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Publication numberUS1565027 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateDec 8, 1925
Filing dateMar 4, 1922
Publication numberUS 1565027 A, US 1565027A, US-A-1565027, US1565027 A, US1565027A
InventorsFrancis G. Okie
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Adhesive or binder
US 1565027 A
Abstract  available in
Images(7)
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Patented Dec. 8, 1925;

1,565,027 UNITEDYSTATES PATENT OFF-ICE.

FRANCIS G. OKIE, OF ST. PAUL, MINNESOTA, ASSIGNOR TO MINNESOTA MINING 6c MANUFACTURING COMPANY, on ST. MINNESOTA;

PAUL, MINNESOTA, A CORPORATION OF ADHESIVE on BINDER.

No Drawing. Original application filed March 4:1922, Serialilto. 541,249. Divided and this application To all whom it may concern:

Be it known that I, FRANCIS G. (nun, a citizen of the United States, and a resident of St. Paul, Ramsey County, Minnesota, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Adhesives or Binders, of

' tinuation of my prior application Serial No.

428,287, filed December 4, 1920, and a division of my prior application Serial No. 541,-

249, filed March 4, 1922.

Although I hereinafter disclosethe practice of my invention in connection with tures thereof, have a wider field of utility;

Composite structures of the abrasive type such as sand-paper or emery cloth comprise generally (a) a base of sheet material, which may be felted as in the case of paper or woven as in the case of cloth, (6) a more or less finelycomminuted resistant material having abrading properties, such as garnet or corundum, and (a) a binder generally in the form of a glue which serves to bind the abrasive to "the base.

The abrasive products as produced at present have as incidents certain features among sibility to accommodate itself to flexion of the base; the provision of a binder by means of which the desired adhesive actionbetween it and the base is attained not only efliciently but also wi h a desirable degree of accelerafiled October 24, 1923. Serial No. 670,541.

tion, and more particularly the provision of a binder in which the drying action will be effective from the contact surface between it and the base outwardly; the provision of a binder in which the drying action will be eifectiveflfrom the outer surface inwardly the provision of a'bindercharacterized by a drying action that permits of handling the product with a minimum of delay and more particularly such handling without impairment of the superficies of the material; the provision of a binder characterized by a limitation of its drying action; the provision of an improved moisture-proofing treatment for anaterial, and especially material in a sheet form, and more particularly for causing a moisture proofing agent to penetrate into the material to an extent short of exudation on an adjacent surface thereof; the provision of a moisture-proof composite abrasive structure; the provision in such an article of a'binder having moisture-proofing function's, andthe provision generally of'an improved flexible waterproof composite abra-f sive structure, together with such other objects and additional benefits and advantages as may. hereinafter appear or be pointed out.

In the employment of my present invention for the production of sand-paper and the like (which I cite for pu'rposesrof ex-.

ample) I use as the base such a, sheet of material (which may be paper) as will conveniently serve the employment contem plated, and as the abrasive such comminuted material (which may be crushed garnet) similarly adapted to serve the function in Y view.

It is desirable thatthe binder utilized.

have the functions and characteristics not only of great 'mechanical strength and of liarly ada ted for the attainment of these ends and t at gums or resins such, as kaur1,-

copal, dammar are examples of these types.

Gum dammar is preferredby me as best attaining the desired end s ,v1ewed from certain aspects In preparin the binder for use, the gum or resin is use in connection with a suitable vehicle which I prefer is of a type such as linseed oil or china wood oil, for reason which I will proceed to explain.

In apply'ing'a gum or resin prepared with a veh1c1e such as linseed Oll to one surface of a base of paper for example I have found that the action of the vehicle involves a penetration of the base by the vehicle, for

example linseed oil,'to a point which approxiin'ates the opposite surface of the sheet but falls short of actual exudation of the vehicle upon such opposite surface.

This results in a moisture-proofing of the material against thedestructive. absorption of moisture through the surface opposite to that to which the binder is applied, without at the same time defacing or otherwise undesirably affecting such opposite surface.

