US 1562495 A
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Vje @Zwam a meenam y Be it known that I, l/VILLIAMlleL'rort,V a
ycitizen fof ltheellnited,y IStates, residing at Y I Patented Nov. 24,1925'.
writrnivr DALTONQQF son'iuivner Amr7 New Yoannv Application :filed Nevember 1s; Vv1921. 'jsenarNoL 516,180.1 A
` @Schenectady5 inv thecounty of Schenectady and State of. New York, vhave invented jcer-l tain` new, and useful.,flmprovements 4in l y Armor-Piercing Shells; 'andfl do'hereby declare the following tobea fullyclear, and
:in forming part of this specification* yzeiract description lof the'same, reference beghad to y;, the .accompanying drawings,
' Tins-invention relates to r4an armor piercvingtshell and particularly to the base theref of and the shape of the bandscore.
The object yof thepresentinvention is to so fashion afshell base for an armor` pierc- 111g Shui that when the sha1 Strikes-a pta@ 'I 'l Uv.disrupting in any f of armorat'anfappreciableangle, sayvten` to` twenty degrees from ,normal7` the shell ,willbe ablefto penetrate'the armor without",V
` waythe wall of the inner cavity of the Shell.
i. "ril Should `,the ywall of.V theAinner' en'plosive-y carrying cavity beinjuredjeven by a slight crackthe explosion of theshell would be comparatively ineffective..V Many VHtests yof shells firedsoA as to 'strike-thearmor at an f vangle other than practically normal A,seem rvto indicate that there isa: great friction at. v the vouter"A surface near the base asthis por-r v tion is' very frequentlyseverely scored andl y r it isnot at all unusual to find ashell wedged in the hole of the .armony by Vits base with ai.A subsequent cracking ofthel walljofthelgex the 'shell and experiments have already been triedwhich seemA to verify this -belieff lThe previous designsr to'accomplish this'en ol'hajve` )unfortunately requiredfwhat seems to be an excessive amount of additional' cost'of the shell',rsuchstructures as IVam familiar with "j requiring a rlarge amount of machining and calling for a number of hoursof labor of the fmostskillful and. highest paidtype.VV 4
; prmental types ,bt
' l. at *a ,materiallyy lower cost.-
Inthedmwngr j'NIt-isyan object of the present invention `I Y. Vtherefore to obtainV a. Shell havingasmany, 1;. ,of theadvantagesv vas possible of these'je'x- AWlleh @an be privducfdL ,o
` Y erjablyltothe edge 28 of the entended'lange" p of suchplufg andfforthisv reasonfthenpper 'surface 39 'of ,the Wetkeing gram/e' 27 is Figure is a verticale-gai@ mm1-haai greater scale. r l v Y Figs. 3, ,4, r5 andol are views "similar to Fig. c butshowing'modiiications of theree ,tainingring Y stroyed upon impactwithethefarmor.
the present invention;l
e' andata heu mediata werden@ anni Fig. 2' is a, fragmentary viewusimilar theviewl in'Fig. l but` Figs. 7, s and 9a`refua11efm0dilatation.V The shell, consists of a body portion zlO,
, having` a central chamber ll adapted to l.
carry the 'explosive charge; and having a i having the usual yfuse holev Y plug 14 `screwed therein.
:threaded baseplug l2forming the -rearvwall `of the'zexplosive 'chambensuch' base plug e' v This armor piercing shell beingY Y of the usual type has the. Customarycapll, ,e
'and-,th hollow piece l6 for ming .the SO e f called nose piece andacting as a windshield butr'adap'te'clY tocrush and; be'ltotallyg; dej VThe rotating band' 17 may be of the usual peculiarly .shaped bandscore *shownV in F ig.
coniiguration-onits outer face "but variesk i from. the usual practice in thatitts the v ,e
e 8() f fr L1 2. VThe greater or side face 18 ofthe b "and-VV score is of conical shape, the metalof 'the shell decreasing inv diameter from the upper' apex 19 to the vpoint 20.VK The upperface2l'V 4 of the band'vscore is also conical 'andv prefer-j ably forms an acute angle 1n crossk section Vwith the5 cylindrical surface 22 of fthe. body andconsequently formsan acutey angleY with thelside' v18 aswelll'f` While the formatio'njofj this acute angle Vipsfound` to be extremely advantageous it'is notkown. tobe absjof lutely essential and Ido not'fcarev tozhave act constructionas shown. j f
practically cylindrical-r from the'rpioint "220 point just above theythrea'ds 24E andsome-y v what vbelow the point '20 in-,ordentofdireet,
" the; line of fracture away fromlfthe 'upper v the scope of the invention limited "to theijegi-l j Y' kThe'reduced portioaief'fhee'heiilbeay i` los portionfof the threaded base plugand pref- Y Vband by its shrinkage.
