|Publication number||US1540107 A|
|Publication date||Jun 2, 1925|
|Filing date||Mar 1, 1922|
|Priority date||Mar 1, 1922|
|Publication number||US 1540107 A, US 1540107A, US-A-1540107, US1540107 A, US1540107A|
|Inventors||Gerhard Damm Arvid|
|Original Assignee||Gerhard Damm Arvid|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (5), Classifications (6)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
A. G. DAMM APPARATUS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF CIPHER DOCUMENTS ESPECIALLY FOR TELEGRAPHIC DISPATCH Filed March' 1 1922 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 A. G. DAMM APPARATUS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF CIPHER DOCUMENTS ESPECIALLY FOR TELEGRAPHIC DISPATCH Filed March 1, 1922 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Patent June i 2, 1925.
anvrn ennnnnn DAMM, or RONNINGE, SWEDEN.
APPARATUS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF CIPHER DOCUMENTS ESPECIALLY FOR TELEG QRIAPHIC DISPATCH.
Application filed March 1, 1922. Serial No. 540,234.
To all whom it may concern:
' Be it known that I, ARVID .GERHARD DAMM, a citizen of the Kingdom of Sweden, residing at Ronninge, Sweden, have invented new and useful Improvements in or Relating to Apparatus for the Production of Cipher Documents Especially for Telegraphic Dispatch, of which the following is a specification. q
This invention relates to improvements in or relating to such apparatus as are described .in my copending application Ser. No. 370,708 for producing cipher documents, especiallyadapted for telegraphic dispatch, and for deciphering such documents.
The object of the invention is to complete aforementioned apparatus, so as to make them meet all demands subject to their application in practical telegraphic service.
Themechanism herein illustrated is at one station only, and its object is to record or write simultaneously on two sheets of paper, one of these sheets containing the text of the telegram in plain language and the other containing all or part of the same matter in cipher. The cipher record is then delivered by post, telegraph or radio, in any of the customary ways. The recipient of the cipher message will then decipher it by the machine and in the manner described in my co-pending. application Serial No. 370,708.
In order to admit of regular telegraphic service, every cipher telegram dispatched must consist of the following parts:
'(a) A group of unciphered signs, indicating the position of the key mechanisms at the close of the preceding telegram;
(6) Address and ordinary service remarks, in plain language, as usually divided into words or corresponding groups of signs;
(0) The telegram'proper in cipher, di-.
vided into groups of anequal number of signs, for instance five, and comprising complete groups of signs only,
(d) Indication in plain text of the number'o-f groups of signs in the telegram.
In order to admit of continuous dispatch of such telegrams, without special adjustment of the key mechanisms for every telegram, the following arrangements have been provided: g
(1) The division of the cipher into groups of an equal number of signs and the ciphering of the space between words;
(2) The sending of plain language and cipher alternately;
(3) The automatic re-adjustment of the ciphering members to a certain startingpoint.
The devices in question are described in the following with reference to the accompanying drawing, in which Fig. 1 shows diagrammatically a ciphering apparatus of the kind above referred to, while Figs. 2
and 3 show on a larger scale a detail in side view and plan view respectively.
The connections existing between, on one side, the keys Tt (only one shown on the drawing) of a key board, herebelow referred to as the sender key board, the keys of which are actuated according to the text to be ciphered, and, on the other side, the keys T,t of a typewriter, which renders a copy of the original telegram text, and
the keys T,t of a typewriter, which ren ders the cipher to be dispatched, are identical in principle to the apparatus described in the patent application above referred to.
Through the depression of a key Tt ofthe sender key board, a conducting member St, linked to key Tt, is brought into contact with two contact springs'lqt and 70 2?, whereby the following circuits are closed;
(I) From the positive pole of the source of current S through conductors 1, 2, the windings of solenoids S 1, S 2, S 3 and S 4 which are connected in parallel, conductors 11, contact spring lc t, conducting member St and conductor 19 to the negative pole of the source of current S;
(II) From the positive pole of the source of current S through conductors 1, 3, the windings of solenoid S,t conductors 13, 12, contact spring 70,6, conducting member St and conductor 19 to the negative'pole of the source of current S;
(III) From the positive pole of the source of current S through conductors 1, 3, the windings of solenoid S t, conductor 15, contact k t, the two commutator-shaped ciphering members (3,, 6,, contact k t, conductor 14, contacts W W, of a switch more particularly described herebelow, conductor '12, contact spring k t, conducting member St and conductor 19 to the negative pole of the source of current S.
