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Publication numberUS1543424 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJun 23, 1925
Filing dateJan 9, 1924
Priority dateJan 9, 1924
Publication numberUS 1543424 A, US 1543424A, US-A-1543424, US1543424 A, US1543424A
InventorsClifford W Cowles
Original AssigneeGroundulet Company
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Light-source covering
US 1543424 A
Abstract  available in
Images(3)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

June 23, 1925. I I 1,543,424

c. w. CQWLES LIGHT SOURCE COVERING Filed Jan. 9. 1924 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR Qf/brdZI T C'ozdles ATTORNEY June 23, 1925 1,543,424

c. w. COWLES' LIGHT SOURCE COVERING Filed Jan. 9. 1924 3 Sheets-Sheet 5 INVENTOR Patented June 2.3, 1925:

ITED sures PATENT OFFICE.

CLIFFORD W: COWLES, NEW BRITAIN, CONNECTICUT, ASSIGNO-B TO 'GBOUND ULE'I. COMPANY, OF NEWARK, NEW JERSEY, A CORPORATION OF NEW JERSEY.

Lien'r-souncn covnmnd.

Application filed January 9, 1924;. Serial No. 585,096.

To all whom it may concern: I

Be it known that I, CLIFFORD W. Cownns,

' a citizen of the United States of America and a resident of 'New Britain, State of which disclose the form of the invention from the. lam

which I now consider to be the best of the various forms in which the principles of the invention may be embodied.

This invention relates to internally illuminated bodies such as and includin Christmas tree stars, i. e., those common y placed.

at the tops. 7

Among the objects of the invention is the improvement referred to in the following paragraph for the type of device which includes a covering material interposed between a source of light and the observers eyes.

The invention consists of a novel arrangement (hereinafter described in detail in practical form) of electric lamp or lamps and a covering material therefor which normally causes anon-glaring but bright glow and also and preferably causes a twink ing effect upon relative motion of the star or other internally illumi-v nated device and the observers eyes. The invention consists also of other features in connection with said principal. feature.

The drawing shows an embodiment of the invention which is practical for manufacture and use, consisting of a complete self-' lamp; the device being shown in Fig. 1-,

however, as otherwise com lete. including thelamp socket and the con uit for the circuit leads.

Fig. 2 isa front elevation of a completed device, (save for the breaking away ,of the lower part of the conduit or circuit lead tube) and showing the light-covering material on its skeleton frame of Fig. 1.

Fig. 3 is a view of a small tree with the improved star at the top, the lamp inside the star being connected by the circuit leads from its socket, in place of one of the lamps of the ordinary Christmas tree, the lighting circuit being shown as connected to a baseboard socket as commonly employed. for the purpose; andthe star then being attached to the top of the main stem of the tree by the circuit lead conduit projectin from the star, so that the star itself there y is held in erect position at the top of the tree.

Fig. 4 shows a modified form of lamp from which the enclosing reflecting lightcovering material of Fig. 2 has been omitted for'clearness) wherein the frame for the refleeting material consists of the incandescent lamp itself serving in lieu of an independent frame, the lamp itself being shaped to constitute a five-pointed star outline and replacing the star-shaped reticulated frame of Fig. 1 as a base or support for the lampcovering reflecting material.

Fig. 5 shows another modified form of .incandesoent lamp wherein the lamp itself serves as the frame for the-reflecting covering material, of Fig. 2, the bulb or tube itself being shaped as a complete star without central openin as in Fig. ,4,

an v Fig. 6 shows a orm of frame similar to that of Fig. 1 (and also reticulated to per-L mit access of rays from the lamp to the reflecting covering material) but adapted for larger sizes of" stars as for municipal Christmas trees, and embodying a. plurality of lamps for the purpose of greater total illumination inside the star and of better distribution of light throughout the interior of the star.

' Heretofore Christmas tree stars, as the crowning decoration of the tree and similar devices, have been dependent for their illumination upon outside sources of light, so

that even when composed of reflecting material they did not shine very brightly, and

therefore even if they twinkled to any extent-at all such twinkling effect was only in proportion to their, dimness. The particular object of this invention is to provide a Christmas tree star or. the like which will glow ve bri htly (i. e. distinetl indeed, but w i thoug glare, and which inay have a very marked and striking twinkling effect due to the nature of the material surrounding the lamp, said-material providing a multiplicity of minute reflect-ing surfaces arranged in many diverse planes so that upon each relative movement of the star and the observers eyes, a diflerent set of the various sets of bright reflecting surfaces acts on the e es, the result of the quick shift of glowing ight from one set of reflecting surfaces to another and yet another is a distinct effect of striking twinkling of a brightl glowing'but non-glaring star.

