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Publication numberUS1542455 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJun 16, 1925
Filing dateAug 13, 1923
Priority dateJul 21, 1923
Publication numberUS 1542455 A, US 1542455A, US-A-1542455, US1542455 A, US1542455A
InventorsEbenezer Howard
Original AssigneeEbenezer Howard
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Shorthand machine
US 1542455 A
Abstract  available in
Images(5)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

June 16, 1925.

E. HOWARD snoa'rmmn MACHINE Filed Aug. 13, 1923 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 June 16, 1925.

I I I I BY SET I E. HOWARD suoa'ramfi ncrmu Filed Aug. 13, 1923 ,BY SET 2.

l l l l l l I I I l I I FIG *r TOTAL WIDTH or SPACE OCCUPIED BY HLL CHARACTERS I PACE CC ED, SPACE OCCUPIED SPACE occumco 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 BY SET 3 k s I r TT HGT 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 x .0: Ex

E. HOWARD Filed Aug. 13, 1923 F Ex w SHORTHAND MACHINE June 16, 1925.

E Q AA IIIIJHIII l I I- i June 16, 1925.

E. HOWARD SHORTHAND IAGHINB Filed Aug. 13, 1923 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 w I I FIG XVI F'IG XVH June 16, 1925.

1,542,455 E. HOWARD SHORTBMID MACHINE Filed Aug. 13, 1923 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 XIX lo s2 XIX 1 FIG XVIII FIG XIX slanted June 16, 1925.

UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE,

EBENEZER HOWARD, 01 mm GARDEN CITY, ENGLAND.

SHORTHAND MACHINE.

Application filed August 13, 1928 Serial No. 657,179.

To all whom it may comm:

Be it known that I, Eamzmz Howann, a subject of the King of Great Britain, residing at 5 Guessens Road, Welwui Garden City, in the county of I ertford, England, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Shorthand Machines, of which the following is a specification.

The obect of this machine is to enable shorthan to be more quickly and easily learned, and more rapidly and legibly Written, than has been possible with pen or pencil, or with an shorthand machine hitherto produced. l t will, I believe. prove as great an advance in these respects as is the typewriter over ordinary longhand writing.

I prefer to adopt a key-board with 96 keys, in twelve columns of eight keys each, and the arrangement of the keys which I prefer is that shown in Figure 1. Such an arrangement of keys could, of course, be varied as desired in order to adapt the machine to the writing of shorthand in another language, and this could be readil effected without any alteration of the mac ine or of the characters produced on the paper, though such alterations could, of course, be made if desired.

The keyboard is divided into three sets of 32 keys eachthe central set being, for the most part, printed on a faintly coloured back-ground. pzcferably green, expressed in Figure 1, h oblique hatching downwards from left to right; the sets on either side being. for most part, printed on a plain "legroom. the ob ect of such colourization is w to as the operator in readily select- I; ing correct keys.

The letter values of the keys in each of the three sets are, exceptingas regards the top row. for the most part, precisely the same as the letter values of corres Jcnding keys in the other two setsbut on t e other hand the letter values -n, (0, Q. mp, all. (2. ng and e (a lower case upright letter) are expressed only in one of the sets, and, each of their corresponding keys is printed on a faint iy coloured background, preferably red. (pressed in Figure l by vertical hatching. This is done with a view of clearly marking the few departures from the general rule of uniformity of each set. In order further to assist an operator in selecting correct keys, the first and third sets may be again broken up by colour, two of the rows of these sets, preferably the fourth and fifth having keys printed on a faintly coloured background, preferably light violet, expressed in Figure I by oblique hatching upwards from left to right.

The keys in the first set are, for the most part, printed preferably in upper case letters, and the consonants in this set are best chosen when they begin words-thus P as in pay, M as in my. The keys in the second set art, for the most part. printed preferably in italic lower case lettrrs', and consonants which are the first c nsonants in words, but are preceded by vowels are usually best chosen from this sctthus p, as in up, m as in am. The keys in the third set are, for the most part, printed preferably in upright lower-case letters. and the consonants in this set, are, generally, best chosen as parts of words the writin of which has been commenced in a prece ing set-thus, 7) k, as in epoch, or where such consonants are followed b vowels, thus K k, as in c0coa--while ca e would be writcn K k. This system of markin the keys with letters chosen from three di erent cases also makes it easily possible, in any book of instructions, clearly to indicate, by corresponding printed. characters, the keys which are to be struck in writing any par ticular word or phrase.