This penetration by the vehicle, particularly when coupled with the use of the character of gum or resin pointed out above,

"carries with it in such'penctration a certain amount of finely divided gum or resin so that divided abrasive is then applied in such a' manner as to cause it to adhere to the binder.

In order to accelerate the adhesion between the binder and the base, I have dis covered it desirable to use with the binder a modifying agent the action of which is to cause a desiccation of the binder initiated at the contact surface of the binder with the base and effectiveoutwardly.

In my experience I have discovered that there are a number of materials'having a metallic base which are useful for my presentpurposes, that manganie oxides are peculiarly useful and that borate of manganese best combinates siccative energy with the'desirable susceptibility to fine grinding.

Due to the relatively slow drying of binders generally difficulties are encountered in handling the structure, within a convenient period because of the soft and sticky chara'cter particularly of the exposed surfaces of the binder. This objection I mitigate by associating with the improved binder a substance theaction of which is to produce an accelerateddrying action efi'ective primarily at. the exposed surface and working inwardly, and for this purpose I incorporate in the bindera modifying'element peculiarly .as gum dammar are effective in its action as an oxidizing agent on such vehicles as linseedoil and as a penetration retarding agent with reference to the excess absorption of the vehicle by the base.

The substance I have discovered to be particularly adapted for this purpose is that carbonate of lead or white lead well known to the trade, obtainable in the open market and formed by a new electrolytic process and which in lny experience is found to .be more satisfactory than any other known form of carbonate of lead.

'hereas by itself the white lead adds but relatively little strength to the binder, in association in the binder with the borate of manganese it intensifies the action of the binder in holding the abrasive tirnily against the base.

For intensifying the binding action of the binder and for intensifying the drying action of the dryers, and at the same time accomplishing such ends by the employment of a material which is etficacious in holding the mineral elements in suspension without loss of siccativeenergy or reducing the relative fluidity of the material, I have discovered that it is advantageous to employ as part of the bindera past dryer. This may comprise such substancesas sugar of lead and borate of manganese suspended in a resinousvehicle but I find it preferable to form the paste dryer so as to have the substances contained therein in the forin of sub-acetate of lead and resinate of manganese. I have found by experience that the paste dryer should be somewhat in the nature of cheesy butter, rather softer, and of a light brownish grey color.

As an auxiliary in (1) accentuating the adhesion of the binder to the paper, (2) facilitating toa certain extent the spreading of the binder, and (3) modifying as desired the consistency of the binder as is useful in cases where it is desired torender it more fluid, I have discovered that the use of a Such a dryer japan dryer is desirable.

from

characterized by relative freedom rosin, is prefer-a do. One form of this contains shellac, red lead, litharge, manganese oxid, burnt umber, gum, linseed oil and turpentine q. s.

In order to give the binder the desired bulk I preferably employ a' varnish con sisting largely of an oil which may be hardened such as linseed oil boiled until it reaches nearly a solid state. As far as feasible this should be as free as possible from glycerides and fatty acids.

The aforementioned gums or. resins, such preferably employed in the form of a varnish which is substantially three parts Batavia dammar, with two parts kettle boiled linseed oil.

While gum copal and gum kauri in certain respects make more substantial binders tions, or when'producing material for certain purposes, that it is desirable to incorporate in the binder a non-drying oil such as castor oil or the like, for such-purpose.

Sand-paper made in accordance with the disclosure of my present invention is characterized by great flexibility without any.

adverse effects, such ascracking of the binder or base, or loosening of one from the other; and great resistance to water, and moisture generally, and is highly resistant to deterioration in theprcsence of friction and moisture when used in a water-abrading operation. 7

The materials used by me as hereinabove described may be varied in character so as to va the characteristics of the\ binder from the stand-point of adhesiveness, nonhygroscopy, and flexibility. Where such variations in the use of materials is employed to produce, for instance, increased adhesion between the binder and the abrasive, such increase may be attained, though Gum varnish 6 0416 Part ILBorate. of manganese 6. .0416 Gum varnish 6 .0416 Part III; Dryer; 6 041,6

Paste dryer 6 a .0416

Linseed oil varnish 48 3333 possibly at acertain expense of its characteristic of flexibility.