In all forms of the invention, and irrespective of various features other than the above characterizing feature, the incandescent electric lamp is not substantially exposed to the observers eyes as shown in the uncompletedstar of Figs. 1 and 4-6, out" most of the rays of the electric lamp are prevented from direct passage to the observers eyes by means of the material (Fig. 2) having a plurality of preferably opaque but brightly reflecting surfaces arranged in the various different planes, so that, upon the slightest movement of either the ;ob server or of the star at the top of the tree (as by room air currents), the star produces the distinct and striking twinkling or glowing effect. 1

"In Fig. 2 isv shown a complete star embodying the invention.' The glowing and preferably twinkling effect, and the-construction by. ,which it is obtained, I believe to be wholly novel in the art. I have found that the best effect is obtained by employing an ordinary Christmas tree tinsel, preferably in strings or garlands, by winding suchgarlands to surround the lamp, (or a recticular frame around the lamp) in suc way as to obstruct the greater part of the direct rays of the lamp. This results, as illustrated, in a layer of intermingled lengths of tinsel having surfaces comprising a multiplicity of minute reflecting surfaces arranged in diverse planes, said layer being more pervious to light from the concealed source through the interstices wbetween the intermingled lengths of tinsel and incident on the multiplicity of minute exterior reflecting surfaces of the layer than to direct rays from the concealed source incident on the observers eyes. Such material does not necessarily constitute a complete obstruction between all the direct rays from the lamp and the observers eyes, but is itself a sort of reticulated structure permittingpassage of some of the direct rays, but only at small s aces between the minute tinsel pieces, from amp to eyes, and not suflicient to cause the effect of a glare of light. .Suc-h minute subdivided direct rays, through small spaces, contribute to the twinkling effect, upon any slight relative movement of the star or the observers eyes, because upon such movement a new set of minute openings between the parts of the coverin material may be interposed be tween t e iamp and the observers eyes, and between the time of such two exposures of direct rays, there may be obstruction by a set of minute tinsel pieces, the reflecting sur- "faces of which are not directed toward the the lamp and such exterior reflecting sur-' faces. The application of the reflecting material, however, may be so tight or thick that before the rays reach the observers eyes theymay have passed indirectly from the lamp to reflecting surfaces inside the mass of covering material, and thence to the. exterior reflecting surfaces which finally pass the rays to the observers eyes, i. e., the

rays may have been reflected from one set of reflecting surfaces to another set before reaching the eyes. But it is suflicient, whatever be the application of the reflecting material to the lamp, that some of the rays emanating from the lamp finally are passed,

to the eyes by the plurality of reflecting surfaces, even although some of the rays may pass directly from lamp to eyes, and/or some rays indirectly from the lamp to one set of reflecting surfaces to another set of reflecting surfaces before passing to the. eyes. W The invention may be characterized further as follows. Although the lamp is more or less covered by preferably opaque material, yet the object is-to permit the passage of the rays to the observers eyes, and it is even useful and permissible that some rays be permitted to pass directly from the lamp to the eyes, provided that such direct passing is not so great as to cause an excessive glare or to too greatly reduce the distinct and striking twinkling effect. That is, it is necessary, in order to obtain the twinkling effect or the glow which distinctly defines the shape of the covering material desired,

that most of the rays of the lamp be prevented from direct passage to the eyes and that most of said rays be permitted to pass indirectly to the eyes by way, successively in point oftime, of the multiplicity of m1- 1. :te reflecting surfaces arranged in various different planes. Nevertheless, the reflecting mass is so porous, so to speak, to the rays from the lamp, that a substantial quantity of rays from the lamp may be allowed to pass directly to the eyes without seriously impairing the desired novel eflfect.

