US 1559300 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Oct. 27 1925.
J. H. BARNARD INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE- 2 SheetS-Sheet 1 Filed June 27, 1923 Swughtoz JOHN H. BH/iNfl/FD Oct. 27, 1925- j J. H. BARNARD INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE 2. Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed June 27, 1923 Jvwwtoz JOHN H. 'BHRN/IRD Patei'iteti Get. 27,
t nsane pairs or sr 'rss e TEu o-Fnca I JQHN' BARN-ARI); on BROOKLYN, York-x, Assxeuo'a or oun-rounrn'ro HENRY Non-Ln or snernwoon, NEw ERsnYL INTERNAL-CQMBUSTION ENGINE.
j conlipanying drawings forminjg pa-rt offthiEs "specification. H p
My present invention relates toimprovements in internal combustion engines and, more particularly to internal combustioneu pines ot' the type in which the air necessary I for the combustion of the fuel is compressed elsewhere than in the powerc-ylinclera such as those i lustrated and described in my copending; applications Serial No. 6001845 or November lhth, 1922, andfSerial No. 6005877 of November 145th; 1 922. in engines of this type. the air necessary for the combustion or thefuel is com-pressed V elsewhere than in the power cylinders is adv mitted. to the power cylinders during" Variable and controllable fractions of the power strolte through proi erly actuated admission valves and is impregnated immediately prior to such admissions withl pulverized or finely divided fuel; The; air with its content of il'uel' is received into combustion chambers forming part of, or communicable with, the power cylinders."where, together they 1mpi'nge upon material sulficiently heated to i start their chemical unionand from whence they merge into the power cylii'id'ers in; a
JOlllHIQ increased by the developed ature off this chemical reaction.
An object of my present invention is to provide an improved and simplified mea-ns for (affecting the mixing of the fuel andair and their admission into the power" cylinder, and to provide animprovedignition means and combustion chamber;
temp e r Other objects of the invention are to proride means for supplying; air of combustion and a fuel spray with an immediate d'irection co-axialwith the admission valvefor the fuel and air. Other objects of the invention are toprovide a combustion chamber in whicl-rareversal ofthe direct-ion offlow oftheignited mixture is caused inetiectingr its-escape from the combustion chamber into the power cylinder: to provide an improved ignition means; and to provide aJco-unte'r-flow diaphragmtl-e my? plug formerly devised tor 'l'L-Z'llllZlO ring steady operation.
lViththese and other Objects wh-ich: will perceived from the following description,
the invention comprises, the apparatus described-and set forth in the followln-g specification and claims. I
The various features oi the invention are illustrated in the accompanying drawings, in which; 1
Fig: 1 is a'sectional view of a portion oi! a power 'cylin derand or a fuel and: air supply means therefor embodying a form of my invention, the invention" beingillustratecl as applied to apparatusor the same general construction as shown: in my co-pending ap pl-ica-tion Serial No. 600 877, portions of the apparatus beingililiustrated diagrammatically and utilizing the spraying device illuswhi'chperm'its"the elimination of trated'therein, but more particularly covered in my co-pendling application, Serial No. ,880, filed April 22ml, 1920.
' Fin: 2' is across section ofthe admission valve within. a cage which forms: the means of its assemblage with the head of the: power cylinder in which itis installed on the Line of Fig. 1, with: the" spray nozzle omitted; I I
Fig. 3 is a perspective View of the admission: valve and its valve stem shown reniovedfrom its cage.v
Fig; 4. is a vertical longitudinal section of the spray nozzle;
Fin.- 5-is' a) vertical longitudinal section of a typical form of counter-flbw diaphragm adapted to act as a baffling communication between; the combustion chamber and the power 0 i'nder.
