Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS1556964 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateOct 13, 1925
Filing dateApr 20, 1922
Priority dateApr 20, 1922
Publication numberUS 1556964 A, US 1556964A, US-A-1556964, US1556964 A, US1556964A
InventorsScherbius Arthur
Original AssigneeFirm Gewerkschaft Securitas
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Electric ciphering apparatus
US 1556964 A
Abstract  available in
Images(2)
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Oct.

A. SCHERBIUS ELECTRIC CIPHERING APPARATUS Filed April 20. 1922 2 Sheets-Shen 2 Patented Oct. 13, 1925.

UNITED vSTATES PATENT OFFICE.

ARTHUR SCHERBIUS, F BERLIN, GERMANY, ASSIGNOR T0 THE FIRM'. GEWERB- SCHAFT SECURITAS, OF BERLIN, GERMANY, A COMPANY 0F GERMANY.

ELECTRIC CIPHERING- APPARATUS.

Application led April 20, 1922. Serial No. 555,678.

To all whom t may conc-em."

Be it known that l, ARTHUR ScHEniUs, a citizen of the German Republic, residing at Berlin, Germany, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in an Electric Ci'- phering Apparatus, of which the following is a specification.

For various reasons it is advisable to use characters instead of figures in cipher telenate vowels and consonants in such succession that in the ciphered text no accumulation of consonants occurs but words are formed which can be pronounced and which at the transmission of the ciphered text, for instance by telegram, do not give cause for errors.

The apparatus according to this invention is a machine which is of simple construction, easy to manipulate and readable directl The apparatus is shown by way o example on the accompanying drawing, wherein Fig. 1 shows the apparatus in planview.`

Fig. 2 is a diagram of a connection.

Fig. 3 shows diagrammatically Von enlarged scale a mechanical coupling ofthe figure contacts.

Fig. 4 shows an arrangement comprising revolving type wheels, also on enlarged scale and diagrammatically.

The apparatus consists of a switch board with two rows of contacts VII and VIII for figures and with 'two rows of indicators I and II,`forinstance incandescent electric lamps, for the letters. These rows are designed for the ciphering. Similar rows III and IV (contact rows) and rows V and VI f(indica'tor rows) servel for deciphering. The

rst row VII of figure contacts is subdi.- vided into two or more groups and corresponding figure contacts of each group `are connected to a common letter indicator (incandescent lamp) of row I.

As can be seen from Fig. 1 of the drawing the first row I of the letter indicators is short as it contains only vowels, the second row II of the letter indicator whichv contains the consonants, being long. Each figure contact of the second figure row VIII is connected with two or more letter indicators (incandescent lamps) of row II, this connecting being again dependent on grams. It is especially advisable to alter-4 `row of contacts VIII. Thence the leads 14 they groups of the first row of figure contacts VII as will be hereinafter exp ained.

The parts 11 'and 12 are multiple switch boards which connect each arriving lead with one of the outgoing leads and which are adapted to interchange this connection with great facilit of variation. These switch boards cou d be arranged so that the connections are changed constantly, viz., after each group of two signs and that this change 1s effected automatically at the depression of the contact ke s. The multiple switch boards 11 and 12 improve considerably the security ofthe ciphering but they are not of fundamental importance for the character of the invention.

As can be seen fromv the connection diagram of Fig. 2 corresponding contacts of the two groups of the row VII of the figure contacts are connected by a common lead 15 across the multiple switch board 12 with a common indicator of row I. From here the lead 31 conducts over a throw-over switch 18 through lead 32 to the battery 20 and over lead 33 and throw-over switch 17 through lead 34 to the contacts of the second conduct across the multiple switch board 11 by means of leads 13 each to two indicators of the indicator row II which are connected by the collecting leads 35 and 36 in two groups. The end of the two collecting leads 35 36 is connected by a throw-over switch 19 with the leads 25 and 26 of the two groups of the contact row VII.

-If the throw-over switches 17, 18, 19 are put to -ciphering in the direction of the arrow A, one indicator in each of the indicator rows I and II willbe operated at the t simultaneous closing of a contact in each of the contact rows VII and VIII, for instance incandescent lamps will be lighted as indicators. v

The current flows for the ciphering process in the manner which will be hereinafter explained as an example.

If the number 14 has to be ciphered the contact 1 in the row VIIl of.. contact ke s andthe contact 4 in the row VIII have to closed. The current flows then as indicated by dash-lines (short dashes From the contact 1 in row VII it flows t rough lead 15 to the multiple switch board 12, from there through lead 16 to the indicator z' of the indicator row I, from there through lead 31 across throw-over switch 18, lead 32 to battery 20, lead 33, throw-over switch 17, lead 34 to the contact 4 of the second row of contacts VIII, through lead 14 to the multiple switch board 11 and lead 13 to the indicator g. From there through lead 21 to the collecting lead 35 and a cross switch 19, lead 25 back to the contact 1.