Upon the excitation of the solenoids S 1, S 2, S 3 and S 4 through the closing of the circuit described under (I) the movable armature of each solenoid actuates the driving mechanism of a key disk N N N and N;
respectively, said driving mechanisms, as indicated in Fig. 1, being arranged so as to turn the ke disks by the action of springs,
.when the circuit described under (I) is interrupted and the attraction of the armavtures of said solenoids ceases upon the release of the key Tt which chances to be depressed on the sender key board.
The closing of the circuit described under (II) effects the excitation of a solenoid S t,
, movable armature simultaneously actuates a key T t of the cipher typewriter. The signs thus obtained on this typewriter depend, according to my patent application above referred to upon the chance position of the two commutator-shaped ciphering members 0,, C relatively to one another,
This position is determined by the key disks N N N N (the primary keys of which N, and N influence the ciphering member 0,, and N and N the ciphering member C and moreover by a secondary key V shaped as a cylinder and provided with projections as detailed further on and shownin Figs. 2 and 3.
The interruption of the circuit described under (I) will cause the key disks to turn a certain part of a revolution so.that their projections will close one or more of contacts k k I0 Depending upon the arrangement and the chance positions of the pro ections of the key disks N N N N and of the secondary key V by the influence of which lastmentioned key one or more of contacts f f f f may be closed, circuits are closed,passing through conductors 19, 26, one or more of conductors 6, 7, 10, 9, one or more of contacts [0 1 ,11 k conductors 5, 8, either or both of solenoids S S and conductors 4, 3- and 1. Thecurrent passing through one or 'the otheror several of these circuits will excite the one or the other or both pf solenoids S 8,, the movable armatures of which ,will effectuate a rotary movement of one step of the one or the other or both cipher- 111 members (1,, C
,Fvidently it is possible. that the arrangement and the chance positions of the key members may be such as to close none of the memo? circuits just detailed, in which case neither of the ciphering members will be brought into movement.
Upon every depression of a key on the sender key board one sign is consequently obtained on the copy typewriter and one sign on the cipher typewriter.
The secondary key V shown in Figs. 2 and 3 is shaped as a cylinder and receives, by means of mechanical devices of a known kind, a rotarymovement of a c'ertain part of a revolution, for instance 1/11, as soon the movable armature of any 'of the solenoids S l- 1 is excited.
For this purpose the driving mechanism of any one of the discs N N N N for instance N as is shown in Fig. 2, may be connected by a link V to an arm V freely 'ournaled on the axle of the secondary key V and carry a ratchet V engaging a ratchet wheel V, secured to the axle of the secondary key V Said cylinder V is provided with holes V into which protrudin knobs V may be inserted. Said holes are disposed in a number of rows, peripherically corresponding to the number of movements during one revolution of the cylinder, for instance 11, and longitudinally to the number of primary keys used, for instance 4:.
Above each of the peripherical rows isplaced a spring. f f f f respectively which may form contact with a conducting member V connected to conductor 26.
When a knob V gets into such a position as, to lift one of the springs f f f f the engagement between such spring and corresponding contact arrangement 7:1
connected'by one of conductors 6, 7, 9, 10, remains inactive, evenif it is closed by the corresponding primary key.
As mentioned above, the cipher signs must be uniformly divided into groups of, for instance, five signs each. For this puripose a spacing key T m, influenced by the armature of a solenoid 8 m, which key is actuated upon every fifth depression of a key on the sender board, is provided in the cipher typewriter. The excitation of said solenoid S m is, in the construction described, effected by the following device. One of the key disks. for instance N is mechanically connepted to a disk N in such a way that both dlsks turn simultaneously and at equal angles. The connection between said two disks N, and N is indicated in Fig. 1 by the dash line A. Disk N is arranged to actuate by means of projections on its circumference a contact [0 According to Fig. 1 the key disk N is supposed toturn a fifteenth part-of a revolution after every depression of a key on the sender key board, and accordingly three projections are placed at equal distance 1e I member V is broken, and consequently the from eachother on the periphery of disk cipher typewriter tomake, a division space' in the cipher every time contact 70,, is closed.