Due, however, to this very same increased adhesiveness, one or more of the outer layers of the base may be removed as by the em-v ployment of a base'which involves the use of a built up structure having a number of plies, certain of which may be removed, or by shaving off part of the thickness of the base.

B this process I am enabled to obtain san paper characterized by extraordinary thinness and flexibility, in that I am able to form sand-paper and the like with a base so thin that such product could not be manufactured, if the base originally used were of the thinness ultimately desired.

In my preferred. practice, I form batches which by weight and percentage contain the following ingredients: 7

Pounds. c ii t.

Part ,I. Carbonate of lead 24 .1666

This gives a composition of matter wherein metallic and resinous bases are com bined in the proportions of substantially one to three; for instance, from above formula:

Parts.

Gum varnish 6 White lead 24 Gum varnish 6 Borate of manga- Gum varnish 42 nese 6 Linseed oil var- Dryer 6 nish 48 Dryer 6 36 The foregoing assumes that 6: parts of each of the japan and paste dryers are, di-

vided to the metallic and resinousbases.

In such preferred practice, Parts I and II are mixed and milled separately since Part I mills more readily than Part II, and are desirably then mixed with Part III and the composite batch is then milled until smooth. '7

Parts I and II include the gum varnish in order to'atta'n not only a finesubdivision of the, metallic substance but also to render them readily commiscible with Part III.

In the preferred practice of my invention, in forming Part I hereinabove referred to, I grind the carbonate of lead and the varnish to an exceeding fineness which may be accomplished by passing them through a fine-grinding mlll three or four trips. The material grinds quickly and easily'and may be conveniently mixed in the mill. One of the functions of the carbonate of lead is to hasten the oxidization of the thinner (and greasier) elements 'of the binder and limit their absorption by the base, e. g., paper in the case of-sand-paper.' It also hastens or accelerates the superficial top-drying of the sand-paper or the like, rendering it among other things easier to handle before it becomes dry. Ordinary white leads, even- "though of apparent equal purity and of similar analyses as that herein referred to, do not function as satisfactorily for chemical reasons not yet brought to light by my experience.

Gum varnish may be No. 1 gum kauri, gum copal, or gum dammar or more or less numerous similar suitable gums or resins melted in boiled or raw linseed oil, with or without the presence of dryers, such as red lead, litharge, black oxid of manganese, burnt umber, and the like. The gum varnish preferably, used by me in Parts I, II and III above referred to, is substantially equal parts Bate iadammergum, and kettle boiled linseed oil. While I'preferably use gum dammar, as just indicated, I'have found a gum dammar varnish made from three parts Batavia dammar, melted by itself under. gentle heat, as is-preferable though it may be used cold, and two parts ofl a hydrocarbon (which may be one of the petroleum series), obviously added after the a heat, if used, is discontinued. The hydrocarbon referred to preferably takes the followin form:

%olor, water white; Baum, 48-49; initial boiling point not below 275 F.; not more than 50% over at 340 F.; recovery, at least 95% residue, colorless; end point, below 475 F. p Y

As the hydrocarbon evaporates, it may be advisable to add more to the mixture in order to preserve the desired degree of fluidity. The hydrocarbon dammar varnish thus formed makes a more brittle binder than' the linseed oil gum dammar warnish above described. Although gum copal and gum kauri each make a more substantial binder than gum dammar, as they carry more oil and dry harder, they are'more expensive,

gum dammar not oxidizing to such a degree of hardness and toughness is more highly flexible, but within my experience comprises as great a step towards common rosin as at present advised it appears expedient to take.

I have found that synthetic gums or resins can also be used to good advantage in making a binder for my purposes.

In using borate of maganese I have found that a well-known borate of manganese, readily obtainable on the open market combines best siccative energy with susceptibility to fine grinding and to form Part II referred to above it should be ground in the varnish until it may be spread on a glass without being mealy under ones finger. It should be ground until experience shows that it can be ground no finer.

