US 1553986 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Sept; 15, 1925, 1,553,986
G. s. CLYDE ,ME-ANS FOR Burmme on. Filed Jan. 23.- 192:
' INVENTOR WITNESSES A TTORNEVS 650265: 5. CLYDE Patented Sept. 15, 1925.
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE,
GEORGE S. CLYDE, OF BROOKLYN, NEW YORK, ASSIGNOR 'IO HANNAH C. VAN LOAN, OF
A BROOKLYN, NEW YORK.
MEANS FOR BURNING OIL.
Application filed January 23, 1923. Serial No. 614,473.
To all whom it may concern Be it known that I, GEORGE S. CLYDE, a
citizen of the United States of America, and a resident of the city of New York, borough of Brooklyn, in the county of Kings and State of New York, have in vented a new and Improved Means for Burning Oil, of which thefollowing is a description.
My invention relates to a method and means for burning liquid fuel and more particularly relates to a vapor burner. The present invention in some of its aspects is designed as an improvement on the invention forming the subject matter of an ap plication filed by me September 20, 1922, Serial No, 589,403. As recited in my aforenamed application previous vapor burners have proved a failure in practice according to all authorities because of invariably re,- sulting in the deposit of hard carbon in the retorts and passages. In common with the invention of my previous application referred to the general object of the present invention is to provide a method and means to produce a vapor from oil without the deposit of hard carbon in the vaporizer or the internal deposit of hard carbon in other parts of the apparatus. The invention is adapted for the production of a highly efficient gas for either a comparatively slow open combustion or for other purposes. The present invention has particularly in view to provide for carrying out the invention in a manner to prevent localization of the heating area in a furnace for example as well as to provide means to prevent a drop in the temperature of the super-heated steam or other super-heated fluid between the super-heating means and the comparatively remote burner proper and vaporizing assemblage.
The invention further has in view to provide a structure in which the oil inlet pipe will be so protected as not to subject the oil to heat conditions that might make for carbonization before the oil is subjected to the conditions established within the vaporizer.
The manner and means whereby the above and other objects are attained will clearly appear as the description proceeds.
Reference is to be had to the accompanying drawings forming a part of this specification, it being understood that the drawings are merely illustrative of one example of the lnventlon.
Figure l is a partly sectional side eleva-' tion of means for carrying out my invention, showing the same installed in the, the box of a furnace illustrated in part;
Figure 2'is a section as indicated by the line 22, Figure 1, the furnace parts being omitted;
Figure 3 is a vertical section through a starter device for the original heating of the vaporizer and adjacent parts as'indicated by the line 3-3, Figure 1.
In carrying out. my invention in accordance with the illustrated example, a plurality of steam super-heating chambers 10 are provided, three of said chambers being shown in the present instance disposed vertically side by side, one of said chambers constituting a receiving chamber and that chamber farthest from the receiving chamber constituting a discharge chamber;
The adjacent chambers are connected alternately at opposite ends by connections 11 so that steam will be caused to pass into a chamber at one end and out of said chainber at theopposite end. 12 indicates an inlet pipe for steam or water. 13 is a discharge pipe for the super-heated steam, said,
discharge pipe connecting with the steam inlet 29 of a vaporizer 3O remote from the super-heating chambers 10, the vaporizer being in practlce disposed adjacent the front A of a furnace, for example, while the super-heating chambers 10 are disposed adjacent the bridge wall B. The letter C indicates the furnace grate.
A fuel pipe 31 leads into the vaporizer 30 through the bottom thereof or adjacent the bottom and rises above the bottom of said vaporizer and above the steam inlet 29.
The fuel pipe 31 is surrounded by a j ackct 18 adapted to receive steam or hot water from a pipe 19 controlled by a valve 20. The feed to the fuel pipe 31 is controlled by a valve 15. The jacket 18 communicates with the steam or water inlet pipe 12 and in practice supplies by regulation of the valve 20 a regulated quantity of water to the inlet pipe 12.