The printing of the characters takes place on a paper roll or long strip of paper, which, by means of any of the well known devices. moves forward a short distance at each depression---whcthcr it be of one key or of any greater number; and the mechanism of the machine (which will be presently described) is so designed and arranged that if all the character were struck simultaneously, the results would appear asshewn in Figure ILtb.is drawing, however, being about four times the size it would actually appear in true relation to Figure l.

115 seen in Figure II, the characters in the first set -ond here I am including the characters produced by the keys in the top roware in their forms and arrangement precisely like the characters in sets 2- and 3. For example. the three keys marked B, b and b produce precisely the same characters as to their form and size as one another, but produce them in dilferent positions on the lino-su b positions corresponding to the diit'erent; positions of the keys on the keyboard. (See Figure llI.)

Again, for example, the three keys marked N, w, and ng, (the last being on a red background to remind the learner that-it is an exception to the general rule. of uniformity of value it clmracters in corresponding positions in the sets"') print on the paper precisely the same characters, but their rcspeo tive values can be readily distinguished by the positions they occupy in the printed line -positions C(HIOSPOHtllHg to the positions they occupy on the keyboard.

A comparison of Figures I and II will shew that while on the keyboard there are twelve columns of eight keys each, there are, in theline of characters shewn in Figure II; sub-columns of four characters each. This is due to the fact that the keys with odd mnnhcrs-reading downwards in the column-namely l, 3, 5 and 7strike the paper at places immediately to the left of the keys with even numbersnamely 2, 1-, (i and R. For the sake of clearness of description, I call the four characters printed on the paper by any such four odd-numbered keys on the left hand, a suh'cohnim: and the four characters printed b any such four even-numbered keys on the right hand a sub-column, while the two sub-columns taken together I call a column. It will he seen from Figure II that throughout the whole line, each of the two sub-columns which form a column are alike in form, but that the characters in the left-hand subcolumn are much longer than those in the right-hand sub-column.

It will be seen also that the characters in all the sub-columns are so designed as to occupy but little width in the line-obviously a matter of great importance; and also that the characters produced by the eight keys in each of the columns 1, 2 and 3 are alike in their forms, but with this differ ence---tliat the characters produced by the keys in column I are horizontal: those produced by the keys in column 2 slope upwards (reading from left to right)-those produced by the keys in column 3 slope downwards It follows from what has been already said that this remark applies also to the corresponding columns in sets 2 and 3.

It will next be seen that the characters produced by the eight keys in each of the columns 4. 8 and 12, though very clearly dis tinguishable in torn: from those produced by the other keys, yet suilit-iently follow the general design to make it very easy for the learner to recognize by the 'l'orm and position of any of the characters in those columns not only their letter values, but also the exact position. from i to 8. which ea h character occupies in its respective column. which I call its number value.

The importance of securing this easy recognition by the learner of the number values of the characters will be clearly seen when I have explained a very important, and, as I believe, entirely new principle, the adoption of which will aid very eatly in the attainment of high speed, an? increase legibility.

There are six sounds in the English language which occur with very special frequency, namely s, (often represented in ordinary spelling by the letter C), t, d, n, r, and l, and these frequently unite with other sounds, thus forming double and treble consonants, as in the wordsstr ength, fi ml, tr ial, pl ay, 8. pt, en :08, cos. ts, etc.

Now, it would conceivably add greatly to the speed with which words and phrases can be written if characters representing such six sounds could always be found on the keyboard adjoining the letters which immediately preceded them, because then they could often be strucksimultaneously with the fingers of one hand, leaving the fingers of the other hand free simultaneously to depress other keys. But even if it were possible to do this, the disadvantages would far outweigh the advantages, for the number of keys would have to be increased to such an enormous extent, that the machine would be altogether unwield and the characters in any given line would occupy a great deal of space, thus necessitating a very considerable unwinding of the paper, which would also have to be of impracticable width.

