US 1564741 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec; 8,1925. y 1,564,741
F. J. WCLFE BATTERY ELTnonE Filed May '7, 1925 oooooooooooooooooooooo oooaooooooooooooo'oooo o ooo OO 0006000000 O 00 OOfOO O OOO 0 0 0 O C O 0 0 O 0 Patented Dec. 8, 1925.
UNITED STATE s. PATENT OFFICE.
FRANCIS J'. WOLFE, 0F FREMONT, OHIO, ASSIGNOR TO NATIONAL CARBON COMPANY,
INC., A CORPORATION NEW YORK.
Application med may 7, T923.r serial No. 637,328.
To all whom t may concern:
Be it known that I, FRANCIS J. VVoLrE, a citizen of the nited States, residing at Fremont, in the county of Sandusky and State of Ohio, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Battery Electrodes, of which the following is a specification. y
This invention relates to electric cells of the kind wherein one electrode comprises a pulverulent material. The invention relates more especially to the construction of cathodes for cells having a zinc anode and an Valkaline electrolyte, said cathodes comprising pulverulent copper oXid which acts as a depolarizer.
To overcome the relatively high resistance of copper oxid in pulverulent form, it is customary to dispose the oXid in extended i0 contact with a good conductor. Such conductor may conveniently envelop and support the oxid, and should be permeable to the electrolyte -in that' case. A basket of perforated sheet iron, usually tinned, is used as a container for the copper oXid in a common formof such cells.
Despite the fact that the perforations in. the sheet iron'are small, the pulverulent copper oXid tends to sift through them, both before and after the cell is assembled. In either case, the oXid which escapes from the container is lost to the cell, and when it sifts fromelectrodes which have not been assembled in cells it soils the hands and y clothing, floats in the air, and is generally objectionable.
In accordance with .the present invention, the perforations of. the iron container are stoppedwith a material which persists in 4 the celly after the latter is assembled, at least until the copperI oxid vis so altered by the action of the cell that its tendency to` escape from the container is eliminated. `The material used to stop the perforations vmust not be readily attacked by the alkaline electrolyte; it must be impervious to very finely powdered copper oxid; and it must be permeable to the electrolyte to prevent depletion of the electrolyte -in proximity to the co per oxid.
Suc materlals as best meet the above reuirements are unfortunately non-conuctors. Cloth, felt or board, which are bibulous, and composed of material fairlyl 5 stable in the alkaline electrolyte, can be used,
but such of these as are suiciently fine in; y
texture to retain the fine oXid are composed of non-metallic fibers,- -Which are non-conductors, as noted above.
In accordance with my invention conductive paths joining the copperl oxid and the contact member, viz, the sheet iron basket when this is employed, are provided,
such paths passing throughthe perforationstopping material but in such manner that no channels permitting the escape of the copper oXid result.
The invention will be more particularly described in connection with the accompanyi'ng drawing, in which Fig. 1 is a front view of a perforated sheet iron container, lined \with cloth but without the copper oXid depolarizer, a portlonpof the front wall ofthe container beIng broken away to show the interior; and
The container 3 is a prism in form and has a relatlvely short dimension in a directIon' perpendicular to the plane of the paper.
It is perforated throughout with holes 4:
and has a complete lining .of cloth. 5.. The
Fig. 2 is. an enlarged section along the. vaXIs ofoneof the rivets 7, of Fig. l.
The conductive paths connecting the container 3 .with the interior spaccare shown at 7,-In the form of copper, iron,-.or coppered-iron vrivets of the common splitvtype.'
These rivets are inserted through re 'ster- 'Ing holes of appropriate size in the asket and its lining, and upset, a complete closurel .of the hole provided with the rivet resulting.
In order to increase still further the proportion of the-copper oxid which has a low resistance connection with the container 3,
there are preferably provided, inside the. vcontainer and in contact with the rivets'?,
extended conductors 8. These conductors should be permeable 'to the electrol e in order not to interfere with itsdi usion.-v
Small sections of wire gauze, either cop er, Iron, or eoppered Iron, are uIte suIta le.
It is. obvious that the embo iment of the invention which has been specifically de different .wa-ys. The invention may be apv oxid.
plied to cells in which a non-alkaline` electrolyte is e'mploed,V and to either cath-1L odes or anodes. T e pulverulent material may be, for example, `an oxid of manganese or lead in a cathode, or a pulverulent metal, such as sponge lead, in `an anode'.` scope of the invention is limited only by the appended claims.
1. An electrode for the described purposecomprising a conductive pulverulent' material, a perforated conductlve envelope therefor, a permeable septum of 4noncon-V ducting material between the pulverulent material and the envelope, said septum be and a solid conductor e ectrically connecting the pulverulent material and envelo 2. The invention according to`cla1m` 1 which the pulverulent materialy is co'pper 'flls'tructura l which the fabric.
The 7 anims invention according' to daim 1 in K permeable septum lis of fibrous 4. The invention according to` claim 1 in permeable septum isy a woven .5` The invention according to claim `Lin which the solid conductor "is arranged to give an extended contact with the pu v erulent material."
6. A cathode for the described purpose comprising pulverulent copper oxidfafo-k raminous metal envelope therefor,l` non-conducting fabric inpervious to the copper oXid between the latter and its envelo e, and 'a plurality of solid conductors electrlcally conpp necti'ng thecopper oxid and itsenvelope, ing impervious to the ulverulent material,
said conductors having enlarged inner ends,
iandfnsaid enlarged ends being permeable to the electrolyte.y L v