As willbe appreciated from the foregoing discussion, the siccative energy of the bo'rate of manganese operates from within outwardly, differing in this respect from the carbonate of lead which oxidizes from without inwardly.

While Iprefer to employ manganic derivatives in the form of borate, of manganese, it is to be observed that although black oxide of manganese contains certain desirable siccative elements for my purposes, it does not readily lend itself to grinding in such a manner as is desired by me. At times, advantage may be taken of the characteristics of black oxide of manganese'by heating it in linseed oil.

Similarly, cobalt derivatives, (such as acetate of cobalt) may be employed for their siccative qualities, but I have found that due care should be employed in using such highly concentrated dryers so as to avoid any tendferred practice, I find it desirable to grind the borate of manganese by itself, ten or twelve trips if necessary, as this is relatively a very hard substance to grind, and the varnish may be mixed therewith in the mill.

The form of japan-dryer preferably employed by me is a well known japan which contains about 2% (two percentum) of shellac, preferably the best obtainable, besides substances such as red lead (Pb O,; litharge. (PbO) man anese oxid (MnO- burnt umber (which as a manganic and oxygen content) and ums in linseed oil and turpentine. It aids in the binding-action and actsto'some extent as a thinner whose turpentine content evaporates after the binder is spread on the paper and somewhat facilitates the spreading process. I have 'diflicult to handle, has been found by me in actual practice to be slightly better inv its functions. I

In preparing the paste-dryer of Part III above referred to, I first form the initial portion of the dryer by stirring 200 pounds of litharge (PbO) and 2Q0,pounds, of hot water (120 F), the agitation of the water being sufliciently violent during and after the addition of the litharge to keep it from settling. After, say two to five minutes of this sustained-agitation, 45 pounds of 80% acetic acid is dashed into the hot-water and litharge composition without cessation of the violent stirrmg, which may be mechanical agitation, and which should continue until the milky white liquid that develops as soon sets to a consistency resembling soft cottage cheese or-bonn'y clabber and ofi'erresistance enough to 'tend'to slow up a strong man using a paddle.

In cases where a mechanical agitator is used, it should be shut off at this stage which is ordinarily reached Within a minute after the acetic acid is dashed in. It is advisable to have the agitation sufiiciently violent to cause suspension of allof the litharge and to dash in the acetic acid suddenly, as otherwise a quantity of uncombined litharge will be found at the bottom of the mixer, and the mass, which is now basic acetate of lead,

15" as the acid strikes the water and litharge,

will not set stifl. This resultant mass should be undisturbed for about 15 hours and then ounds kettle boiled linseed oil is added to t ermass, which by this time has .become somewhat stiffer. The whole mass is then mixed preferably in a mechanical mixer.

- The mixer should be run until a large perthat has been poured off. The strength of the acetic acid may be varied below 80% provided the proportions are changed correspondingly to the strength of the acetic acid.

While the second part of the paste dryer may be formed by heating, I prefer to mix thoroughly pounds of kettle boiled linseed oil, with 7 5 pounds of resinate of manganese (powdered form) and then grind the mixture two or three trips until fine and smooth.

I then'add 225 poundskettle boiled linseed oil to the lead compound formed in the mixer as above set forth, and then quickly mix the resulting mass of'the second portion. with the modified first or lead compound portion which is in the mixer as'just set forth.

This mixing of the two portions should be done quickly because there is a nicely balanced proportion between the two, and an excess of either portion long contact with the other portion, imperfectly mixed, causes a livering and sometimes a separation therebet'ween. After this mixture of the two portions has stood for substantially an hour, they should be milled one trip. This completes the paste dryer.

It should flowdown the apron of the mill about one inch deep, (more or less, depending partly on ti htness of rollers and consequent heat,) an it should be kept in stock in a consistency about like cheesy butter, but rather softer, and of a light brownish gray color. A

By having the manganic derivative precipitated or combined with a more substantial gum than rosin- (resinate of manganese) in the formation of this paste dryer results are attainable which from certain aspects present obvious advantages.