`screws 4l. i `hot and the ring 42 is vforged on .the shell,
directed at an angle of about with the axis or with the base and the lower surface 31 of the groove is either directed downward to the outer rim of the plug, or may, as illustrated, be made parallel with the shell base for convenience in manufacturing.
The upper surface 33 of the retaining ring is also of conical shape, the outer edge 8d of the surface being appreciably further rom the base than. is the point 2O so that the surface 33 forms an acute angle in cross section with the side face of thebandscore; the latter, in the embodiment illustrated, having each of its faces tapered or conical, the smaller upper face 2l forming an undercut with the shell 'body and the other end face 33 likewise forming an acute angle with the cylindrical portion of the body as well as with the side *face of .the
In `previous experimental types of armor piercing shell the excessive cost was due Yto the great quantity of machining of the ring required and the fitting had to be perfect owing to the fact .that after the ringis applied to the shell the nicks are then placed in the bandscore which operation has 'a tendency to increase the diameter of .the ring which will naturally recede from the shell body and therefore cause a loose fitting of the forward part of the ring.
In the present vdevice it is my belief that any variation in the `machining of the bandscore or of the copper band will be coinpensated for during the vapplication of the The band will be applied to the shell'and then the master base ring 25 will be screwed on to hold the band in position and then the body and ring .will be tappedto receive the loclingscrew 36 after which the shell with the .band applied will be placed'in the hydraulic press and the band seated only enough for thevnicling to `show a good photograph.
t will thus be seen thatthe copperbai'id may be fitted to the shell without any'heating or swedging, the operation merely 'con sisting in the forcing of the copper vonthe taper fit and holding it with a Vretaining ring which is screwed tight against the copper band and'held in the manner stated'or by burring the thread or by peening over.
In the modifications shown in Figs. 3, i and 5 the retaining ring is secuied to the shell by means other than by threaded engagement. In Fig. 3 the ring 40 is shrunk on the shell and is further secured Vby the In Fig. 4 the band isapplied which in this modification has a base iiange 44 so that the Vforged ring 42 lies in anannul'ar groove 45 bounded by the annular Iface 46, and the `upper face i7 o'f the flange.
The ring t9 of Fig. 5Vis 'quite similar,
but in this modification the band is intended to be applied cold and for this reason the diameter of the flange is less than the minimum diameter of the band to allow the latter tofipass, and hencethe groove 51 in the shell is bounded by faces 52 and 53 of ap `proximately equal depths.
In Fig. 6, the greater face of the band score extends from the upper face 61 to the base, being entirely conical, the retaining ring G2 in this modification having an outer difference being that the central chamber is` so formed that the diameter of the month of the opening is appreciably less than the greatest diameter of this chamber which holds the explosive charge. In other words, the central chamber increases in diameter from the entrance to its greatest swell and Vthen decreases in the direction of the point of the shell in the usual manner. The base plug 72 is consequently appreciably smaller in diameter than the corresponding plug l2 of Figures l to 5, andthe thickness of vthe shell is therefore least at thepoint 73 above the top of the band instead of at a point lower than the top of the band as in the remaining figures. rThe design of the explosive charge chamber shown in Figs. 7 to 9,strengt-hens the shell to a considera ble degree as there is no reentrant angle at the 'point of minimum thickness, and the tendency to crack through or break at the point '73 is slight.
In these three figures the bandscore has buttwo sides, the short upper side and the major face of the bandscore which is coni cal and extends to the bottom of the shell. A steel retaining ring is shown in each of 'these three figures and a plurality of pins or studs engage the ring, the copper band and the mainbody of the shell, the construction in Fig. 9 for example being very simil-ar to that shown in Fig. 6, save for the Vshape or cross-sectional contourof the central chamber.
