US 1546579 A
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July 21, 1925.
J. H. HAMMOND, JR
DUAL SYSTEM CONTROL FOB DIRIGIBLE'DEVICES Original Filed Oct. 14 1915 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 s K m w l 1,546,579 J. H. HAMMOND, JR
I DUAL SYSTEM oF CONTROL Fon DIRIGIBLE-DEVICES July 21, 17925.
Original Filed Oct. 14", 1915 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Patentedialy 21, 1925.y
. UNITED STATES JOHN HAYsHAMMoND, JR., or
1,546,579 PATENT oFFlcE. A
:DUAL sY'sTm/r or 'coN'moL non DIRIGIBLE Deviens.
Application IedOctober 14, 1915, Serial 170,555,895. Renewed August 25, 1923.
To all inkom t may concer/nk Be it known that-II, JQHNv HAYs HAM- l MoND, Jr., a citizen of the United States, re-
siding in Gloucester, county of Essex, State of Massachusetts, have inventedV a certain new and useful Dual System of Control for Dirigible Devices, offwhich the followingis a specification.
One of the objects of this invention is to provide means whereby a prime mover-or actuating device may be controlled from a distance either by one form of energy, or by another,- -for instance, either'by electrpmag fnetic radiant energy or by sound waves.
A further object of this invention is to provide means -whereby aj dirlglble device such, for mstance, as a marlne vessel, a torpedo., an aeroplane, or any 4other dirigible device, may be steered or stabilized with respect to a given axis, either through the agency of one formof lenergy orthrough the agency of another form. of energy.
Othery object sof this invention are to pro- 'vide improved means formaising a mast and holding the same in an elevated positionand ."forreleasing and lowering the same; and to provide other improvements asl will appear ereinafter.
In theA accompanying drawings, Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic side elevation of a marine vesselprovided with a dual system of control .constructed in accordance-,with this im vention; Figs. 2 and 3 are top plan views l of details of the same; Figs.l 4, 5, 6 and 7 in its di part of th1s. mvention; A F1gs.8` and 9-fare transverse-sect1onsf on are enla-itged longitudinal sections showing erent positions a valve forming a lines 8-8 and 9 9 respectively of Fig. 4;
ltion of Fig. 1. f
and Fig. 10 is an enlarged section of a porf Vaboutv its axis, a segmental gear 15 is rigidlyv secured to the rudder coaxiallytherewith and is engaged by a rack 16 which forms one end of a piston rodv 17, the other` end of which is provided witha piston 18 which is arranged toreciprocate in a steering cylinder 19 which is fxedly secured within the hull `10. The piston` 18 is normally held in. a central position in the cylinder 19 by means of opposed spiral springs 2O and21 arranged within the cylinder `upon opposite sides of the piston, and when the piston 18 is .in a central position the rudder-11 is held v in alinement with .the longitudinal axisl of the hull 10. v
For distributing compressed airvor other fluid under pressure to the steering cylinder 19, andv for other purposes'as will appear hereinafter, a "rotary cylindricalvalve 25 is varrangedkto rotate about' its longitudinal axis and is held 'against,longitudinal movement in a valve casing 26 which is fixedly' secured in the hull'l 10. This valve casing 26` is provided with two-oppositely disposed ports 27 and 2,8 which communicate with the v opposite ends of the cylinder 19 respectively through pipes .29 and 30. A suitable tank 35, or other source .of compressed air or other fluid under pressure, is xedly secured in the hull 10` and communicates through a pipe 36 and branch pipe37 lwith an intlet port 38 provided thereforfin the .valve caslng 26.