' Fig; .is a plan View of theielectric igniter surroimcl ingtlre nozzle of the. counter-flow diaphragm, a
In my present. invention a supply of air under pressure, is passed: through an inlet valve, preferably of conical shape, into a combustion chamber which: communicates with the power cylinder and, beiioreijenteu ingthe power cylinder causedto reverse its direction oftralvel; Fuel isz-"sprayed into the air stream, as: it approaches the inlet 1 valve, in a direction sr'ibstzmtiazllly the same as the movement" of the: air and, as the direction oa;.1novement. of: the air stream 1s: reversed, thorough agitation-and mixing: of
the fuel and: airis. obtained- The air and fuel mixture is ignited at the place of the reversal of its movement by means of a glowing wire or equivalent ignition means. The stream of air and fuel is preferably given a flaring conical path of travel by the cone shaped valve and is received in an annular combustion chamber the outer portion of which is parallel with the air flowing over the surface of the valve and is turned inwardly at the base of the combustion chamber to pass over a conical shaped partition and through a central opening to the power cylinder. 7
Referring more particularly to the various figures of the accompanying drawings, but principally to Fig. 1, 1 represents a part of the casting forming the head of one of the power cylinders of an internal combustion. engine of the described type, 2, water spaces in this head, 3, water spaces in the walls 4 of the power cylinders, such as 5. Formed within the cylinder head is the mixing chamber 6 which is continuously filled with compressed air through the passage 7 by which it is connected with a con stantly supplied receiver. Neither receiver nor its source of supply are shown herein as they are in no wise peculiar to this invention and are fully described in my above named (Jo-pending applications.
Set into the cylinder head is the admission valve cage 8, fitted closely upon the seat 9. This cage is secured in place by the locking ring 10 which is sealed by the gasket 11. Through the wall of this cage is the aperture 12 aiiording unrestricted communication between the space 6 and the interior of the cagev which, consequently, forms part of the mixing chamber. An extension 13 of this cage fills the double purpose of forming the lower tray of the spiral spring 14 and a guide for the stem of the admission valve nowto be described.
For assei'nblage purposes,'the valve itself consists of the upper cone 15 and the dc ta-chablc lower cone frustum 10, unitable by any suitable means, such as the stud 17, which 7 is preferably screwthreaded as shown. This upper cone 15 is carried by the radial bars 18 which are extended upward until they unite in the disc 19 slidably fitted in the cage 8, above the aperture 12. Beyond this disc 19 extends the valve stem proper 20. This carries the piston 21 fitted with the piston ring 22 sliding in the chamber 25 which is recessed in the extension 13. Above this piston ring there is no attempt to seal the chamber 25 or, indeed, a vent hole may be provided to allow the escape of such small leakages as may occur past the piston ring, sothat, this upper part of the chamber 25 is always at atmospheric pres sure as is the condition below the admissior valve, except during the power stroke. In consequence, it the area of the piston 21 is made equal to the surface of the admission valve exposed to mixing chamber pressure the spring let is relieved of the necessity of overcoming the mixing chamber pressure in holding the admission valve closed.
In the valve stem 20 there is cut the slot 28 into which there projects the guide pin 2% to preclude any. possibility of rotational movement by the valve parts which might cause the bars 18 changing their positions with reference to the aperture 12.
Above the extension 13, the valve stem 20 carries the upper tray 26 which holds the spring 14 in compression causing it to maintain the admission valve closed against its seat 27. The admission valve is suitably opened by the pressure of a timed rockerarm upon the head 28 of the valve stem 20. This arm and the means of its actuation are not shown since they are fully described in my co-pending application Serial No. 600,877.
Located co-axially with the admission valve, and with the admission valve cage, is the spray nozzle 29, shown in-more detail in Fig. 5. The principles of the means employed by me for the pnlverization of the fuel are fully set forth in my co-pending application Serial No. 375,830 on fuel spraying devices, hence, for the purposes of this application, the following description of these means should suffice. '7
There is diagrammatically shown as 32 an air pump driven by such properly timed mechanism as is shown in my co-pending application Serial No. 600,877. This draws in hot, compressed air from the mixing chamber 6, through the suction pipe 33 and expels it through the pipe into the chamber 36 of the nozzle 29. There is also diagrammatically shown as 34 an oil pump similarly actuated drawing its supply through the suction pipe 35 from a source of supply which is not shown. For reasons set forth in the previously mentioned application the delivery stroke of the air pump begins slightly in advance of that of the fuel pump though they terminate together.