The mass of multiple reflecting surfaces -may consist of the garlands, which is the trade-name of the ordinary tinsel strings commonly employed as Christmas tree decorations. The little flat hairs projecting laterally from the central string or core, in various directions, usually comprise a copper foil base which is plated either-with silver or gold. An electric lamp enclosed in a not too thick mass of such garlands, according to my invention, will give a silver or golden glow (depending on whether the small flat hairs are plated with silver or gold) throughout the star from that set of the multiplicity of reflecting surfaces which happens to be facing the observers eyes.

My invention includes all materials substantially equivalent to the tinsel garlands described. The invention includesalso the various practical features of the assembly shown in the drawings as follows.

Figure 1 shows a practical method of manufacture, as well as a practical mode of use. A fairly stiff metal wire is bent into the shape of a five-pointed star 'W, prefcrably consisting of two parallel lengt-lisof wire as shown, to constitute suiiicient thickness of this reticulated frame. Such two wires are held in parallelism by transverse wire connectors T having their ends bent around the parallel wires as shown in Fig. 1. The thickness of this reticulated frame W is about the same as the diameter of the lamp (i. e., not very much greater or less), and preferably a little less, so that when the covering material R of Fig. l (as the tinsel garlands) is applied to frame W, said reflecting material encloses the lamp, the latter preferably not touching the covering R although covering R preferably is noninflammable as in the case of the silver or gold plated copper material of the garlands. The frame W of Fig. 1 is reticulated in the sense that while it serves as a support for the reflecting covering R, yet it does not unduly obstruct the passage of the rays of light from the lamp to the outer reflecting surfaces of covering R. a

A socket S for the lamp is secured in the ordinary way to fixture T secured to a metal conduit C. The smaller end of socket S is passed between the two parallel wires of frame W Then the electric incandescent lamp L, is screwed into socket S. A wire U is bent around the upper or smaller part of socket S. The ends of said wire U are bent around and secured to the parallel wires of frame Y Thus lamp L and its socket S are formed into a unit with frame W 'and the lamp cannot be pulled out from said frame. Insulated socket leads D extends from-the lamp socket and are housed in conduit C- from the remote end of which they pni l'ect to any suitable attached terminals as To frame W in Fig. 1, is applied garland string G, or several lengths of such tinsel strings in succession, as by coiling on and around the wires of the frame until the entire frame is covered by the minute opaque reflecting surfaces in various planes, in the manner shown at R (Figs. 1 and 2) :the opaque cores ofthe strings are spaced apart from one another as clearly shown in Figs. 1 and 2, forming a coarsely reticulated structure similar to that of wire frame W and for the same purpose, i. e., to permit the passage of light thru the comparatively wide spaces between the opaque material of the wires of the frame and the cores of the tinsel strings or garlands.

The spaces between the opaque tinsel cores are occupied by the above described little fiat metal foil hairs, as is also clearly shown in Figs. 1 and 2. The light from the internal source passes more or less directly thru this more or less loose mass of reflecting hairs. This arrangement constitutes an intel-winding or interweaving of the small tinsel hairs into a fabric-like structure which is the effective thing in causin the nonglaring external glow characteristic of the invention. When the frame has star-shaped projections as shown, (in Figs. '3 and 4 as -well as in Figs. 1 and 2) or when the frame has any outward .projections, any such projections assist in holding the tinsel interwinding in place over the light-source, especially when the garland string is wound or coiled in place around the frame as distinguished from being wound or otherwise woven'before being applied tothe frame. The device when completely provided with the covering material as shown in Fig. 2 is ready for sale and use, including the ermanently'incorporated lamp and its s et.

The user, in applying the star to the Christmas tree, simply secures it in erect position to the to of the main stem of the tree, as shown in Fig. 3, by binding conduit C to the tree as by strings I (Figs. 1 and 3). He then connects terminals M of circuit leads D to the lighting circuit of the tree, which may be the ordinary 110 volt house circuit. As shown in Fig. 3, the star with reflecting surfaces R, may be connected in lieu of one of the lamps of an ordinary Christmas tree lighting circuit, and in suc case the terminals M-of Fig. 1 may be replaced by an ordinary threaded terminal plug like U of Figs. 4 and 5. Such lighting circuit may be connected, as is common, to connector N (Fig. 3) which in turn is connected to plug B screwed into the common baseboard socket. If the twinkling star is connected in a circuit separate from the rest of the tree lights, it may have a pull switch P, Fig. 1.