In Fig. '7 the copper vband 75 extends entirely to the Vbase of the shell and has at its lower end an angular groove bounded at the top by a Ashort face 76 forming a shoulder and a cylindrical or conical side face 77. The steel retaining ring 78 fits within this groove with a shrinkage lit and has 4an upper dished' conical face, and a rounded lower corner 79, `and is secured in place by a plurality, preferably four, of
pins 8O whichextendentirely through the rlilng 78 and the band`75 and into the steel s ell. f v i As an additional security a plurality of dowels 82, approximately three-eighths 'of an inch by three-sixteenths of an inch for a Y l'L-inch shell for, example, are provided located as shown in theiigure. The copper band 75is secured iny place with a force fit, the steel ring is then shrunkenV on,the taps made and the pins -80 and the dowels 82 inserted.` The shell just described is prenferred for many purposes and its design reduces lvery largely the cost of'manufacf ture, the major face 84 of the bandscore be 1 ing unthreaded and. the smallerupper face n V85 of the bandsoo're being vsimilar to the corresponding faces2l and 6l.
VIn Fig'. 8 the greater portion ofthe inajor face 86 ofthe bandscore is provided with kleft hand threads as at 87 and theV copper ring is screwed in placeon these threads and is provided with a steel ring l78 similar to that shown in Fig. 7. It will be notedthat the only Idifference between the structures shown in Figs. 7 and 8 is the substitution of the threads 87 for the dowels 82. It mightalso be remarked that the use of the threads Vallows for the use of a lesser number of pins, three being found ample in a shell of the type shown in Fig. 8.
The shell shown in F ig.` 9 is very similar Y to thatshown in Fig.l 6 save that the ring l88 is somewhat taller and thinner than the corresponding ring 62 and thestuds 89 are therefore somewhat longer than-the similar if studs 65. lThe shape ofthe copper rotating band unnumbered in each 'of these two figures is somewhat different but it will be understood that thesebands arel equivalents Vin the same way that the shape of the ammunition'or explosive chamber are equivalents.V y Y What is claimed is: I LA shell body having a tapered porl tion forming with the cylindrical portion of j weakening v of '-said cylindricalV yportion, A adapted to be secured-to said lower cylina drical end to form with said shoulder and d said shell an annular shoulder, a substantially cylindrical vportion forming the lower 1 end of said shell body and merging with i750.
the rsmaller'end of said ltapered portion, a
groovelocated in the upperpart and meansl Y having a weakening saidtapered portion a bandscore and Valso ening groove.
2. in Combinaabn, a Sheii having@ re, .Y
ybody when penetrating armor.
3. In combination, aband'having aconi-l cal inner face, a shell having an integrali. portion forming theV side face. lof a lbandscore, the angle of said side face 'corresponde ing -to the angle vof said conical inner face,
and means adapted to -be secured to said 1 said band and to form an shell to engage n the shell body end face for said bandscore,
serving to close the open end of said weak-.k`
groove therein underlying said band retaining means wherebyrV said means may be torn from the` rear rim of the shell body when penetrating armor.
l.Y An armor piercing shell characterized by the provision of a tapered side face of the bandscore, an inwardxdirected weaken- Ving groove in the shell body below thelower Y S5 Y l end ofsaid bandscore, adapted to be secured said shell body, anl annular cavit ,y and face of the bandscore. n
V5. In an armor piercing shell,. a 'shell body having a rusto-conical portionj atits and a retaining ring,V to the lower. end yof lto form the llower `y to form with said groove lower end, said frusto-conical-portion meeting the main body of the shell in an linder-v cut, a substantially cylindrical extension be-` n low said truste-conical portion and having cut therein an inward extending weakening groove, threads below said` groove, a retaining ring threaded to litY said cylindricalfex-:r f 'Y 'Y i. tension and havingak conical uppervface, a n
rotating'band adapted to irit in said under-v face and against ycut atits upper end, against said frusta.y n f conical portion on itsinner the conical portion of s aidk retaining ring at its lower end, and n relative movement betweenL said Vretaining ring yand said shell body.
ineansrfor preventing-v*l Y l y winmiinniiiirou.