The discharge from the fuel pump ex pelled through the pipe 81 and the small orifice into the chamber 38 of the nozzle 29. There, it is met by the cross blast of air through the small orifice 37 atlording communication between the chambers 30 and 88. From chamber 38, the mingled oil and air escape through the orifice 41 as a spray into the repulverizing chamber 39 whence they are discharged in a still more divided state, by the orifice 42, in a cone substantially similar to the surface of the admission valve. The timing of the emission of this spray is nearly coincident with the beginning of the opening of the admission valve being just enough subsequent thereto to insure the begining of a rush of. air past the 'fro.., v 44 QX IPI; the aperture the central f bf he r n"; ,7? ra e -L ns. m a b ight gl w. U
a scribed to be clear-l "ferred tvp, r
YEi-i YQ into which a the first of the spray is aug Beyond the admission Valvetliere is lo- Cfififid. the combustion chamber 43 separate cl the p wer eylinder b h ph g nozzle 4J6. The-exterior interior fwa'hs or thi embi s mi llen be a c' ieli d 9011i 1n a 'generaiway Vl-tli the cone or eel spray ssui g fr m e Min $1 .1 Valien 1 l Weli $1.0m, 1 l s cm w t n' amb I there is located the ringj47 composed ot inateri'al' offering considerable resistance ep e f Standing r cur n Peri a ti by" .ydr warb eTe m' srl G nipp itinns. su le to i p li e of S n are i sde sd i l" ini-, br eii ng ev- ,qfi Qll, onjiign tioa i ries er 4 3- 1 I Y Y l a i i rin is supp rted" by he tw la i e9 oi" Whibli. he f rmers e i l upon, the bod q he eng n and. e la t t e 'r m bribe si r ctie iy n ply, such a slow ve tes o. sei ii -if slim n The eenduc o i 5 s sealedand a ltes t ent ance int he cylinder h by the insulating acking gland 53- rting' the engine the V te1nperaf Pr r to.
ning of ea h psn l g 9f 0 F the fir t t e shs irse 0 a and? fidi 'nited by Binting in o neg V and nn lfi flied in vollow conductin r:
l ./k i L; r
These 1 ng s and the -diaphlegm are secnred in position by the lookme la" 5 In erdeifl r the mechanism as above deyIm iQ stQ le with the internalcoinbnstion engine of my prior application No.2 ,GOCLS'YT, it 'should b stated. t 5
l er fi 'iQ- my Pr app cation by the reference numerals 9 5, and that the oil pump 34 is therein re geratnre andnotjtoo delterionly ta 1; with this s o ring" the pn np above refer-red to 'by the ri uinera-ls -119 andr 1 201 p assgige-N to the -m i'Xin'g" cha nben leads from "the-temp 38 in the said- -earlg--tappliea;-
spring 56" in saidgearly application;
As changes of constriietio'n couldlie inade \v itliin the' s'cope of my invention it isin tended-that" all matter contained in the :a 'oye descriptionorshown in; the accom j panyiin fdravyings be 'inter qreted I asv iLlu stra'tiyeandinot in;a'lhnitihgfsense. V J Having described my inventlon I claim as E and: desire to see iregby Letters: Bat'ent '1." internal; cfnnlomstion en gi negwhich "comprises 'a' power' 'cyli-nder a combustion chagnber therefor, externalfn'ieans" ion coin- "iir essing ai a forponihustiohg and-sup pg ing sald: a r to t efcoinbus'tron- 'eh-anaber,"a* Valve for controlling the. admlss'ion of this air. to
chamber; :mearjs 01: spraying nidf'uel intp aid air in hollow, conical rrn-as they enter said combi stionchamber. f internahcon bilstion engine, a; power cylinder, a m bpstion qh ambei thereiior exbustion and sn 1 in said air-' tg fsaid P1 Q s f con ibu stion chamber, a yal ve fio r adinifting for chamberwith finelyjpnlverized fuel sprayed coincidently with the enter ng air inhbl-lmy conical-forms 3-,-
internal combustion :engine i'ing v4 'a'pow'ercj l-ilnd-er,"' exte'rhflal'means fol coinune. bait r se in te liiee eti i g t 9 i n y e c pe mq theppwer cy incler by rising over the lip, f phenom? 1 nd h 'Qllgh. t ape ture 4&5 w l into en aifl dfi' i the balance of each charge pours from "the" co ntroll -ifi mission" of sai-d air-to the 3 w x os'tiqiied'asi'to'forni a'vapqrizing and i itro'riichainberljfir"said fu elfand air: ad-
thr'cingh said valve to cause said fuel o' rei erse' and bring the ignited mixtaiiej alr.
, Anintern'al con ihnstion engine having "a power c'yhnder means for compressing air andisupplying said air to said power cylinder, a valve for controlling the admission of air ower cylinder and means for impregnating said airWith-fuel, an ignition device iri th e path of the: air and 'f-nel passing through said valve, a baffle so fashioned-and positioned. as to cause said ad'- initted; air andr'fuel to reversejtheir flirec 'tion of 'movement and bring saidignit migture in contact 1 with the? "incoming 7, air and fuel. 1 a r w 3- "Anigternal combustiog engine, power ing the flow of cylinders, a valve for admitting air and fuel for combustion to each of the power cylinders respectively during progressfof the power stroke, an ignition device in the path of said entering air and fuel, and a baffle so fashioned and positioned as toarrest and cause the reversal of direction of movement of said air and fuel (bout said ignition device, said baffle being heat-insulated to attain and'retain a temperature of ignition at said place of reversal.
