|Publication number||US1535400 A|
|Publication date||Apr 28, 1925|
|Filing date||Jan 11, 1922|
|Priority date||Jan 11, 1922|
|Publication number||US 1535400 A, US 1535400A, US-A-1535400, US1535400 A, US1535400A|
|Original Assignee||Rufus Crowell|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (6), Classifications (11)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
April 28,. 1925.
- R. CROWELL METHOD AND-APPARATUS FOR FORMING TUBING ELECTROLYTICALLY Filed Jan. 11, 1922 3 sheets shet l April 28, 1925. 1,535,400
R. CROWELL METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR FORMING TUBING ELECTROLYTICALLY Filed Jan. 11, 1922 3 Sheets-Sheet -2 w /0 /6 1 60 7 o 0 o ,0 o /0 z 0 4 w 45 4 49 Q I/ 67 Q I :1 w s 6 /J 45 4 47 0 Q a a /0 00 L o l 1] O QQQ 7 Q /l 7 a l l lLfl l I l l April 28, 1925.
, R. CROWELL METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR FORMING TUBING ELFQ'YROLYTICALLY Filed Jan. 11, 1922 3 Sheets-Sheet 5 NOD00 000000 000 00000 0 000000 0000000000000 0000000000000 0 oao0o a O MOMOOOO O 000000000000 d1 AWWEE:
" Patented Apr. 28,- 1925.
v UNITED STATES RUFUS CROWELL, OF WINCHESTER, MASSAGHUSETTS.
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR FORMING TUBI ZNG ELECTROIlYTICALTJY.- 1
Application filed January 11, 1922. Serial No. 528,496.
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, RUFUS CRowELL, a
citizen of the United States, residing at Vinchester, in the county of Middlesex and State otv Massachusetts, have invented new and useful Improvements in Methods and Apparatus for Forming Tubing Electrolytigally of which the following is a specifica- 1on.,
a This invention relates to the method and apparatus for forming articles such as tubing electrolytically. Various attempts have been made to produce tubing in this manner commercially since, if successful, it
" should result in a seamless, uniform product of any desired thickness. So far as is known, however, prior to this invention no commercially successful plants of this description have been constructed. Heretofore difficulty hasbeen experienced in etfecting a uniform deposit on the cathode but this has been successfully accomplished by this invention.
For this purpose it has been found desirable to suspend the cathode mandrels which are to receive the electrolytic deposit vertically in the electrolyte bath within a series of anodes arranged substantially parallel thereto and to rotate the mandrels within the anodes and. eachmandrel about its own axis. This doublemovement of the cathodes is regarded asa'val'uable feature of this invention. for thus the mandrels are presented throughout their surfaces equally for deposition of the metal and all the mandrels are coated uniformly.
'-Ih 'is invention further contemplates the prorision'of convenient means for supporting the mandrels so that they may be readily removed or' ieplaced as required.
. Further objects and advantageous details and combinations of parts will appear from a more-complete description of an embodiment thereof disclosed in the accompanying drawings in which v i Figure 1 is a vertical cross section through the electrolytic tub or container on line 1-1 of Figure 9 the electrodes being shown in position therein. p
Figure 2 is a top plan of the same mechanism.
Figure 3 'is a side elevation.
Figure 4 is a detail plan of a pair of anodes.
Figure 5 is an elevation of the same.
Figure 6 is a detail partly in section showinga modified construction and mounting of an anode.
Figure 7 is an elevational detail of the parts shown in Figure (3. I
Figure 8 is a detail in elevation of a cathode or mandrel clamping member.
Figure 9 is an end view of the same.
Figure 10 is a detail of a spring used with this clamping member.
Figure 11 is a detail partly in section showing the cathode mounting.
Figure 12 is a plan of the same parts.
Figure 13 is a detail plan of the cathode holding segment.
Referringnow to Figures 1, 2, and 3, an electrolytic vat or tub is indicated at 1 preferably formed cylindrical and is shown constructed of wood having a lining of lead or other suitable material at 2. Hoops or bands are shown at 3 for retaining the wooden portionsof the tub in position. At its upper end rings 4 and 5 of conducting material are heldspaced apart and spaced from the upper edge. of the tub by means of .a series of insulating washers 6 (see Figure 3), bolts as 7 being passed downwardly through the rings and washers and into the tub to hold the parts in position. The rings 4 and 5 areconnected, respectively, with the positive and negative poles ofasource of electrolyzing current-and connect to electrodes comprising anodes and cathodes as will be laterdescribed.