- ,The circuit in question is as follows: from the positive pole of the source of current S through conductors 1, 3, solenoid Spit, conductors 27, 28, contacts V W, in a switch described herebelow, conductor 20, contact is and conductor 19 to the negative pole of the source of current S. Inde-, pendently of theidivision into groups of the cipher obtained it must be possible to obtain on the copy typewriter the clear text with the usual space between words. This is e'fi'ected in the following manner. A spacing key Tm on the sender board, when depressed, closes the circuit of a solenoid 8 m, the movable armature of which actuates a spacing key T',m on the copy'typewriter. The clrcuit of this solenoid S,m is as follows: from the positive pole of the source of current S through conductors 1,
3, solenoid S m, conductors 17 16, the con tact spring 70 m, the conducting metal member Sm, which is linked to the spacing key Tm-and connected to conductor 19, to the negative pole, of the source of current S. The depression of the spacing. key Tm .which efi'ects an electric connection by means of the member Sm ,between the contact springs 70 m and 70 m, however, also closes another circuit, corresponding to the one described above under (I), whereby the solenoids S 1, S 2, S 3 and S 4 are excited and actuate the key discs N N N and N and a third circuit, corresponding to the one described above under (III), from' the positive pole of the source of current S through conductors 1, 3, the windings of any one of the solenoids of the cipher typewriter, for instance S 40, conductor :11,
contact k,,m, the cip hering members C1,, 0,, contact Mm, .conductor 18, a' switch-contact W W conductor 16*, contact spring lam, member Sm and conductor 19 to the negative pole of the source of current S. IVhich one of the solenoids ot the cipher typewriter will become excited at the depression of the spacing key Tm depends upon the chance relative position between 'the ciphering members C C Thus, upon depressionot the spacing key Tm on the sender key board, the conducting member- Sm of which is connected to contact 70 as is the case with all other similar members. St of the other keys on the sender board, one division space on the copy typewriterand one .cipher sign on the cipher typewriter are simultaneously obtained, the sign last mentioned being comprised in a I group of five cipher signs, formed by means In order to admit of the sending of clear text and cipher alternately and to prevent the sending of clear text, beforea whole group'of cipher signs has been completed, the following device is provided: The contact spring lat of each key on the sender board is connected to a switch-contact W (only one shown on-the drawing), while the contact spring 10 m of the spacing key on the sender-board is connected to a movable switch contact W,- The contacts W and W, are, as is the case with two other contacts W and W mechanically connected to each other andto a lever W. Upon the switching-over of contacts W and W to the positions indicated by dash lines in the drawing, these contacts get into touch with fixed contacts V and W respectively, of which each contact W (only one shown in the drawing) is connected by conductor 30 to the solenoid of that key of the cipher typewriter, which carries the same sign as the key of the sender board, whose conductor 12 is connected to the contact W, in ,question, while contact IV, is connected by a-conductor 29 to solenoid S m of the spacing key on the cipher typewriter. Whenin the position of the contacts shown by dash lines a sign key of the sender key board, for instance, T6, is depressed, the following circuit is closed: from the positive the source of current S through conductors 1, 3, solenoid S m of spacing key T m on the cipher typewriter, conductors 27, 29, switch contacts W W conductors 16 and 16, contact spring him, conducting member Smand conductor 19.to the negative pole of the sourcewof current S. Thus, as soon as contacts'VV and W are brought into touch with contacts W, and W respectively, clear text is obtained on the cipher typewriter. The switching-over of contacts IV, and W for the sending of clear text must, -however, not be possible, before a whole group otcipher signs has been completed. .In order to prevent this the switch lever W is related to a stopping device, which releases same after every-fifth depression of a key on the sender board, said device illustrated consisting of a disk L, rotating synchronically with disks N and N (the mechanical connection between disks N, and L being indicated on the drawing by dashline A). Disk L has at equal distances on its circumference three incisions of the same depth as a tooth p on the switch lever W, said tootlnp, when sliding against the periphery of disk L, preventing lever W from being switched over to the left on the drawing. Moreover, disk L is adjusted relativel to disk N so that one of its grooves will be placed exactly opposite the tooth p every time contact [a is closed, that is after every fifth depression of a key on the sender board. Consequently the of lever W .for sending of clear text cannot take place before a whole group of five cipher signs has been completed. If the ciphered part of a telegram should end, say with" two signs in the last group, it must be completed by three signs, which is done by three consecutive depressions of the spacing key of the sender board.
In order to enable the manipulator of the apparatus to control, Whether the last group of the ciphered part of a telegram is complete or not, a signal lamp 3 is inserted between conductors 2, 32 and 33, 20, which lamp consequently is lighted every time contact 70,, is closed.
If this lamp is not lighted at the end of the ciphering, the operator has only to depress spacing key 'lm on the sender board one or several times till the lamp is lighted.
When contacts W and W are switched over forclear text on the cipher typewriter,
switch contact W is disengaged from the fixed contact W whereupon the connection of solenoidS m with contact k is interrupted, and the spacing key T m' will then be actuated only when the spacing key Tm.
on the sender board is depressed.
When the ciphering is finished and the adjustment for service remarks and the like in clear text takes place, the ciphering members 0 0, should return to a certain starting-position. For this purpose the fol lowing device is arranged.