The form of the frame for supporting the reflecting surfaces R, which is shown in Fig. 4:, includes a complete incandescent lamp of star-shaped form, wherein both the filament W and the enclosing evacuated tube are made in the form of a five-pointed star with a hollow center. This gives the same appearance and action as shown in Fig. 2, after the opaque reflecting material R is mounted or wound upon the star of Fig. 4 as a frame; but while it is possible, in the case of the frame of Fig. 4, to have the covering material R of Fig. 2 extend over the hollow center of the lamp of Fig. 4:, such reflecting material may be mounted simply on the starshaped lamp without covering the hollow center.

In the frame shown in Fig. 5, the ordinary shaped, centrally located filament W is shown but with an enclosing vacuum L having an over-all five-pointed star shape, the points constituting projections affording means for winding on the garlands in a manner generally similar to Fig. 1 to produce the completely garlanded star of Fig. 2.

In each of the forms of frame of Figs.4 and 5, the incandescent filament terminates in circuit terminals on plug U as in ordinary incandescent lamps as in the case of lamp L of Fig. 1. And, as in Fig. 1, the garland frame of Figs. 4 or 5 may have its plug screwed into socket S, (Fig. 1) and be provided with fixture T and circuit lead conduit C; or, if desired, plugs U of Figs. 4 and 5 may be screwed directly into the lamp sockets of the general lighting circuit of the tree shown in Fig. 3. Preferably, however, each complete device is provided with its own lamp socket S and with a conduit C (Fig. 1),.which latter facilitates attachment ofthe star in erect form to the top of the tree, and facilitates electrical connection with a tree lighting circuit by way of suitable terminals or a plug on the ends of leads D projecting from the remote end of conduit 0.

I do not claim'any novelty in the forms of lamps shown in Figs. 4 and 5, as lamps, their relation to my invention being as frames for the reflecting material in lieu of the reticulated frame W of Fig. 1.

In Fig. 6 is shown an embodiment of the invention comprising a large star suitable for the tops of large Christmas trees such as municipal trees or those used in large halls-and churches for larger assemblages of people than domestic groups; Fig. 6 being in more reduced scale than the other figures. In the use of the larger star of Fig. 6, stronger interior illumination is required. For such purposes, I prefer either the frame constituted by the special lamp asaaaaa of Figs. 4 or 5, or else the multiple-lamp arrangement shown in Fig. 6 supported by a wire frame similar to that of Fig. 1. ln Fig. 6, plural lamps lL l are provided, one for each point of the star, and permissively a central lamp not shown, but located as in Fig. 1. in Fig. 6 the main reticulated frame W may consist of the double parallel-wire arrangement of Fig. 1, and in addition, of a wire T which in manufacture is wound successively around the plural lamp sockets S and around the wires of the main frame W thereby constituting a support, mounted with main frame W for all the lamps. The plural lamps are electrically connected in series by insulated leads U The ends of the leads from the lowest lamp extend to and through the conduit- C pro jecting from the remote end of the said conduit as leads D to the main lighting circuit. As shown in Fig. 6, the lamp-smpporting wire T is not wound around main frame W at the point where conduit 0 is connected to'frame W said lamp-supporting wire T being looped around a threaded conduitextension Q; and wires VW and T may be spaced apart at thislocation by a washer or spacer E. All these parts are tightly secured together by nuts F F screwed or threaded extension Q. The result of the construction of Fig. 6, after the reflecting covering R is applied as shown in Figs. 1 and 2, is a complete large unit throughout the interior of which the total illumination is distributed so that the bright but not glaring glow is uniform over the entire exeffect caused by the shift from one bright glow to another from a different set of reflecting surfaces.

In addition to the striking twinkling effect and the general practical nature of the invention in respect of both manufacture and use, the invention possesses the following advantages. The entire structure, including the opaque but reflecting covering It, is not inflammable, is sturdy and not easily broken, the reflecting covering R constituting a cushion shield for the vacuum tube lamp even when no reticulated frame W of Fig. 1 is used to enclose the lamp but where the reflecting covering R is directly supported on the lamp as in the forms of Figs. L and 5. In addition to the winding of the garlands on the frame, and the tying on to the frame of the ends of the garlands, they may be secured thereto by small wires, not shown, so that the garlands cannot be detached save when desired. It is desirable, however, that the garlands be not so permanently applied as toprevent a removal of part of them by the user in order to permit the substitution of a new lamp in case the one sold with the set should burn out;