But, by a very simple expedient I am able to secure, with a keyboard such as, or similar to, that shewn in Figure I, producing charactors such as, or similar to those shewn in Figure II, great facilities for writing simultaneously groups of letters.

I will take by way of illustration the consonant B in the second column of the keyboard. Figure IV shcws the B, which has the number value of 4 in its column, with two keys immediately below, G and Co-, whose number values are 5 and 6, and also four characters in the adjoining column to the right, F, P, K and M, whose number values are 3, 4, 5 and 6. (The characters sh: .v in Figure IV exactly correspond in their relative positions with the characters shewn in Figure I.) All these six keys are, by the depression of the key B. placed within what I call its code range, and ceasing to have their normal values, acquire the values shewn in Figure V: so that if any one of them 18 struck with the key B. it temporarily takes on the value shewn in Figure Vthe letter B, which I call the letter retaining its normal value.

One may thus readily form,- with the fingers of the left hand. the consonantal'outlines B t, as in Bat by striking B and G simultaneously; B d, as in Bad, by strik ing B and Cosimultaneously; B n, as in Been, by striking B and F simultaneously; B s, as in Bess by striking B and P simultaneously; B r, as in Brew, bystriking B and K simultaneously; B l, as in Blow by striking B and M simultaneously-lean ing the right hand free for other simultaneous depressions.

If any other key, say for example 76' in column 7 is struck, all the keys in positions relatively corresponding to those shewn in Figure IV become potentially code letters having the same values as those shewn in Iiigure V. Figures VI and VII illustrate t is.

Here the letter k, by the simple fact that it is selected from the second set, shews that it is preceded by a vowel; and, therefore, by the use of these code letters one can form, for example. the consonantal outlines kt, led, kn, ks, Icr, and kl, as in thoiwords or syllables act, acad, acan,axe, accrue, accl, and one can do this with two fingers of the left hand-leaving the right hand free to add for example, to the first of the above consonantal outlines and Sign ng in column 11. to complete the word acting; to the second an m in column 11 (see Figure I) to complete the word academy; to the third th in the 10th column. together with a code s, (which would in this case be the character with the normal value of ng) to complete the word acanthus, to the fourth the letter m in the 11th column to complete the word axiom, to the fifth the code letter d, to complete the word accrued (in this case the character having the normal value of i). to the sixth the letter m of the 11th column to complete the word acclaim.

Naturally this system lends itself to important developments, which it would be out of place to go into here: but what has been said is sufficient to shew that the designs T have adopted for the characters are such as to make it quite easy. when two or more keys are struck simultaneously, to appreciate. after but little practice. their relation to one another, and readily to read (and this very frequently without anv context. and without the actual insertion of vowels) the precise word or words, which the key or keys struck are intended to represent. Further mv invention, with its prefcrahlv 96 keys (though the number may be less or greater if so desired. and this without any change in the essential principles or methods of construction) each kev capable oF heingr strucksimultaneously with others, makes it possible for all vowels. long or short. as also for the diphthongsheing struck simultaneously with consonants. As a result of this arrangement. one is frequently able. in the practical use of my invention. to lect, as elements in contractions rare or distinctive combinations of soundsas cu K, for awkward, A Q and a code s, for acquisition, D au, for daughter, Q In for quick, G 'w and a code u, (see Figure I) for Gwendolen;while in other systems, whether written or typewritten, con tractions, from the very necessity of the case (that is, owing to comparatively little choice of material) have often to be selected in a very arbitrary way, and this makes them diflicult to memorize.

Further, in m machine, it is never necessary, as it is wit previously-invented shorthand machines, to strike two keys in order to express certain letters which are, phonetically speaking, single letters, such as Sh, oh, and th, or rare letters, such as Q, which. phonetically speaking is a compound of -K and w.

Again, with my invention, words containing, for exam 10, three MS, (as in memorandum or omentum) three Rs, as in rarer or arrear) ;-three Ns (as in unknown or nonent1ty) can have their full consonanta'l outlines written with one set of depressions, that is, without a division of such words by two successive depressions, as would be necessary with any previously intended shorthand machine-while further the three Ns in unknowna word which begins with a vowel, would-be written differently from the three Ns in nonentity, which begins with a consonant. The advantage deri-ved from the use of three distinct examples of the great majority of letters is further increased by my code system for writing the most frequently recurring letters.