Positioned within the tub in circular series are shown anodes 8, one form of which as indicated in Figures 1, 2, 4, and 5 comprises a, tube'of porcelain or other suitable material as 9 preferably perforated throughout a portion of its circumference to allow ready accessof the electrolyte, these tubes being intended to contain scrap or small pieces of metal such as copper to furnish the source of metal to be deposited. Extending from the ring 4 inwardly are a series of metallic posts 10, eachpost carrying a pair of blocks 11 to which are made fast through posts 11' bars'lZcrtending in opposite directions over a pair oftubes 9. At the'other end of each bar 12 are shown depending rods at 13 which project within the tubes 9 for a considerable distance to insure electrical connection with the metallic material placed therein. While tion of a stud 17 made fast in the'upper end of a solid bar anode 18. In this instance the anodes are suspended upon the pins 10. The tubes are preferred, however, since by their use scrap material may be utilized for the anode p 3 Supported on the ring 5 and in electrical connection therewith is an annular plate having a circular trackway 21 adjacent its inner upper edge. Supported on this'trackway is a conducting ring 22 having'a guide flange 23 depending from its inner face, this 1 ring being supported for rotation on the plate 20about an axis concentric with that of the tub and also concentric with the series of anodes. The ring 22 hasa series of rack teeth 24 extending upwardly about its cir cumference and meshing therewith is a pinion 25 fixed to a shaft 26. This shaft is journaled in bearings supported from the plate 20 and by rotation thereof it is evident that the ring 22 may be rotated about the axis of the tub to present each cathode mandrel in succession adjacent each anode.
Made fast to the upper face of this ring 22 is a table 27 of conducting material for convenience preferably made in segments,
. four being herein shown. These segments are made fast to the ring 22 by means of bolts 28 and each segment has preferably afiixed thereto a pair of rings 29 for the reception of hooks of a hoisting device by which the segment may be lifted from the ring 22. The table 27 supports the cathode mandrels on which the tubular deposit is to be made and for this urpose the inner edge of each segment is provided with a series of slots 30 (see Figure 13) each of which leads to a frusto-conical depression 31 in the upper face of the table. A series of rods 32 of a diameter to pass through the slots 30 have at their upper endsfrusto-conical' heads as shown at 33 in Figure 11 which may be seated in the recesses 31 and form a bearing therewith for axial rotation of the rods. By slightly raising each rod to remove its head 33 from the recess 31 it may be moved out from the slot 30 and disengaged from the table. The upper end of the head 33 terminates in a pinion 34. The, lower end of each rod 32 has fixed thereto a split clamping member 33'. As shownin detail in Figures 8 and 9, the lowersplit portion of this clamping member is threaded as at 34 for the reception of a series of spiral spring elements 35 ofa normal diameter sufiiciently small to urge the split portions of the member 33' together but yieiflabie to permit them Each clamping member is intended to support the upper end of a mandrel 36 form- I of the rotating table, which, by rotation of.
the shaft 26, is rotated axially as a unit to move therathodes bodily around within the series of anodes. H
In order to present allportions of each cathode equally toward the anodes, provision is made for rotating each cathode about its axis. While such rotation might be continuous, if desired, in the mechanism shown it is intermittent. For the purpose of effecting this rotation, mechanism shown in detail in Figures 11 and 12 is provided. This comprises an arm 40 pivoted at its upper end at 11 to a yoke member 42 extending diametrically across the top of the tub and made fast at opposite ends to cars 43 upstanding fromthe ring 20. Fixed to the lower end of this arm 40 is a curved rack or gear segment 45. This segment is urged outwardly into engagement with the inner faces of the pinions 34 by means of a weight 46 carried at the outer end of an arm 47 fixed to the arm 40, a stop pin 18 being provided to limit the extent of this motion. 7 As the table carrying the cathodes is rotated by the shaft 26 the pinions 34 are brought sue;- cessively into engagement with the segment and are caused to rotate by engagement with the teeth thereof as will be clearly 'evi dent from an inspection 0 Figure 12.