For giving tary movement, one endv of the valve is prothe valve 25 a step-by-Step roi loosely mounted a gear 41, outside of whichl is lixedly securedv upon the stem a ratchetg 'l 42 which is arranged to beengaged :by a
pawl 43 which is pivotally secured to the gear 41 and which is pressedintoengage ment ,with thefratchet' 42 by means of a;
spring 44. Engaging the gear 41 is a rack or-nactuator ,45 which forms oneend' of* a piston rod 46, the other endv of which is pr'ovided with a pistonf 47 which is arranged to reciprocate in a cylinder 48 which is lixedly `securedwithin the hull 1'0, the piston bemg normally held lin its innermost position in the eylinderby means of a spiral spring 49 surroundingthe piston rod 46. The cylin de'r 48, whlch for convenient vfuture refer;A
'ence may be called the ratchet cylinder, is
provided with a port 50 (see Fig.` 10) and with a valve casing51 containing areci 'ro-v catory slide valve 52 which .is arrange to port 53 provided therefor in the valve casing )51, or 'with the pipe 36 leadlng from the source of compressedr air .35, the valve -52 being provided with .two ports 54 and v55 Aconnect the port 50 either withlan exhaust vided with al valve stem 40 upon which i's.9'5'lv oeA ` munication between the cylinder 48 and the open by air pipe 36 and to permit communication between the .space in the cylinder 48 back of the piston 47 and the exhaust port 53, by means of a spiral spring 56 surrounding one end of the valve. For reciprocating thel valve 52, the other end of the valve forms the core of a solenoid 60 which is ixedly sel cured in the hull 10.
For energizing the solenoid 60 to control the vessel, either in response to radiant energy in the form of electromagnetic waves or in the form of sound waves, one end of the winding of the solenoid 60 is connected by two wires 61 and 62 with two stationary terminals or contacts 63 and 64 respectively, and the other end of the winding of the solenoid 60 is connected by a Wire 65 with one pole of a battery 66, the other pole' of which is connected by a wire 67 with a terminal 68. The terminal 63 is arranged to be engaged by the free end of a switch 70 which is pivoted to swing about a fixed axis and which is normally held open by a spring 71. The terminal 64 is arranged to be engaged by a switch which is normally held a spring 7 6'. 'The former switch 70 is connected by a wire 77 with a terminal 78, and the latter switch 75 is connected by a wire 7 9 with a terminal 80," which is spaced slightly from the terminal 78. A switch is arranged to oscillate about the terminal 68 to connect the battery 66 with either the terminal 78 or the terminal 80, the switch 85 being held yieldingly in either position by means of a spiral spring 86', one end of which is connected to one end of the switch 85 and the other end of which is fixedly secured in sucha position that the spring 86 will tend to hold the switch 85 at either end of its path.
For controlling the rudder 11 in response to sound Waves, af diaphragm 90 is arranged within the hull 10 and preferably below the water-line in such a manner that one side of the diaphragm will be in contact with the water 'surrounding the hull, and the diaphragm'will be free to vibrate in response to sound waves transmitted through the water. Rigidly secured. to the diaphragm 90 is a core 91 around which is fxedly secured. a conducting coil 92 which is in series with a closed oscillatory circuit including an inductance 93 and. a condenser or capacity 94. Spaced from and surrounding the vi-U bratory coil 92 is a fixed solenoid 95 which is continuously energized by a battery 96 connected tothe opposite ends of the solenoid. Connected in any suitable manner with the closed oscillatory circuit 92, 93, 94, is a gaseous 'or other suitable detector 97, having in series therewith a source 98 of current and an electromagnet 99 arranged to control well known manner and act to close the switch 75 upon the contact 64, thus closing the circuit through the solenoid 60 and operating the reciprocatory valve 52 to permit compressed air to enter from the pipe 36 into the cylinder 48 to 'force the piston 47 outwardly and to rotate the rotary valve 25 therewith one step or a predetermined number of degrees, which in the present instance is 90 degrees. By repeated signals of sound waves of the proper frequency the rotary valve 25 may be rotated any desired number of steps of 90 degrees each to control the rudder 11 accordingly, as will appearhere- For controlling the rudder 11 in lresponse to radiant energy in the form of electromagnetic waves any suitable receiving means may be provided, but in the present instance improved means are provided including two vertical parallel masts which are arranged to reciprocate vertically in two cylinders 111 xed within the hull 10. The lower ends ofthe masts 110 are provided respectively with pistons 112, and the upper ends of the masts 110 project above the hull 10 and are. connected by antennae 115. v
For elevating Vand holding the masts 110 in operative positions and later releasing and depressing the masts, the upper ends of the cylinders 111 are connected by -a pipe and branch pipe 121 with a valve casing 122-.which is connected by a pipe 123 with the source 35 of-compressed air or other motive fluid, and the lower ends ofthe cylinders" 111 are connected by a pipe 124 and branch pipe 125 with the valve casing 122. The valve casing 122 is lprovided with two exhaust ports 126 and 127, and a reciprocatory piston valve 130 is arranged in the valvel casing 122 to control the distribution of air from the source 35 to and" from the cylinders 111. This piston valve 130 is provided within the valve casing 122 with three annular recesses 131, 132 and 133, forming passages for the compressed air.