Further, the fact that the user of my machine need never resort to the expedient of striking two or more keys to express a single letter enables him readily to adopt a code system--a system which owes its practicability chiefly to the novel arrangement in a shorthand machine of keys in columns preferably of eight, producing characters in sub-columns preferably of four, printing one above the other. (Figure II.)

It will be obvious that with every reduction in the number of keys-in a column. there must be a more than corresponding reduction in the effective use of any code svstem such as shewn in Figures II and IV, while on the other hand. to increase the number of keys in a column beyond 8, though it would present some advanta res hv increasing the application of the code would entail, I believe. more than corresponding disadvantages in other directions.

This arrangement of printing characters in a series along a line (a device'wcll known in shorthand machines) and also in a series of characters one under the other, which is novel. possesses the great advantage of enabling the operator, besides having at his values of the keys of Fig. VIexpressed by Fig disposal a much larger number of keys than have hitherto been available in shorthand machines to secure this advantage without to read a ine of characters on a relatively wide strip of paper.

The best method of securing this result is the formation of the characters to be printed in simple geometrical forms, (four or an even eater number of characters being printe l one under the other) inasmuch as this does not involve, as would be the case if ordinary letters were used, making the line of characters unduly deep. If desired, however, it would be perfectly possible, instead of usin such geometrical characters, to employ or inary etters, preferably up per case letters.

I may here state that though I shall presently 'set forth my invention and illustrate it with suitable drawings, its structural elements are susceptible of such changes in size, shape, number of duplicate arts and manner of assembling as fall wit in the scope of the claims.

The improved machine by means of which I carr my invention into effect is illustrated an described as follows Figure I represents the preferred arrangement of the keyboard. I

the corres ondin disadvantage of having Figure II represents on a larger scale than Fig. I the 96 characters which would be rented if all the keys were simultaneously ressed.

' i re III also on a. larger scale tha .q shows how three characters, though precisely alike in form, are yet readily distin ishable, because they are printed at di erent parts of the line.

Figure IV re resents 7 characters, as they appear on the eyboard (Fig.1).

ig ure V represents the preferred code values of six of such keys, expressed by their positions relatively to which is the key letter and which retains its normal value.

Figure VI represents seven other characters as they appear on the key-board (Fig.

Figure VII represents the preferred code their positions relatively to k, which is the ke letter and which retains its normal va ue.

Figure VIII is a vertical sectional elevation of the machine, and shows the mechanism put into operation by and appertaining to the keys of one vertical colume of the keyboard, as shown in F-i ure I, for example the keys an the corresponding mechanism of the other vertical columns being similar.

Figure IX is a sectional elevation at IXIX of half of the machine.

Figure X is a plan view of half of the lower part of Figure VIII, shewing the type bars, which will be presently referred to.

Figure XI is a lan of the six keys forming the left han half of the top row of keys on the keyboard, as shewn in Figure 1, these keys being (1Sr), (2X), (3P. r), (4T r.n), (5'-T. r), (6l). These six keys form a unit, the whole keyboard bei made up of sixteen similar units, half o which are exactly similar to this, the other half being reversed in form and arrangement to suit the right hand side of the machine.

Figure XII is a section through Fig. XI at XII-XII. I

Figure XIII is a section through Fig. XI at XIII-XIII.

Figure XIV is a section through Fig. XI at XIV -XIV.

Figure'XV is a section through Fig. XI at XVXV.

Figure XVI is an enlarged view of part of F 1g. VIII.

Figure XVII is an enlarged view of part of Fig. X.

Fi ure XVIII is an outside elevation ((lsid of a art of the machine to the same egree of en argement as Fig. XVI,

Fi re XIX is a section through Fig. XVI I at XIX--XIX.

Referring to the various figures, '1 is a, platen or roller over which the paper taking the im ressions of the characters passes, the paper eing caused to move as required by any of the methods adopted for this purpose. Type pieces 2 are ri idly fixed to type bars 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,9 an 10.

On the tips of these type pieces are cut the characters represented on Fi re II. For the sake of clearness these are s ewn in Figure VIII out of proportion. In the actual machine the vertical distance between the highest and lowest character is preferably not greater than one eighth of an inch.