In this case the indicator g has been .selected of the two indicators g and h which are both .connected with the lead 13 as in thefirst row of Figures VII a contact of the left hand side group (viz 1) has been closed. If instead of a contact of the left hand side group of this row VII a contact of the right hand side group, for instance the contact 6 had been closed the course of the current would have been from point 24 of lead 13 as follows, (dash lines with long dashes) z-Indicator lz., collecting line 36, switch 19, lead 26 back to the contact 6. In this manner the indicator z. would have been selected.

From the connection diagram it can be seen that the ten contacts, row VIII, do notalone determine the letters of the row II but that for the determination of these letters it is further decisive whether a contact is depressed in the left hand side or inthe right hand side group of row VII.

The deciphering ofthe group of letters z' g is effected, after the shifting of the throw-over switches 17, 18, 19 into the deciphering position B by depression of the contacts z or g in rows III and IV. The course of the current is indicated by the dash and dot lines. In the deciphering mechanism proper the course of current is the same as at the ciphering only the lamps have been interchanged by the switches with the correspondingly situated and similarly designated contacts and inversely (see Figs. 1 and 2).

As can be seen from the diagram of connection one of the keys of row VII must always be depressed simultaneously with one of the keys of row VIII and at the deciphering one of the keys of the rows III with one of the rows IV must be depressed simultaneously.

In order to avoid that two hands have to be used for operating, the keys of the four rows III, IV, VII and VIII are preferably mechanically coupled with one another in such a manner that the keys remain, after depression, in the switching on position and jump out only if another button in the same row is depressed. Arrangements of this type are generally known from the technics of the telephone.

If'for instance the key 1 of row VII and the key 4 of row VIII are de ressed both contacts remain closed so that t e ciphering letters can be read at leisure from the incandescent lamps. If now a new group of two figures is switched in, the keys 1 and 4 ]ump automatically to the initial osition. This can be ei'ected, for example, y providing a movable rod 50 for each contact plug series and arranging wedge-shaped lugs 5l at the contact lugs. The rod 50 holds the contact plugs 1n the contact position until, by depressing another contact plug of the same series, the rod is moved against the action of the spring 52 by means of the lug 51 provided on the contact plugs so that the rod releases the lug 51 of the first depressed plug which, until then also retained .in a depressed osition, and thus permits the last mentioned) lug to snap upwardly again. The arrangement could further be such that the contacts of the upper rows are lifted only then if the contacts of the lower row are lifted also.

The invention is not limited to the use of incandescent lamps it can be applied also in connection with directly recording mechanisms, magnets being for instance substituted for the incandescent lamps, said magnets operating key levers. Revolving type wheels or type wheels with limiting stops with or without throwing over could be used. l

The type wheels 37, 38 are arranged on a common shaft 39a and constantly rotate thereon at a uniform speed. The shaft 39'EL wlth the type wheels is mounted in suitable bearings 37B and 38al and movable longitudinally and is set in rotation by means of a suitable drive mechanism such, for instance, as an electric motor coupled with the shaft 39. The periphery of one of the type wheels is provided withitype lettersb, d, g, 7c, n, p, 1', t, w and y, and the other type wheel with the letters a, f, h, Z, m, g, s, v, and z. The last mentioned group of letters being arranged parallel with the letters of the first mentioned group in the order named.

By electromagnets 40 and 41 inserted in the lead at 25 and '26 or at 35 and 36 the type wheels would be displaced in the direction of the arrows 42 so that one letter of the one or the other row of letters is printed upon the paper 44 placed upon the aper support 43 so that the same effect is o tained as with incandescent lamps. Evidently the paper could be shifted and the type wheels could be stationary.

I claim 1. A ciphering or deciphering machine for the transformation of a succession of figures into a. succession of letters or inversely, consisting of two rows of contacts of equal length for the figures and of two rows of indicators for the letters, the first contact row for the gures being subdivided into grou s, the corresponding figure contacts of t e several groups being connected lill with a common letter indicator of the fiist row of let-ter indicators and one figure contact of the second row of figures being con-A nected with several letter indicators of the second indicator row, leads for connecting the figure contacts with the letter indicators and a source of current inserted in'said leads.