For rendering the antennae 115 operative and the sound receiving means inoperative simultaneously with the raising of the masts 110,- and for later rendering the antennae inoperative and the sound receiving means operative simultaneously with the lowering of the masts, one end of the piston valve 130 is provided with a cylindrical stem 134 which forms a piston rod Y. zoy
extendingthrough a cylinder 135, which for convenient future reference may be ca lled the switch cylinder, and the rod is provided within this cylinder with a piston 13 6 rigidly secured thereto and normally held in a' central position in the cylinder 135" by and- 138 surmeans of-opposed springs v137 rounding thestem 134 on opposite sides of the piston 136. The other end of the valve 130 is, extended inthe form of a stem 139 provided with two spaced lugs-or trips 140 and 141 which are arranged upon opposite lsides of and normally in spaced relationship'to the free end of the switch 85, .the
arrangement being'such that when thevalve 130 is in its central 4position as shown in Fig. 1 the'distance between the trip 140 and the ,free end of the switch 85, when the switch is in the position shown. will be the y, same as the distance between Vthe trip 141 .rotary valve 25.
and the free endof the switch when the -valve 30 is in a central position andthe switch 85 has been shifted to bring its outer end into engagement with the contact 78. y
For retarding or..damping. the movement of the valve 130, the outer end of its stem 139 is provided with a piston 142 arranged to reciprocate in afixed cylinder 143,4 the piston being normally in a central position in the cylinder. Theopposite endsof .the `cylinder communicate\ through a vby-pass 35] 144, the effective area yof which is adjustably controlled by a plug valve or othersuitable :valv e145', and thecylinder .143 and its bypass are filled with air, water, oil, or any other suit/able fluid or liquid but preferably The opposite ends ofv thetcylinderv 135 are connected by corresponding .pipes 146 and 147 with corresponding, diametrically opposed portsin the valve casing 26 of, the The ratchet cylinder 48 isconnected. intermediate-of its ends by a.
.- pipe 148y with a corresponding port 149 in l the .valve casing 26 in such a manner that ing 'om t when the piston 47 is in its normal.Y position there will be no communication betwee `the ipe-148 and the pipe .36' lead iiesource of compressed air 35, but whenthe piston 47 has been moved .forwarda'part of its stroke, the 'pipe 148 will be placedl incommunication with the source of air supply 35 through the cylinder `48 and pipel 36. l
The rotary` valve 25 is provlded with four spaced annular recesses 155, 156, 157 and 158, which register respectively with the hereinbefore mentionedl port 38, an exhaust port159,A the hereinbefore mentioned port I:149, and Van exhaust -port 160, provided therefor in the valve casing 26. Leading .from the irstor outermost annular `recess 155;.inwardly is a short longitudinal recess 161, and leading outwardly-from the second annular recessl 156 arethree short. longitu dinal recesses 162, 163jand` 164 of equal lengths, these four longitudinal recesses being arranged to communicateat .proper times respectively with-the pipes 29 and 30. 'Leading fromthe thirdannular recess 157 inwardly .is a-short longitudinal'recess 165, and leading from the vinnermost or fourth annular recess 158 outwardly are three short longitudinal recesses 166, 166- y and 167, of'equal llengths, two, 166 and 166 of these last three being diametrically op pos ite, and all ol" these last four recesses being arranged to communicate at proper times with the-pipes 146 and 147.