In each of the type bars are two slots 11, and passing. through these slots, and rigidly fixed to the framework of the machine 12, are crossbars 13, (see Fig. XVI) for the purpose of guidance on which the type bars when in operation perform a reciprocating motion. Distance rings 14, carried on the crossbars are placed between the ty e bars.

A series of spindles 15, xed to the framework of the machine 12, carry rows of key levers 16, each row corresponding to a horizontal row of keys on the keyboard as shewn in Figure I-for example-4mm (1-Sr) on the extreme left to (ooo-a) on the extreme right.

Each key lever in its simplest theoretical form consists of a key 16, 16", etc., and a short arm 17.

On each type bar, near the end opposite to the type piece is formed a notch 18, see Figures X and XVII, which engages the Ill) short arm 17 of the key lever 16. Near the same end of the t pe bars, and slightly above them, are p aced spring anchora e bars 19, Fi ure XVI, which are rigidly fixed to the framework of the machine. At points on these anchorage bars, in convenient juxtaposition to the short arms 17 of the key levers, are fixed pillars or )rojec' tions 20, to which are fixed the ends 0 spiral springs 21, the 0 p'osite ends of which are hooked into the s ort arms of the key levers. To the spring anchorage bars are also fixed leather pads 22, against which the short arms of the key levers abut when the keys are at rest.

Dealing now with a single vertical column of keys-and let is be the vertical column to the extreme left of Figure I-the operation of the mechanism is as follows- When key 16 Figure VIII (which corresponds to 1Sr) is depressed, the short arm of the key lever moves forward, im-

arting a forward movement to the type ar 3, causing the character representing (l-Sr) to be imprinted on the paper, this character bein the long horizontal curve on the top leftand corner of set 1, shewn on Figure II. Immediately the pressure is released, the spring 21 causes the key iever and the type bar to return to their original positions. Similarly, when key l6 (which corresponds to Sh) is depressed, a forward movement is imparted to type bar 4, causing the character representing Sh to be imprinted, this character being the short horizontal curve second from the extreme left on the top row of set 1 shewn on Figure II.

Similar action follows the depressions of the other keys in the row, 16 (which corresponds to N) moving t' pe bar 5, producing t e' horizontal dotted ong line on the extreme left second from the top of set 1 and 16 (which corresponds to R) producing the horizontal dotted short line second from the right and second "from the to of set l--and so on until 16 is reac ed, which produces the character representing J, which is the short horizontal curve second from the left end at the bottom ofset 1.

The vertical column of keys second from the left on Figure I will, by the same act ion produce the group of eight upward sloping characters to the right of those in set 1' produced by the extreme left column of ksys-- and so on with the other vertical columns of keys till the column on the extreme right is reached which produces the group of eight characters to t e extreme right of set 3 as shewn in Figure II.

The movement required to cause the paper to move over the printing surface is derived from the depression of the keys throu h the medium of two universal bars 23, Figures XVI and XVII, the upper one of which passes between the two upper rows of ty bars and the lower one between the two lb wer rows of type bars. Notches 24 are provided in the type bars to clear the universal bars, and allow for their necessary motion. Openings 25, Figs. XVIII and XIX, are provided in the framework 12, to allow the ends of the universal bars to pass out. The ends of the universal bars in continuation 23 are rigidly fixed to rocking pivoted arms 26, which are pivoted at their lower ends to brackets 27 secured ri idly to the base of the machine. in norma (position-that is when no keys are depresse the universal bars 23 rest against the right hand end of the notch 24 in the osition indicated on Figs. VIII and X and are held there by a spring 35 suitably placed. When any key is depressed, its corresponding ty e bar moves forward and causes the rigid rarnework consisting of two universal bars 23 and the two pivoted arms 26 to rock on the pivots in brackets 27. To pivoted arms 26 are fixed pins 28, and on these are pivoted the connecting bars (not shown) which convey the motion to the aper and ribbon feeding arrangements. Il'hen the pressure on the key is released, the springs 31 and 35 before referred to, cause the keys and the universal bars to return to their normal positions.

It will be obvious from this description that it is possible either to depress one key only at a time or any number of keys simultaneously.