This double motion of the cathodes causes them to be presented on all portions of their peripheries equally to deposition from the anodes and any unequal action of individual anodes to be equally effective on all the catlv odes so that the metal is d os d equally on all the cathodes and uniprmly on each individual cathode. While it is more con venient to effect this double motion by mov in the cathodes only, one or both motions m ght conceivably beeifected by movement of the anodes. The claims appended hereto are therefore intended to coverbroadly any means bywhich such relative presentation may be effected.
When it is desired toremove all of the cathodes the segments carrying them to gether with the ring 22 may beraised bodily to remove the cathodes from the tub. The individual cathodes may, however, be re= moved from the tub by raising them slightly relative to the segments 27 and removing them from the slots 30. The metal deposited on the cathode may be removed in the form of a tube by any suitable method as by rolling the cathode and its deposit to expand the deposit to loosen it slightly therefrom whereupon it is an easy matter to strip the deposit from the mandrel in the form of the desired tubular product.
The electrolyte is contained in the usual manner in the tub, the level thereof being indicated at ain Figure 1. It is found desirable to agitate this electrolyte and to control its temperature. For the purpose of agitating the electrolyte a shaft 50 is mounted axially of the tub, being journaled at its upper end in a boss 51 in the yoke member 42. Positioned within the electrolyte on this shaft is a series of impeller or agitator members 52 by the rotation of which the electrolyte is circulated. Above the boss 51 a belt pulley 53 is fixed to the shaft 50 by whielrit may be rotated. For the purpose of controlling the temperature of the electrolyte a loop of pipe shown at 60 supported from a bracket (51 mounted on the yoke 42 depends therein, the ends of this pipe being connected by unions 6?. with supply and exhaust pipes 63 by which either steam or a cooling fluid may be caused to pass within the tub to either heat or cool the electrolyte as may be desired.
Having thus described an embodiment of this invention it should be evident that. many changes and modifications might be made therein without departing from its spirit or scope as defined by the appended claims.
1. The method of making tubes by electrodeposition which comprises movinga cathode mandrel in an electrolyte bodily adjacent to a series of anodes and rotating said mandrel about its axis while subjected to the passage of an elcctrolyzing current, and then stripping the deposit on the mandrel therefrom.
E2. The method of making tubes by electrodeposition which comprises suspending a cathode mandrel vertically in an electrolyte adjacent to a series of anodes and moving said cathode bodily past said anodes and rotating it about its axis while subjected to an electrolyzing current, and then stripping the deposit on the mandreltherefrom.
3. The method of making articles by elec-- tro-deposition which comprises presenting a cathode in various peripheral relations successively to a series of anodes in an electrolyte while subjecting said cathodes and anodes to an .electrolyzing current.
4. An apparatus of the class described comprising a container for an electrolyte, a
circular series of anodes arranged in said container, a circular series of cathode mandrels arranged coaxially with said anodes, means for rotating said series of mandrels about the axis thereof, and means for rotating each mandrel about its own axis.
5. An apparatus of the class described comprising a circular electrolyte container having its axis vertical, a circular series of anodes arranged in said container coaxial therewith, a table rotatable about the axis of said container at the top thereof, a circular series of mandrels suspended from said table coaxially of said container, and means for rotating said table.
6. An apparatus of the class described comprising a circular electrolyte container having its axis vertical, a circular series of anodes arranged in said container coaxial therewith, a table rotatable about the axis of said container at the top thereof, a circular series of mandrels suspended from said table coaxially of said container, means for rotating said table, and means acting on the rotation of saidtable to rotate each mandrel about its own axis.
7. An apparatus of the class described comprising a circular container having its axis vertical, a circular series of anodes arranged in said container coaxially therewith a. table rotatable about the axis of said container at the top thereof, a circular series of individually axially rotatable cathode mandrels suspended coaxially from said table in said container and within said series of anodes, means for rotating said table to move said mandrels bodily in a circular path, and means acting to rotate each mandrel about its own axis while .passing through a portion of said path.