for the reflecting material R, yet the ordi- 9 ing on the frame in the proper manner so or for that purpose, socket S and/or lamp L may be provided with readily removable means of attachment to frame W While other materials may be employed nary commercial garlands or tinsel strings are quite satisfactory in all respects in-- cluding the fact that they do not oxidize, and they lend themselves admirably to windas not to totally obstruct too much ofthc rays from the lam but only prevent too bright a glare, while permitting a bright glow preferably subject'to the twinkling efl'ect characterizing the invention. I know of nothing of this kind in the prior art, regardless of the material employed for the reflecting material R characterizing the invention. I am aware that I am not the first 1n- 'ventor of more or less ornamental devices wherein a covering or material concealing a source of light has exterior visible surfaces producing reflections from the concealed source -"but that others previously have disclosed such devices, including that f of lengths of tinsel arranged in a not-tooof German patent to Woelfer 172,764 of 1905, British patent to Murrey 155,955 of 1919, and U. S. patent to Ludwig 1,410,336

of 1922. But my invention, of improvements on such devices, inc uding a covering material for the source of light, such as an electric lamp, involves the employment therefor, and one which produces the novel result, due to the extremely large number ofminute exposed reflecting surfaces, of a distinct uniform glowing of. the bodyof desired shape which is substantially free from any effect from direct rays constituting either a glare or a degree of obscuration of the shape of the body'due to comparativfly large reflecting surfaces.

particularly point out and distinctly claim the part, improvement, or combination which I. claim as my invention or discovery, as follows v 1; The improveddevice for covering a light source concealed thereby, which comprises a supportin frame of desired shape, in combination w1th a covering ofo aque tinsel supported on the exter1or o said frame in the form of a substantially coritinuous winding of tinsel garland strings the cores of whichare spaced a art from one another; in said winding an the lateral hairs of which occupy said spaces.

2. The improved device for covering a light sourcd concealed thereby, which comprises a supporting frame of desired shape I aving outward projections, in combination with a'covering of opaque tinsel having reflecting surfaces and supported on the exterior of said frame in the form of a substantially continuous winding constituting a fabric-like structure; said. frame projections assisting in retaining said winding in place and said frame being hollow to enclose a light-source; the opaque tinsel parts being spaced from one another in said wind-. mg sufiiciently to permit the passage of light thru the winding by way of their reflecting surfaces. r

3. The improved device for covering a light source concealed thereby, which comprises asupporting frame of desired shape, in combination with a covering of opaque tinsel supported .on the exterior of said frame in the form of a substantially continuous winding of tinsel garland strings constituting a. fabric-like structure; said frame being hollowto enclose an internal source f l1 ht; the cores of said strings being space apart in said winding, said spaces being occupied by the lateral projecting opaque metal tinsel hairs having reflectin surfaces-and said hairs. also being space apart in. said winding sufficiently. to

permit passage of light thru the winding by way of. said spaces and said reflecting surfaces ofthe opaque hairs.

4. A device for covering a light source concealed thereby, whichcomprises a supporting frame of desired shape, in combination with a covering of metal hairs'having reflecting surfaces and supportedon the exterior of said frame in the form of a substantially continuous interwinding constitutinga fabric-like structure; said frame being hollow to enclose an interior light source and permitting passage of light from such source to said fabric-like winding; and

said hairs being sufiiciently spaced apart in said winding to permit passage of light thru the winding by way of the reflecting surfaces of said opaque hairs.

5.- The improved device for.covering a light source concealed thereby, which com-' prises a supporting frame -of desired shape, in combination with a covering of opaque tinsel supported on the exterior of said frame in the form of a substantially continuously woundtinsel garland string constituting a fabric-like structure; said frame,

being hollow to enclose an. internal light source and of opaque material reticulated to permit passage of light from the light source the successive portions of the opaque core 0 said tinsel string being spaced apart in said fabric-like winding; such spaces being occupied by the lateral opaque metal hairs having reflecting surfaces, and said hairs being spaced apart sufliciently to permit passage of light thru the winding by way of said spaces and the reflecting surfaces of the opaque hairs.