The amount of motion imparted by the universal bars to the pin 28, is, however, greater when received. through the lower bar from an' of the type bars in the two lower rows t an if received through the upper bar from any of the type bars in the two upper rows, and any alternative method of sup orting the universal bar may be ado ted for example as shewn in Figures XV II and XIX. Special projections 29 are provided on the framework into which pivots 30 are screwed. Levers 31 and 32 operate on these pivots. The ends of the universal bars 23 are rigidly fi xed to levers 31 and 32. At the lower end of levers 31 are his 33 on which are pivoted the connecting bars which convey the mot-ion to the aper and ribbon feeding arrangements.

he upper ends of the lower levers 32 engage behind the lower ends of the upper arms 31. Hooks 3i take the ends of springs 35, the other ends of which are anchored to pillars 36. These springs maintain the universal bars in normal position and cause them to return there when the in 's are r:- leased after depression.

Dealing new with the unit. of H levers shewn on Figs. IX, Xi. X31, 3'. it, XI, and XV. 1t Wlil be seen that the n. has (i liver-ed to the keys by the Linger in ar lot pressing them, though taking place over a and impress its or their characters space sufliciently wide for convenient operation of the keys by the fingers, are delivered to the t pe bars within a much narrower width 0 space-the lateral distance between the centres of the keys bein (for example) not less than five-eighths 0% an inch, while the distance between the centres' of the short arms delivering the motion to the type bars is not greater than three sixteenths of an inch. 0 enable this transmission of motion to be effected each key lever except those in the two central columns of the machine embodies in its construction a connecting bar. To key. 16* belongs connecting bar 37. To key 16" belongs connecting bar 38. To 16" connecting bar 39. To 16-10. -To 16541. Key 16 is virtually opposite to its special short arm and therefore needs no connecting bar. Distance rings 43 are in sorted between the keys when required to maintain the spacing. It will be seen that openings 44 (see Figure XIV) are made in connecting bars 39 and 40 to allow the short arms of 16, 16 and 16" to pass through.

Any alternative method 0 conveying the motion delivered over the wider space which the keys occupy to the narrower space which the type bars occupy may be adopted. The arrangement described laces the connecting bars around the centra spindle 15 in positions at 90 degrees to one another, with two together, namely 39 and 40 on the bottom and two together, namely 41 and 42 on the top. These connecting bars may, however, be arranged in any order round the central spindle 15 with any number occupying the same position radially. All or any number of arms may occupy one position radially and any number of ositions in any relation to one another may he used.

What I claim as in}; invention and desire to secure by Letters atent is 1. In a short-hand machine, the combi nation of a row of ke s, a spindle rigidly fixed to the frame wor of the machine on which such keys when depressed turn, a series of short arms and a series of connecting bars, each of said short arms being rigidly attached to one of said keys by a connecting bar, said connecting bars being of different lengths and disposed parallel with said spindle and being so arranged that though two or more of them may function in parts of the same circumferential area, yet any or all of them may be simultaneously set in motion by their appropriate keys and carried the necessary distances without colliding; a row of 1: pc bars placed below but occupying less wi th than the row of keys, each of said typebars having a notch, each of said short arms engaging with its appropriate notch so that on the depression of the eye singly or simultaneously a type bar or type bars will move forward to the platen on the paper. a

2. In a short hand machine, the combination of a key board consisting of a series of rows of keys, a series of spindles on which spindles said rows of key; when do i r it turn, a series of short. arms and a s s i 2 connecting oars, each of said shortarms being rigidly attached to one of said iieys by one of said connecting liars, said connecting bars heir. of diffe nt leng h and disposed paraliewith said spindle. Kid arranged that though two or more of them may function in parts of the same circumferential ar a, any or aid of them may be simultaneously set in motion by their appropriate keys ant. car: ed the necessary distances Without coliidin a series of parallel rows of type bars placed i'ielow. but.

occupying less Width than the rows of keys each of said type bars having a notch, each of said short arms engaging the no ch in ts appropriate type bar, so that on the depres sion 0. keys singly in ilAiEiLiiixX ilSi}, a type bar or type bars or are caused. to move forward to the piaten and to impress or their characters upon the per. i