8. An apparatus of the class described comprising a container for electrolyte, an anode extending into said container, a cathode cxtcnding into said container, means for rel'ativelymoving said anode and cathode bodily past each other, and means for rotating said cathode.
9. I11 an apparatus of the class described, means for holding an electrode comprising a table having a slot in the edge thereof leading to a frusto-conical recess in its upper face, a rod of a diameter to pass through said slot and having a frustoconical head adapted to be seated in sai recess, and means carried by said rod for gripping an electrode.
10. In an apparatus of the class described, means for holding a series of electrodes comprising an annular table rotatable about its axis and having a series of radially disposed slots in the inner edge thereof, each slot leading to a frusto-conical recess in the upper face of said table, and a series of rods each of a diameter to pass through said slots and having a frusto-conical head seatable in. one of said recesses, and means at the lower-end of each rod for gripping an electrode.
V 11. In an apparatus of the class described, means for supporting an electrode comprising a table, a rod depending from said table, a split socket carried by the lower end of said rod and exterio-rly threaded, and a series of coil spring sections engageable with the threads of said socket, to clamp the split portions of said socket about an electrode.
12. "An apparatus of the class described, comprising a circular container for electrolyte arranged With its axis vertical, a circular series of anodes arranged axially in said container, a rotary table coaxially arranged at the top of said container, a cir-- cular series of cathodes suspended from said table coaxially with said series of anodes and each rotatable about an axis parallel to the axis of said container, a pinion arranged coaxially with each cathode, means for rotating said table to move said cathodesbodily in a circular path, and a rack section positioned to serially engage said pinions as the table rotates to cause axial rotation of said cathodes.
13. In an apparatus of the class described comprising'a container for electrolyte, a ring of conducting material positioned horizontally at the top of said container, a circular series of anodes in electric connection with said ring, a second ring positioned above said first ring and insulated there from, an axially rota-table ring carried by said second ring, and a series of cathodes suspended from said rotatable ring.
14. In an apparatus of the class described comprising a container for electrolyte, a ring of conducting material positioned horizontally at the top of said container, a circular series of anodes in electric connection with said ring, a second ring positioned above said first ring and insulated therefrom, an axially rotatable ring carried by said second ring, and a series of cathodes suspended from said rotatable ring and positioned Within said series of anodes.
15. An apparatus of the class described comprising a container for electrolyte, a ring of conducting material positioned horizontally at the top of said container, a circular series of anodes in electrical connection 'With said ring, a second ring positioned above said first ring and insulated therefrom, an axially rotatable annular table carried by said second ring and composed of segmental sections, cathodes carried by said sections, and means on said sections whereby they may be lifted independently to Withdraw the cathodes carried thereby from Within said container.
16. An apparatus of the class described comprising a container for electrolyte, a sectional table supported at the top of said container, a series of electrodes suspended from said table, and means on the sections of said table whereby each section With the electrodes carried thereby may be lifted from said container independently of the other sections and the electrodes.
17. An apparatus of the class described comprising a container for an electrolyte, a series of anodes and a cathode in said container, and means to present and remove said cathode in various positions successively adjacent to each anode.
18. An apparatus of the class described comprising a container for an electrolyte, a series of anodes and a series of cathodes in said container, and means to present in various positions each of said cathodes successively adjacent to each of said anodes.
19. In an apparatus of the class described, means for supporting an electrode comprising a table, a rod depending from said table, a split socket carried by the lower end of said rod, and means for clamping the split portions of said socket about an electrode.
In testimony whereof I have aflixed my signature.
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|US4238299 *||Aug 24, 1979||Dec 9, 1980||Kennecott Copper Corporation||Tubing with copper-boron carbide composite facing and methods for its production|
|US7083332 *||Aug 13, 2001||Aug 1, 2006||Takahiko Mukouda||Connector component for multi-core optical fiber, ferrule, and method for manufacturing the same|
|US20040037510 *||Aug 13, 2001||Feb 26, 2004||Takahiko Mukouda||Connector component for multi-core optical fiber, ferrule, and method for manufacturing the same|
|U.S. Classification||205/73, 204/297.7, 204/212, 204/273, 204/287, 205/143, 204/199|
|International Classification||C25D1/00, C25D1/02|