to disengage the independent means from the perforating mechanism.
4. A well-screen forming tool comprising a two-part body adapted to beplongitudinally translated in a well casing in a perl forating operation, said body including a lower member and an upper member having a tubular shank extending to the surface of the well and by which the tool is manipulated, a member pivoted on` the lower body member, a perforating element journaled in said pivoted member and diametrically dissurfacefsaid wedge element engaging the upper body member when in operated position, and a pin and bayonet-slot connection between the two body members, whereby said body members rotate together in one direction and upon a reverse rotation of the upper body member an independent upward movement ofv said upper body member is .permitted carrying with it the wedge element vto release the perforating element.
,Signed at South Pasadena, California, this 7th day of January, 1924.
' f MAHLON E. LAYNE.