From the foregoin description it will be apparent that web thegeneral functions of the carbonate of lead is to serve as filler,

and of the borate of manganese, as well as of the japan composition referred to, .is to serve as a 6. er, and that the .rest of my improved bin er is made up of varnishes.

for the oil than for.

The gross formula-of the binder'considered from this aspect of the invention, therefore involves the use, generalli, of four parts filler, three parts dryer, and seventeen parts varnish, preferably associated together in the specific manner set forth.

The binder is formed, in my preferred practice, by running together through the mill parts I and II, ground finely as de scribed, together with the items of part III, 75 all three parts being milled together until the whole mass is uniform. and smooth.- The binder thus formed should be kept carefully covered preferably in contact with oiled paper to prevent the formation of surface skin through exposure.

Having thus described my invention and illustrated its use, what I claim as. new. and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:

1. A waterproof adhesive including a mixture of substantially three parts drier materials, four parts white lead, and seventeen parts varnish material combined to render such adhesive stable and resistant to deterioration in the presence of friction and moisture when used in a water-abrading operation.

2. A waterproof binder for attaching grit to a surface for forming base to form waterproof sandpaper, for employment in a water abrading process, which includes a mixture of varnish, drier and filler materials afl'ording an inert binder for attaching the grit to the base and resisting rapid deterioration of such binder when employed in a 100 water abrading operation.

3. A waterproof binder for sandpaper which is characterized by flexibility when solidified, substantial inertness, and possessing tenacity and durabilitysutficient to substantially resist rapid deterioration in the presence of friction and moisture when employed in a water abrading process, said inder including varnish, drier and filler materials and having the'dual properties of affording a tenacious retaining means for the grit and to permeate'the base for rendering. the latter waterproof.

4. .A waterproof adhesive for bonding grit to a surface forming baseto form with such base an article in the nature of flexible waterproof sandpaper, said adhesive including an oil which when hardened is of a nature to maintain its bonding effect when said adhesive is subjected to friction even under sustained application of or immersion in water, said adhesive being flexible when 5. A waterproof adhesive for bonding grit' to a surface forming base to form with such base an article in .the nature of flexible waterproof sandpaper, said adhesive including a gum which is ofa nature to maintain its bonding effect when id adhesive is subjected to friction even an er sustained ap- .139

jected to friction even under sustained ap-.

plication of or immersion in ivater, said adhesive being flexible when dry.

, 7. A waterproof adhesive for bonding grit to a surface forming base to form with such base an article in the nature of flexible waterproof sandpaper, said adhesive'including a gum varnish which is of a nature to maintain its bonding effect when said adhesive is subjected to friction even under sustained application of or immersion in water, said adhesive being flexible whendry. .8. A waterproof adhesive for bondinggrit to a surface forming base to. form with such base an article in the nature of flexible waterproof sandpaper, said adhesive including the combination of an oil and. a resin which combination is of a nature to maintain its bonding effect when saidadhesive is subjected to friction even under sustained application of or immersion in water, said adhesive being flexible when dry. 9. A waterproof adhesive for bonding grit to a surface forming base to form with such base an article in the nature of flexible waterproof sandpaper, said adhesive being of a nature to maintain its bonding effect when said adhesive is subjected to friction even under sustained application of or'immersion in water said adhesive being flexible when dry and including a base material which is flexible and waterproof and a penetration retarding agent. v

10. A waterproof adhesive for bonding grit to a surface forming base to form with such base an article in the nature of flexible waterproof sandpaper, said adhesive being vof a nature to maintain its bonding efiect when said adhesive is subjected to friction even under sustained'application of or immersion in water said adhesive being flexible when dry and'including a base material which is flexible and waterproof and a desiccating agent.

11. A waterproof adhesive for bonding grit to a surface forming base to form with suchbase an article in the nature of flexible waterproof sandpaper, said adhesive being of a nature to malntain. its bonding effect when said adhesive is subjected to friction even under sustained application of or immersion in water said adhesive being 'flexible when dry and including a base materialwhich is flexible and waterproof and a desiccation retarding agent.