For each of the members C C and par--- ticipating of their rotary movement a metal disk 0 ,0 respectively is provided, which has on its periphery an insulating sector '5 z, respectively, the extension of which corresponds to the angle, which members C C turn at every excitation of solenoids S S Against the periphery of disk 0 two contact springs f f press, two similar springs f i pressing against disk 0 Springs f and f which are in metallic contact with their respective disk even though the insulating sectors 11, and '5 are passin underneath same, are connected to a conductor 2-1, connected in its turn to a fixed contact W The other springs f f switching-over above works as follows:
Whose contact with'the disks O and O is interrupted by the insulatin sectors 2', and '5 when same pass under the springs, are connected by conductors 22 and 23 respectively each to a contact k ,k respectively. Thecontact is, is connected by conductors 24, 8, to the solenoid S The contact is connected by conductors 25, 5 to sole: noid S v I Contacts k 76 are actuated by the movable armaturcs'of solenoids S S in such a way as to be closed, when said armatures occupy their uppermost positions, and to be opened, when said armatures upon excitationof the solenoids reach their hottompositions and'have effected the turning of members 0 C 2 The device of re-adjustment described When contacts W W Vi/ and W are switched into the position indicated by dash lines, in which position contact W, gets connected to the fixed contact W current will pass, provided both of the contact springs f 7', are not insulated from their disks 0,, by the sector '5 i, respectively, from the source of current S through conductors l, 3, a,
solenoids S S conductors 24, 25,,contacts 70,, 7a conductors 2 2, 23, contact springs f f,, disks 0,, 0 contact springs f f conductor 21, contacts W -W and conductors 31, 19 back to the source of current. 'lhus solenoids S S are excited and their movable armatures turn members C 0,. When contacts 7a,, 76 are opened, the movable armatures of the solenoids resume their uppermost positions, a new excitation of solenoids S S is effected and so forth, until both members C C reach 'a position in which the insulating sectors 2' i, are placed beneath the contact springs f f,.
Having now described my invention, what I claim is:
1. loan apparatus of the kind set forth for the production of cipher documents espetypewriter from being connected to the sender key board in the said manner until a group of cipher-signs has been completed, substantially as and for the purpose set orth.
- 2. In an apparatus of the kind set forth for the production of cipher documents especially. adapted for telegraphic dispatch, the combination of commutator shaped cipher.- v
ing members with means for automatically returning the same. into a predetermined starting position, substantially as and for the purpose set forth.
3. In an apparatus for converting plain language text into cipher; a main keyboard, a oiphering mechanism operated from said keyboard, mechanism operated from said keyboard to record plain language text, electric recording mechanism also operated from said keyboard dependent on the chance position of said ciphering mechanism and means to directly operate said electrical recording mechanism Without the interposition of said ciphering mechanism to record plain language text or cipher, at will.
4. In an apparatus for converting plain language text into cipher; a main keyboard, a ciphering mechanism electrically operated from said keyboard, a recording mechanism also electrically operated from said keyboard in dependence upon the chance position of said ciphering device, mechanism to directly connect said recording mechanism to said keyboard to record'plain language text, and means to simultaneously return the ci hering mechanism to zero position upon e eating said connection.
5. In apparatus for converting plain language text into cipher; a main keyboard, a
ciphering mechanism operated from said keyboard, a recording mechanism electrically operated from said keyboard under control of said ciphering mechanism, means to automatically space the recorded signs into groups containing a predetermined number of signs, means to directly connect said recording mechanism to said keyboard and thereby disconnect said ciphering mechanism, whereby plain language text may be recorded.
6. In apparatus for converting plain language text into cipher, a main keyboard, plain language recording mechanism operated from said keyboard, a second recording mechanism and a cipher mechanism also operated from the keyboard, means to permit the operation of said second recording mechanism under the influence of said cipher mechanism, and means to cause the recorded signs on said second recording mechanism to be recorded in groups eaohof a definite number of signs and irrespective of the groups of signs in the plain language text.
In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand at Stockholm, Sweden, this eighth day of February 1922.
ARVID GERHARD DAMM.
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US4143978 *||May 4, 1978||Mar 13, 1979||The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy||Electro-mechanical cipher machine|
|US6130946 *||Oct 23, 1936||Oct 10, 2000||The United States Of America As Represented By The National Security Agency||Cryptographs|
|US6175625 *||Dec 15, 1944||Jan 16, 2001||The United States Of America As Represented By The National Security Agency||Control circuits for electric coding machines|
|US8488779||Jul 25, 2011||Jul 16, 2013||Grey Heron Technologies, Llc||Method and system for conducting high speed, symmetric stream cipher encryption|
|US9270462||Jul 15, 2013||Feb 23, 2016||Grey Heron Technologies, Llc||Method and system for conducting high speed, symmetric stream cipher encryption|
|U.S. Classification||380/52, 400/474, 400/77|