A partition 35 is provided in the vaporizer 30 thereby constituting the lower portion of said vaporizer a choke chamber, through which the fuel inlet pipe 31 passes vertiminal 131 instantly vaporizes and absorbs i 131 of the fuel pipe 31 extends into said nozzle 135 to a plane slightly below the top of said nozzle. The very highly heated and attenuated'steam passing the restricted outlet of nozzle 135 about the fuel pipe terthe oil, it being understood that the steam or water vapor 'at this time is many hundreds of degrees above the flash point of the oil. The vaporizing and gasifying heat is internal through the medium of the steam, the heat applied externally to the walls being merely relied upon to revent drop of temperature in the hig y super-heated steam or in the expanding oil vapor. The steam in the choke chamber 130 of the vaporizer 30 gives up part of its heat to the oil within the pipe terminal 131' and passes at all sides about the outlet of said oil pipe, the steam being thus accelerated and having an injector action to assist in drawing the fuel from said oil pipe. The oil before escaping at the nozzle 135 takes up sufiicient heat units to tend to expand, that is to say, heated above the flash point of the oil so that there is an instant expansion and vaporization of the oil immediately upon the escape from the terminal 131. Moreover, the vertical position of the fuel pipe terminal 131 revents the flow of oil to the externally heated sides of the vaporizing and gasifying chamber 30, the steam forming an envelope about the terminal 131 and expanding into the chamber 30 laterally outward and above said terminal. The maintaining of the oil against surface contact makes for the prevention of the deposit of carbon and the intimate mixture with the very highly heated and attenuated steam results in the production of a gas and the total products resultin from the discharge of the vaporized oil into the presence of such steam pass instantly from the region of vaporization and out of the vaporizer. That the oil does not contact with the walls of the .of hard carbon on said walls.
Associated with the upper chamber 230 of the vaporizer 30, above the partition 35, is a burner proper preferably in the form of a blow flame burner 34 disposed in the direction of super-heating chambers 10 so that the gas escaping from said burner 34 will be directed agalnst the said super-heating chambers and against the bridge wall B to curl backward from the latter after ignition of such gas.
To insure the maintaining of the vaporizer 30 at the desired heat for effective functioning andin order to prevent loss of temperature in the steam or air or other fluid heating medium between the super-heating means and the remotely situated burner, I provide an auxiliary burner pipe 134 branching from the burner 34 and returned in the form of a nozzle 234 or blow flame burner disposed toward the vaporizer 30. For accelerating the action of the burners 34 and 234 I provide a by-pass steam pipe 33 leading from the choke chamber 130 into the upper chamber 230 in line with the burner 34, said by-pass pipe 33 terminating in a nozzle 133 disposed in the direction of and in the plane of the burner 34 so that-an active jet of steam is directed into the burner 34 to commingle with the gas received from the nozzle 135, thereby accelerating both the burning action and movement of the gas and any accompanying carbon. A deflector shield 21 is disposed in front of the va rizer 30 between. the-same and the front K of the furnace so that the said vaporizer is the burning gas striking the same from the burner 234. Under the best working conditions the vaporizing or gas generatin chamber 30 is maintained at least at a re heat while the super-heating chambers 10 are maintained at a white heat or nearly so. Also, the assemblage'makes for effective application of the heat over very large areas substantially the complete area of a. fire box,instead of the localization of the heat with consequent detrimental effects on the boiler distant from the heat region as are incidental to the operation of localizing burners. The auxiliary burner'134 with its nozzle 234 directed oppositely to the main nozzle efl'ectively distributes the applied heatv and maintains all parts of the apparatus at the proper temperature.
Steam, as such, or water va or, at ordinary temperatures, has no ten ency to mix with or to combine with oil vapor, but I have found that a highly super-heated and attenuated water vapor has a tendency to absorb oil vapor under proper conditions and to produce a mixture making for aresulting water gas. Vaporizing of the oil in the vaporizer 30 is due to. adiabatic changes. The temperature of the steam, the manner of supplying the same, the mode of subjecting the oil to said steam and the heat conditions maintained in the vaporizer by the externally applied heat make for conwastes out relying upon the externally applied heat and while avoiding surface contact with the walls of the vaporizing chamber to efiect the vaporization.
In the vaporizing and the burning of the oil as described the free carbon has no tendency to deposit internally owing to the initial speed with which the gas passes to and through the burner nozzle and I avoid the result of a more direct taking of the gas from a mixing chamber and avoid a resulting flame of a character to make for incomplete combustion. The completeness of the combustion is finally brought about by the injection of the water vapor into the stream of gas on its way to the nozzle tip whereby the speed is accelerated and the volume of gas increased causing the vapor to take up free oxygen in greater volume upon its impinging against the obstruction formed by the backwall or shield where the actual ignition takes place instead of immediately at the nozzle tip.