6. An internal combustion engine in which the air and fuel of combustion are delivered through an admission valve during progress of the power stroke, an ignition means for said air and fuel passing said valve, and a baffle so fashioned and positioned as to cause the flame resulting from the ignition of said fuel and air to reverse and come in contact with succeeding portions of the charge.
7. An internal combustion engine in which the air and fuel for combustion are delivered into the power cylinders during the progress of the power stroke, means for arresting and' reversing the earlier portions of the admitted air and fuel, and means for bringing said reversed and ignited earlier portions into heat interchanging relations with the later portions of the air and fuel charged.
'8. An internal combustion engine, in which the air and fuel for combustion are delivered together into the power cylinders during the progress of the power stroke, at a velocity greater than that of the propagation of flame therein, means for igniting said mixture of air and fuel and means for bringing said ignited portions into contact with succeeding portions to ignitesaid succeeding portions.
9. An internal combustion engine in which a charge of air and fuel for combustion is delivered at a velocity greater than that of flame propagation therein during the progress of the power stroke, means for arrestthe earlier portions of said charge and igniting said arrested portions and then directing said ignite-d earlier portions of the charge into direct contact with succeeding portions to ignite said succeeding portionsby said contact. 7
10. Apparatus of the type descrlbed which comprises, a power cylinder, a valve for said cylinder, means for supplying air through said valve, a combustion chamber between said valve and said power cylinder and a fuel spray in axial alignment with and in advance of said valve.
11. Apparatus of the type described which comprises, a power cylinder, a valve for said cylindeiy means for supplying air through said valve, a combustion chamber between said valve and said power cylinder and a fuel spray in axial alignment with of the type described ranged to cause a reversal of movement of said air and fuel from said valve, and an ignition device at the. place of reversal of said air and fuel mixture.
18. Apparatus of the type described which comprises, a power cylinder, a valve for said cylinder, means for supplying air through said valve, a combustion chamber between said valve and said powercylinder, afuel spray in axial alignment with saidvalve, said combustion chamber being arranged to cause said air and fuel to move in a diverging cone shaped path and to reverse its direction of travel and pass inwardly through a central opening to said power cylinder.
14. Apparatus of the type described which comprises, a power cylinder, a cone shaped inlet valve for said power cylinder, a fuel spray device directed axially toward the apex of said valve, an annular frustro-conical combustion chamber between said valve and said power cylinder and aligned with the surface of said valve, said combustion chamber having a central opening to said power cylinder, and an ignition device at the base of said combustion chamber.
15. Apparatus of the type described which comprises, a power cylinder, a conical inlet valve to said cylinder, a valve chamber therefor, means for supplying air to said valve chamber, a fuel spray in said valve chamber axialwith and directed towards the apex of said valve, an annular combustion chamber between said valve and said power cylinder and a frustro-conical partition between said combustion chamber and said cylinder and projecting into said combustion chamber.
16. Apparatus of the type described which comprises, a power cylinder, a conical inlet valve therefor, a fuel spray axial with and directed towards the apex of said valve, and a frustro-conical partition between said valve and said cylinder forming an annular combustion chamber therebetween.
17. Apparatus of the type described which comprises, a power cylinder, a conical inlet valve therefor, a fuel spray axial withand directed towards the apex of said valve, a frustro-conical partition between said valve and said cylinder forming an annular combustion chamber therebetween, and an annular ignition device in said combustion chamber. 1 V V a power cylinder, a valve lot) 18. Apparatus of the type described which comprises, a power cylinder, a conical valve therefor having a number of supporting and actuating rods parallel with the axis of said valve and a fuel spray axial with and directed towards the apex of said valve.
19. An internal combustion engine which comprises power cylinders and pistons, means for compressing and supplying air to 10 said power cylinders, means for spraying fuel into said air in direct proportion to the quantity of said air, means for directing said air and sprayed fuel in a conically diverging path, means of ignition in the path of said air and sprayed fuel, and means for redirecting the products of combustion in a conically converging path in opposition to any and all continuing flow of air and fuel.
JOHN H. BARNARD.