12. A waterproof adhesive. for bonding grit to a surface forming base to form. with such base an article in the nature of flexible waterproof sandpaper, said adhesive being of a nature to maintain its bonding effect when said adhesive is subjected to friction even under sustained application of or immersion in water said adhesive being flexwhich is flexible and waterproof, penetration retarding agent and a desiccating agent.

14. A waterproof adhesive for bonding grit to a surface forming base to form with' such base an article in the nature of flexible waterproof sandpaper, said adhesive being of a nature tomaintain its bondin efiectv friction when said adhesive is subjected to even under sustained application of or immersion ,in water said adhesive being-flexible when dry and including as a base material which is flexible and waterproof, the combination .of a desiccating agent which accelerates the 'drying of the adhesive from the surface which is in contact with the air.

15. A waterproof adhesivefor bonding grit to a surface forming base to form'with such base an article in the nature of flexible waterproof sandpaper, said adhesive being of a nature to maintain its bonding effect when said adhesive is subjected to friction even under sustained application of or immersion in water said adhesive being flexible when dry and including as a base material ible when dry and including a base material 4 which is flexible and waterproof, the combination of a desiccating agent which accelerates the drying of adhesive from the surface which is out of contact with air and in contact with the. article to which the adhesive is applied.

16.--A waterproof "adhesive for bonding grit to a surface forming base to form wit such base an article in the nature of-flexible waterproof sandpaper, said adhesive being of a nature to malntain its bonding effect when said adhesive is'subjected to friction even under sustained application of or im-. mersion in water said adhesive being flexible when dry and including as a base material which is flexible and waterproof, the combination of a plurality of desiccating agents one of which accelerates the drying of the adhesive from the surface which is in contact with the air, and another of which accelerates the drying of the adhesive from the surface which is out of contact with air and in contact with the article to which the adhesive is applied.

17 A waterproof adhesive bonding grit to a surface forming' base to form with such base an article in the nature of flexiblewaterproof sandpaper, said adhesive being of a nature to maintain its bonding efiect when said adhesive is subjected to friction.

even under sustained application of or immersion in-water said adhesive being flexible when dry and including as a base material which is flexible and waterproof, the combination of a desiccating agent which accelerates the drying of adhesive from the surface which is out of contact with air and in contact with the article to which the adhesive is applied, and a penetration retard-- ing agent.

18. A Waterproof adhesive for bonding grit to a surface forming base to form with such base an article in the nature of flexible waterproof sandpaper, said adhesive-being of a nature to maintain its bonding effect when said adhesive is subjected to friction even under sustained application of or immersion inwater, said adhesive being flexible when dry and including a base material wlliich is flexible and waterproof and castor o1 20. A waterproof adhesive for bonding grit to a surface forming base to form with such base an article in the nature of flexible waterproof sandpaper, said adhesive being of a nature to maintain its bonding effect when said adhesive is subjected to friction even under sustained application of or immersion in water, said adhesive being flexible when dry and including a base material which is flexible and water proof and borate of manganese.

21. A waterproof adhesive for bonding grit to a surface forming base to form with such base an article in the nature of flexible waterproof sandpaper, said adhesive being of a nature to maintain its bonding eflect when said adhesive is subjected to friction even under sustained application of or immersion in water, said adhesive being flexible when dry and including a base material which is flexible and waterproof and 8. japan dryer.

In testimony whereof I have hereunto signed my name.

FRANCIS G. OKIE.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2740239 *Jul 2, 1953Apr 3, 1956Bay State Abrasive Products CoFlexible abrasive products
US2751717 *Jun 30, 1953Jun 26, 1956Niederer Herbert OEgg cleaning equipment
US2838890 *Apr 18, 1955Jun 17, 1958Kimberly Clark CoCellulosic product
US6217432May 19, 1998Apr 17, 20013M Innovative Properties CompanyAbrasive article comprising a barrier coating
US7497884Dec 30, 2004Mar 3, 2009Neenah Paper, Inc.Fine abrasive paper backing material and method of making thereof
US20060143989 *Dec 30, 2004Jul 6, 2006Lindquist Gunnard MFine abrasive paper backing material and method of making thereof