In a shorthand machine a. i i oi four rows of type liars having met-s cm. on the under side of the top reset such type bars; on the upper side. of the second row; on the under side of the third row and on the upper side of the fourth or bottom row; such slots providing each type bar with a shoulder; all of such shoulders being in a straight line from side to sine of the ma inc. -1 universal bar being passed through two upper rows of ype bars and another cross bar being pas ed thmngh the two lower rows; each of V keys are at rest, bring in Contact with, all of the type bars which are designed to operate it, both cross oars being rigidly fixed at either end to rocking or pivoted arm, which arms on the depression oi" a key or keys transmit the motion imparted to them the type bar acting upon the cross bars to any suitable paper and ribbon feed mechanlsm.

4. In a short hand machine, consisting of eight parallel rows and twelve vertical columns of keys, in cviunhination with a series of spindles one for each row of keys on which said keys when depressed turn, a series of short arms and a series of connecting bars, each of said short arms being rigidly attached to one of said keys hy a connecting bar, said connecting bars lieing of diilerent lengths and disposed parallel. with said spindles and so arranged that though two or more of them may function in parts of the same circumferential area any or all of them may be simultai'lcmislv set in motion by their a propriatc kei s and carried the necessary istances withoiit a key board lUi;

colliding, a series of four parallel rows of type bars, each row containlng 24 type bars, such type bars being placed below but occupying less width than the rows of keys, each of said type bars having a notch, each of said short arms engaging the notch in its appropriate type bar, so that on the depression of keys singly or simultaneously a type bar or type bars is or are caused to move forward to the platen and to impress its or their characters upon the paper, such characters being printed in their required spaced positions in a longitudinal series of 24 vertical sub-columns, four characters in each column one above the other in spaced relation.

5. In a shorthand machine a series of characters formed upon or attached to type bars, such characters consisting of curves, straight lines, dotted lines, lines With and lines without hooks, lines with and without otherlines joined to them, the same being in pairs, of which one element is long and the other short, but of the same design, such characters being formed upon the bars so that some produce horizontal strokes. some (reading from left to right) strokes sloping upwards and other sloping downwards, a series of generally corresponding characters appearing in each of the sets of the keyboard, and in generally corresponding positions.

6. In a short hand nnu-hine, a spindle, a plurality of keys, a short arm for each key disposed at right angles to the spindle and pivoted thereon and a connecting bar for each key, said connecting bar disposed parallel with the spindle and rigidly connecting the key with its short arm, said con-- necting bars being of different lengths and spaced circumferentially with respect to the spindle.

7. The structure specified in claim 6 with a plurality of longitudinally slidable type bars, each having a notch adapted to e engaged by a short arm of a key.

8. The structure specified in claim 6 with a plurality of longitudinally slidable type bars arranged parallel and in a common plane but placed closely adjacent to occupy less space than their corresponding operative keys, said bars each having a notch adapted to be engaged by the short arm of a ke to operate the bar.

9. In a short hand machine, a plurality of spindles, a plurality of keys pivoted with respect to each spindle, each key comprising a finger piece a short arm disposed at ri ht angles to the spindle and a connectin ar rigidly associating the finger piece wit the short arm and lying parallel with the axis of the spindle, a plurality of slidable type bars arranged in groups, the bars of each group arranged in pairs and the pairs disposed one above another, each type bar having a notch adapted to be engaged by a short arm to operate it, and the adjacent edges of the type bars of each of said pairs being notched in alignment With,simi1ar notches in he next adjacent group, universal bars passing through the said adjacent notches and means adapted for connection of said universal bars in operative relation to paper and ribbon feeding mechanism.

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand in the presence of two Witnesses.

EBENEZER HOWARD. Witnesses:

THOMAS Vt. Rooms, WILLIAM A. MARSHALL.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3980823 *Jun 9, 1975Sep 14, 1976Howard Lawrence KKeyboard for bar matrix code
US4363557 *Apr 27, 1981Dec 14, 1982Stenograph CorporationMarking device for shorthand machine
Classifications
U.S. Classification400/91
International ClassificationB41J3/26, B41J3/00
Cooperative ClassificationB41J3/26
European ClassificationB41J3/26