The present embodiment of my invention is particularly intended to constitute a heat I duty burner for the successful burn ing b practically complete combustion of heavy oils having heavy tar or asphaltic bases which ordinary burners will not successfully consume without being mlxed with 0113 of the lighter grades. The invention,
it is to be understood, is variable to adapt it to oils of different grades and character and varying widely as to .their thermal units. The illustrated assemblage furthermore is designed particularly for power purposes on a large scale.
The arrangement whereby the jet of gas from the main nozzle 34 is directed at a speed to cause it to impinge against the bridge wall B orother obstruction and the similar conditions due to the arrangement of the nozzle 234 and the shield 21 make for the ignition materially distant from the burner tips thereby making for the completeness of combustion and for the distribution of the applied heat to the furnace or other structure to be heated.
For the preliminary heating of the vapor: izing and burner assemblages I employ a device which may be placed adjacent to the vaporizer 30 or adjacent to the steam superheating chambers 10 or adjacent to both. Said device comprises an oil pipe having a valve 51 which passes into a larger pipe 52 as a jacket into which pipe 52 steam or water is inducted through a pipe 53 having a valve 54:. The oil pipe 50 terminates in an upstanding member 55 passing through an upstanding member 56 of the pipe 52. The discharge end of the oil pipe terminal member 55 is enlarged as at 57 to provide a restricted steam outlet 58 which leads to an enlarged portion 59 of a horizontal pipe 60 branching in opposite directions from the said central enlarged portion 59. At the ends pipes 60 are continued downwardly as at 61 and communicate with a lower jet pipe 62 having jet nozzles 63 disposed directly beneath the vaporizing pipe member (30. At the center the jet pipe 62 is enlarged as at 64 for accommodating the pipe members 55, 56 which extend vertically through said enlargement 64. In the pipe members 60 adjacent to the ends at the bottom are dam members 65 to retain any oil that may escape in liquid form from the pipe member At the under side of the jet pipe 62 is a pan 66 into which oil may be poured or to which it may flow from the nozzles 63 in the event of imperfect vaporization of the oil prior to escaping from said nozzles. I
By having the vaporizerand oil inlet pipe remote from the superheater, the oil pipe is out of the direct action of the burner so that the oil will not tend to vaporize from the heat of the burner but solely by the superheated steam. Vaporization action is there- Having thus described my invention, it
1. In a means'for producing combustible vapor from oil,- steam super-heating means, a vaporizer connected with the second means to receive super-heated attenuated vapor therefrom, means to induct oil into said vaporizer to be subjected to the action of said steam, burner means to externally heat said super-heating means, a burner to externally heat said-vaporizer, said burners communicating with said vaporizer to receive combined water and oil vapor therefrom; together with means to inject a jet of superheated attenuated steam into said burners to mix with the combined water and oil vapor.
2. In a means to produce a combustible vapor from oil, a vaporizer, means to induct oil to said vaporizer, a steam super-heater remote from said vaporizer, means to conduct super-heated attenuated water vapor from said super-heater to said vaporizer, a burner to externally heat said super-heater, and a burner oppositely disposed to the first burner and positioned to apply external heat 3. The combination with a fire box, of means for producing combustible vapor from oil, including steam super-heating means in said fire-box near one end, a vaporizer at the opposite end of the fire-box and remote from said super-heating means and connected therewith to receive super-heated attenuated Vapor therefrom, means to induct pre-heated oil into the said vaporizer to subject it to.
the action of said steam, and oppositely dis posed burners directed toward the opposite ends of the fire-box and respectively toward said super-heating means and toward said vaporizer, said burners communicating with said vaporizer to receive vapor therefrom.
4. In a means for producing a combustible vapor from oil, steam super-heating means, a vaporizer connected with said super-heating means to receive super-l1eated attenuated vapor therefrom, means to induct oil into said vaporizer to subject it to the action of toward said vaporizer, said burners communicating with said vaporizer to receive vapor therefrom, and means forming obstruction walls adjacent said super-heater and said vaporizer at the opposite sides thereof from said burners.
'5. The combination with a fire box, of a steam superheating means, means to direct steam to supply water vapor to said superheating means, a vaporizer in said fire box remote from the superheating means and connected therewith to receive superheated attenuated vapor therefrom, and a burner in communication with the vaporizer, said burner directed toward the superheating means and the vaporizer being out of the region of the action of the flame from said burner.
GEORGE S. CLYDE.