The construction of the rotary valve 25 and its casing 26 are such that when the rota-ry valve .25 is in one position, as shown in Figs. 1 and 4, both ends ofthe steering. cylinder'lt) are open to the exhaust pas' sage 159, or, in other words, the valve will be in a'neutral position and the rudder will not be under the influence of the pneumatic pressure and will be held in a central posishown in Fig.` 1, and when the piston 4 is no tion by the springs- 19I and 20. When the rotary valvefisy in 4this neutral -position asv at the left ofthe cylinder 48, communication is established from the ratchet 'cylinder,48, pipe 148, annular passage 157, longitudinal passage 165 and pipe 146 with the leftv hand end of the switch cylinder 135. When' the rotary valve 25 has been rotated two steps or 180 degrees from the position shown in Fig. 1 to the position shown in Fig. 6, itnwill again be in a neutral position, and both ends of the steering cylinder 18 will be open to the exhaust 159, but in this case communication will be established from the ratchet cylinder 48 through the right hand end of the steering" cylinder 19, which willforce thepiston 4rod 17 'outwardly and turn the rudder 11 accordingly to steer the vessel to the left. rotary valve 25 has been rotated 'through three steps or through 270,de'gree`s from the position shown-in Figs. 1 and. 4 tothe I position shown in Fig. 7, communication will be established from the source of air supply 35 through the valve casing 26 and intoA -the left 'hand end of the steering .cylinder 19 to turn the vessel to the right. When eithery end of the steeringcylinder19 isin communication with the source of air supsltion shown in Figs ply 35, the otherend of the cylinder will be in communication with the exhaust' passage 159, and both ends of the switch cylinder 135 willV open to the exhaust port For automatically holding the masts 110 in their elevated positions, and for later releasing the same and forcing the same down- T.wardly, each mast is engagedby one end of mast has been raised to its uppermost po- P sition: The f(ront portion of each cylinder 169 communicates through a pipe 173 with the pipe 120,-whereby when the masts are in then` elevated positions and compressed air is admitted to the latter I: ipe each piston 170 will be forced inwardly and retract its catch 168 from the corresponding notch 172, and at the same time compressed air from the pipe 120 will enter the upper ends of the cylinders 111 and will force the masts downwardly assisted by gravity.
For steering the vessel in response to radiant energy in the form of electromag- 'netic waves, the antennae 115 are connected P to a conductor 175 which leads downwardly and is grounded at its lower end upon the hull 10 through an inductance 176 vhich forms the rimary of a transformer, the secondary 177 of which forms partof rthe closed oscillatory circuit of any suitable construction and arranged to control an electromagnet 178 which is arranged .to control theswitch 70. The construction is such that when a signal is received by the antennael 115 the magnet 17 8 is energized to close the switch 70 against the contact 63 whereby when the lower end of the switch 85 is in engagement with the c0ntact`7 8, the electromagnet will be energized and cause the rotation of the rotary valve 25 through one ste n ,Vhen the switch 85 is in position to render the sound receiving apparatus operative to control the vessel, as shown in Fig. 1 and it is desired to render the soundl receiving 'apparatus inoperative and to control the 'boat through the action of the antennae, the
rotary valve 25 is first rotatedl in response to sound waves of the proper pitch or frequency until it comes into the neutral po- 1 and 4, in which the left hand end of the cylinder 135 is in commnication through the pipe 146. recesses 165 and 157, and pipe 48, and by contlnulng the sound impulse l which has moved the valve 25 into this position the piston 47 is held over to the left,
148 with the cylinder.
'of the mast cylinders 111 and the exhaust port 127 and opens communication between the lower ends of the cylinders 111 and the source of compressed air 35,- whereupon the masts willbe raised and the catches 168 will hold'them in their elevated positions. A further predetermined movement of the 140A to engage the switch 8 5 and to move it across its center, 4whereupon the spring 86 acts to throw the lower end of the switch 85 into engagment with the contact 7 8, thus rendering operative the circuit including the electromagnetic switch controlled by theantenn and rendering' inoperative the circuit 'including the electromagnetic switch controlled by the sound waves.
The shifting of the switch 85, as just described, de-energizes the solenoid 60 and permits the slide valve 52 to eut 0E comiston 136 towards the right causes the trip municationbetween the source 35 of comressed air andthe cylinder 48 and to open the cylinder 48 to the exhaust port 53 whereupon the pressure is relieved from the left hand end of the piston 136 and the piston 136 is allowed to return towards the left and to resume a central osition under the action of the springs 137 and 138 and to ca 'use the piston valve 130 to resume its normal central position shown in Fig. 1, which, owing( '141 and the switch 85, is accomplished without again disturbing the switch 85, which is left in such a. positlon (the reverse of that shown in Fig. 1) that the `system is now ready to be controlled throu h the antennae 115 acting in response to ra the form of electromagnetic waves having a given characteristic.