2. A ciphering or deciphering machine for the transformation of a succession of figures into a succession of letters or inversely consisting of two rows of contacts of equal length -for the figures and of a long row and a short row of' indicators for the letters, the first contact row for the figures being subdivided into groups, the corresponding contacts of the' several groups being connected with a common letter indicator of the short row of letter indicators and one figure contact of the second row of ures being connected with several letter in icators of the long indicator row, leads for connecting the fi re contacts with the let-ter indicators, multiple switch boards and a source of current inserted in said leads.

3. A ciphering or deciphering machine for the transformation of a successionl of figures into a succession of letters or inversely consisting of twoA rows of contacts of equal length for the figures and of a long row and a short row of indicators for the letters, the first, contact row for the figures being subdivided into groups, the corresponding contacts of the several groups being connected with a common letter indicator of the short row of letter indicators and one figure contact of the second row of figures being connected with several letter indicators of the long indicator row, leads for connecting the figure contacts with the letter indicators, letter contacts at the side of the letter indicators, and figure indicators at the side of the figure contacts inserted in all the individual circuits of all groups for the purpose of deciphering, multple switch boards and a'source of current inserted in said leads, throw-over switches' for reversing from ciphering to deciphering.

4. A ciphering and deciphering machinefor the transformation of a succession of figures into a succession of letters or 1nversely consisting of two rows of contacts of equal length for the figures and of a long row and of a short row of indicators for the letters, the first contact row for the figures being subdivided into two groups, of which one figure contact; of each of these two groups is connected toa common letter indicator of the short row, eachfigure contact of the second row of gures being connected to several letter indicators of the long row, circuits forv connecting each of the groups of letter indicators with one groupof the first row of figure contacts.

5. A ciphering and deciphering machine for the transformation of a succession of figures 1nto a succession of letters or inversely consisting of two rows of contacts of equal len h for the figures and of a long row an of a short row of indicators for the letters, the first contact row for the figures being subdivided into two groups, of which one figure contact of each of these two groups is connected to a common lette-r indicatorof the short row, each figure contact of the second row of figures being connected to several letter indicators of the long row, circuits forconnecting the grou s of letter indicators with one group of t e first row of figure contacts, multiple switch boards inserted one between the first figure contact row and the short letter indicator row and one between the second figure contact row and the long letter indicator row and a source of current inserted in the circuits.

`6. A ciphering and deciphering machine for the transformation of'a succession of figures into a succession of letters or inversely consisting of two rows of contacts of equal length for the figures and of a long row and of a short row of indicators for the letters, the first contact row for the figures being subdivided into two roups, of which one figure contact of eac oups is connected to a common letter inicator of the short row, each figure contact of the second row of figures being connected to several letter indicators of the lon row, circuits for connecting the grou s of etter indicators with one group of t e first row of figure contacts, letter contacts at the side of the letter indicators and figure indicators at the side of the figure contacts inserted in all individual circuits of all of these two groups for the purpose of deciphering,

multiple switch boards inserted between the several figure contact rows and the corre sponding letter indicator rows, a source of current inserted in the circuits, and throwover switches for reversing from ciphering to deciphering.

7. A ciphering and deciphering machine for the transformation of a succession of figures into a succession of letters or inversely consisting of two rows of contacts of equal length for the figures and of a long row and of a short row of indicators for cutting out the operated contact as soon as a contact of the same row is depressed, and

a source of current inserted in the circuit. 8. A ciphering and deciphering machine for the transformation .of a succession of figures into a succession of letters or inversely consisting of two rows of contacts of equal length for the figures and of a long row and of a short row of indicators for the letters, the first contact row for the 4 figures being subdivided into two groups,

of which one figure contact of each of these two groups is connected toa common letter indicator of the short row, each figure contact of the second row of figures being connected to several letter indicators of the long row, circuits for connecting the groups of letterindicators with one group of the first row of figure contacts, movable ty wheels carrying groups of letters or o figures, electromagnets inserted in the circuits between tlie contact rows and the indicator rows, and means ldesigned to dis lace by the magnets the type wheels for tlie selection of a determined group, multiple switch boards, and a source of current inserted in the circuit.

In testimony whereof I afiix my signature.

ARTHUR SCHERBIUS.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US6909783 *Jul 24, 2003Jun 21, 2005Joseph Samuel IncarnatoAlphabet soup cryptography
US8488779Jul 25, 2011Jul 16, 2013Grey Heron Technologies, LlcMethod and system for conducting high speed, symmetric stream cipher encryption
Classifications
U.S. Classification380/51
International ClassificationG09C1/06, G09C1/12
Cooperative ClassificationG09C1/10
European ClassificationG09C1/10