6. The improved device for covering a light source concealed thereby, which oomprises a star-shaped frame, in combination with a covering of opaque tinsel supported on the exterior of said frame in the form of a substantially continuously wound tinsel garland string constituting a fabric-like structure, said frame being hollow to enclose aninternal light source; and the star-projections of said frame assisting in holding said tinsel string on said frame; the successive portions of the opaque core of said stringbeing spaced apart in said fabric-like windlng, such spaces being occupied by the lateral opaque metal hairs having reflectin surfaces; and said frame and winding per mitting a non-glaring external glow from the internal light source. 7. The improved device for covering a light source concealed thereby, which comprises a frame of desired shape, in combination with a covering of opaque tinsel supported on the exterior of said frame in the form of a substantially continuously wound tinsel garland string constituting a fabriclike structure; said frame being hollow to enclose an internal light source; the successive portions of the opaque core of said string being spaced apart in said winding, suc spaces being occupied by the lateral opaque metal hairs having reflecting surfaces; and said frame and winding permitting a non-glaring external glow from the interior light source. a

8. The improved internally illuminated device which comprises a light-covering of minute opaque tinsel hairs having reflecting surfaces; an electric lamp surrounded b said covering; a hollow frame within whic said lamp is supported and on the outside of which the opaque tinsel is supported in the form of a substantially continuous winding constituting a fabric-like structure; said frame being of opaque material and reticular to permit passage of light from said internal lamp to said tinsel winding; and

the winding of said tinsel hairs involving a separation between the individual hairs sufiicient to permit passage of light thru said winding by way of the reflecting surfaces. of said hairs.

9. The improved device for covering a light source concealed thereby, comprising a supporting frame of desired shape; 1n combination with a covering of opaque tinsel supported on the exterior of said frame in the form of a substantially continuously wound plurality of minute opaque tinsel hairs constituting a fabric-like structure;

said frame being hollow to enclose an inminute tinsel hairs having reflecting surfaces and arranged in the form of a substantially continuous winding constituting a' fabriclike structure, said hairs being opaque but spaced apart in said winding sufliciently to permit passage of light therethru by way of said spaces and said reflecting surfaces of the opaque hairs.

11. The improved covering for light sources concealed thereby, which comprisestinsel garland strings arranged in the form of a substantially continuous winding constituting a fabric-like structure; the successive portions of the opaque cores of said strings in said winding being spaced apart,

such spaces being occupied by the laterally projecting metal hairs having reflecting surfaces, and said hairs being spaced apart suflicientl to permit'passage of light thru said win ing by way of the reflecting surfaces of said 0 aque hairs.

' LIFFORD W. COWLES.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2480408 *Apr 4, 1945Aug 30, 1949Fuller Ira WAdvertising sign
US3041446 *May 28, 1959Jun 26, 1962Gen Plastics CorpElectrically lighted ornament
US4523260 *Feb 10, 1984Jun 11, 1985Freda DuncanStar display
US4989354 *Apr 7, 1989Feb 5, 1991Selby Jerry WSports or trade emblem
US9339139 *Jun 4, 2014May 17, 2016Thomas M. HarmanApparatus and method for attaching an ornamental tree top fixture
US9462907 *Aug 11, 2011Oct 11, 2016MacMartin Harman II ThomasApparatus and method for attaching a decorative fixture to a tree top
US20120040110 *Aug 11, 2011Feb 16, 2012Harman Ii Thomas MacmartinApparatus and method for attaching a decorative fixture to a tree top
US20140287168 *Jun 4, 2014Sep 25, 2014Thomas M. HarmanApparatus and method for attaching an ornamental tree top fixture
DE3420496A1 *Jun 1, 1984Dec 5, 1985Weymar Karl HeinzAdvent crown
DE3912300A1 *Apr 14, 1989Oct 18, 1990Joerg Michael UhlElement set for non-pattern prodn. of luminous letter signs - has at least two respectively equilateral triangle and circular sector having hollow translucent housing with light source
Classifications
U.S. Classification362/121, 40/540, 428/11, 362/807
International ClassificationH01R33/00, H01K7/06, F21S4/00
Cooperative ClassificationA47G2033/089, F21W2121/04, A47G33/08, Y10S362/807, F21W2121/00, A47G33/0836, A47G2033/0827
European ClassificationA47G33/08, A47G33/08F