After the .system-has. been thus set to re' received by the impulses of radiant antennae will rotate throu h 90 degrees to the -lost motion between the trip.
escribed, and Y trol of the sound receiver, the valve 25 is '-tion is prolonged until the pistonA 136 has been moved to the left a sucient amount to cause the valve 125 to clo e communica-pA tion between the upper ends of the cylinders 111 andthe exhaust port 126 and to open communication between the upper ends of the cylinders 111 and the source 35 `of compressed air, thu's retracting the catches 168 and forcingthe masts 110 downwardly, and thenl finally to cause the trip ative in any given time to control said device.
vout again disturbing fthe switch.
l141 to swing the switch 85` across its center. This 'shiftingof the switch throws the lower end of the switch out of engagement with the terminal '7 8 and into4 engagement with the terminal as shown in Fig. 1, thus simultaneously rendering the antennae 'inoperative and the sound receiver operative to control the vessel, and incidentally deenergizes the solenoid 60 and permits the piston 136 to' resume its central position which, owing to the lost motion between the yoke 140 and the switch 85, is accomplished with- The sysltem as thus adjusted may be controlled .by the sound receiver inresponse to sound waves of a predetermined pitch as hereinbefore described. y g
Although only a ,single form has been shown in which this invention may be embodied, it is to be understood that the invention is not limited in its application to any particular structure or to any particular purpose, as it is evident that this invention might be applied in various forms for various purposes without departing from the spirit of the invention or the scope of the appended claims.
Having now fully f `described this invention, I claim as new and desire to protect by Letters Patent of the UnitedStates:
1. The combination with an actuating device, of means including two elements sepa- Vrately operative to control said device, one of said elements being responsive to electromagnetic. radiant energy and the other' of said elements being responsive to sound waves, only one of said'elements being oper- 2. The combination with an actuating device of'means including two elements separately operative to control said device, one of said elements being responsive to electro- Vmagnetic radiant energy and the other of said elements being-responsive to sound waves, the constructlon and arrangement being such that the prolonged operation ofeither lof said elements at `ya predetermined,
time Vwill rendersaid element inoperative to control saidfvdeviceand will render theothcr of said elementsj operative to ,control saidV device. f
3. The combination with-an actuatiiigdevice, of means includingtwo. elements separately operative .to control rsaid device, kone of said ele-nients being responsivev to electromagnetic radiant energyand the other, of
said elements being responsive tov sound waves, and means controlled by said last mentioned element for rendering'itself inoperative and for elevating the other of said elements and rendering the same operative.
4. The'combinationwith an -actuating device, of means including two elements separately operative to control said device, one of said elements being responsive to electromagnetic radiant energy and the other of said elements being responsive. to sound waves, and means controlled by the latter n element for elevating the former element.
5. The combination with an actuating de-V vice, of means including two elements separately operative'to control said device, one ofsaid elements being responsive to electromagnetic radiant energy and the other of said elements being responsive to sound Waves, and means controlled bythe latter element for rendering itself inoperative and for elevating and rendering the other eleg ment operatlve: y p
6. The combination with an actuating device, of means including two elements separately operative in response to electroradiant energy, 'and in yresponse to sound waves respectively to control said device, one of said elements being operative to cause itself to be moved from an operative into an inoperative position and to change the other `of said elements from an inoperative into an operative condition.
7 The combination with an actuatlng device, of means including two elements sep-l arately operative in response to electro- AIadlant ener and 1n response'to sound waves respectlvely to control said device,
' one of said elements being operative in response to radiant energy in the form of electromagnetic waves to cause itself to be m'oved from an operative into an inoperative position and to cause the other. of said elements to be changed from an inoperative to an operative condition.
8. The combination with an actuating device, of means including two elements separately operative to control said device, one of said elements being operative in response to radiant energy in the form of electro.-
. magnetic waves to cause itself to be changed from an operative to an inoperative condition and to cause the other of said elements to be changed from an inoperative into an operative condition, and the other of said elements being operative 1n response to sound waves to cause itself toebe changed utilities being arranged for selectively 'aclrom en operative into an inoperative con- .tlmting one of said Wave responsive means.
dition and to cause seid first named element Signed at New York in the county of New to be changed from an inoperative into an York and State of New York this 24th dey 5 operative conditlion. 1 1 f l of September A.. D. 1915.
9. In a contro system, e ura it o uti ities, means responsive top electroymagnetic JOHN HAYS HAMMOND JR' Waves and additional means responsive to l/Vitnesses: compressional Waves for selectively aetuat- HENRY D. SLEEPER,
10 ing a desired one of the uti1ities,-one of said A. I. GARDNER.