US 1565556 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec. 15, 1925 J. A. FREMON PIN TUMBLER LOCK Filed Oct. 2'7, 1921 5 Z 5. v0 0 A w V m a In re}; Z0 n Jake/K2 7 62120 Patented Dec. 15, 1925.
part of this application.
UNITED STATELSI'PATENT OFFICE;
JULES A. FREMON, 0F LEEPE-R; MISSOURI.-
Application filed October 27, 1921. Serial No. 510,330.
To-aZZ whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, Jones A. FREMoN, a citizen of the United States, residing at Leeper, county of ayne, and State of Missouri, have invented a certain new vand useful Improvement in Pin-Tumbler Locks, of which the following is a full, clear, and ex act description, such as will enable others skilled in the art to which it appertains to make and use the same, reference beingfhad to the accompanying drawings, forming The main ob'ect of my invention is to provide an improved lock construction which is especially adapted for pin tumbler construction, either in ordinary locks, changeable key locks, master keyed looks, or multiple key locks.
The construction by which this main ob ject is attained is disclosed in the drawings accompanying and forming a part of this specification and include individual features which are fully described hereinafter, the provision of which constitutes minor objects of my invention. In these draw- 1ngs Figure 1 is a verticallongitudinal section through my improved pin tumbler lock.
Figures 2, 3, i, and 5 are vertical transverse sections in the same plane but illustrating the lock parts in different relative positions.
Figure 6 is an isometric view of an annular ring which surrounds the lock plug and fits in the lock case.
Figure 7 is a longitudinal section on line 7-7 of Figure 3, illustrating one of the lock details.
Figure 8 illustrates amodified construction of my lock including an eccentric ring which will be found advantageous under some conditions. v
The lock case 1 is of the type in general use for pin tumbler locks and encloses an annular ring 3 which in turn encloses a plug 2. Ring 3 may be rotated on plug 2 for a short distance limited by stud 4 in slot 5. Ring 3 is freely rotatablelin case 1, except when intentionally locked against rotation. Means for locking ring 3 against rotation incase 1 is provided .by a bar 6 longitudinally slidable in case 1, manually operable from the rear of the case and pro= vided' with recesses 7 facing ring 3 Normally a coil spring 19 presses bar 6 to the rear ,ofthe with its end pr jecting from the case adapted to be engaged by the finger of an operator to slidethe-bar forward. Ring 3 is provided with, one or more uniting pins 8 adapted to project into respective recesses 7 in bar 6 when the latter is slid forward and the ring is rotated to the position shown in Figures 2 and 3 which aligns each recess 7 and the pin8 both longitudinally and radially of the ring.
W'hen stud it is at the end of slot 5, indicated in'Figur'e 3, each uniting pin 8 will be aligned with a depression 9 in plug 2. Upon further movement to the right, uniting pin 8 will be cammed into depression 9 to lock ring 3 and plug 2 together. Uniting pins 8 may be spring-actuated to' project outwardly from ring 3 when permitted to do so by suitable positioning of recesses 7, or other means may be provided for forcing it outwardly when desired.
Plug 2 is provided with an axial keyway 11" anda series of radial pin-ways 12. Ring 3 is provided with a corresponding series of pin-ways'13 so located that they and pin-ways 12 are aligned radially of the plug when the ring and plug are in .the relative positions shown in Figures 3, 4 and 5. Ring 3 is also provided with a series of radial recesses 14 which in diameter and spacing correspond with the pin-ways 12 in plug 2. The recesses 14 are located so as to align with pin-ways 12 in plug 2'when ring 3 and plug 2 are in the relative position shown in Figure 2; A number of pin segments 15, of either uniform or varying lengths, are stored in each of the recesses 14.
A wire 16, secured to a dog 17, and a coil spring 18 form a pin segment feeding devicetending to thrust segments 15 inwardly.
Dog 17 has a toe 18 fitting against the surface of plug 2 for the purpose mentioned below. These elements are duplicated for each set of pin segments, five of which are indicated in Figure 1. 5
A pin 20 is located in each pin-way 13 in ring 3. The length of pin 20 is exactly the same as-the thickness of ring Case 1 is provided with a series of spring-pressed driver pins 21 corresponding in number and position" to the pins 20in ring 3 and pin- 7 ways 12 in plug 2. Plug 2 is provided with v a bolt-throwing cam 22, which operates in the usual manner.
0pemti0n.-'The normal condition of the lock is shown in Figure 5 in which case 1 and ring .3 are 109 599 against re ative rota tion by the projection of driver pins 21 into ring 3, and ring 3 and plug 2 are locked against relative rotation by the projection of ring pins 20 into plug 2. Ring 3 and plug 2 are also securely locked by uniting pins 8.
When the proper key A is inserted in the key recess 11 in plug 2, the key bits raise the pins and pin segments to the position shown in Figure 4;, in which each ring pin 20 has its outer end aligned with the outer surface of ring 3, thus permitting free rotation of the ring and plug in the case in either direction, to throw the lock belt or spring latches in the ordinary manner.
If it is desired to change the key A to one having a different bit contour, bar 6 is moved to align its recesses 7 with uniting pins 8, permitting the latter, when positioned as shown in Figure 3, to withdraw from depression 9. Plug 2 may then be turnedindependently of ring 3 which will be held by pins 8 as shown in Figure '3, to the position shown in Figure 2, in which each pin-way is aligned with a ring recess 14. The key A being withdrawn, wire 16 being actuated by spring 18, will thrust segments 15 inwardly to completely fill pinways 12. Upon the insertion of any key, the segments will be thrust outwardly according to the bits of the inserted key and when plug 2 is rotated. to the right, the segments, it any, which remain in pin-way 12 form a new combination for the lock.
It a quick movement oi the plug or a sticking of a segment 15 prevents a pinway 12 from being entirely filled between the key bit and the outer surface of the plug, the toe 18 on the corresponding dog 17 will catch on the wall of the respective pin-way l2 and prevent rotation of the plug to the position shown in Figure 3. The operator will then turn plug 2 back to the position shown in Figure 2 and permit sufficient segments to be thrust into pin-way 12 to enable the dog to ride overthe segment filled pin-way.
Upon plug 2 reaching the position shown ing Figure 3, stud 41: engages the end of slot and carries ring 3 with its contained uniting pins 8 with the plug. As above explained this causes the insertion of uniting pins 8 into depressions 9 forming a rigid unit of the plug and. ring. Bar (5 is restored to its normal position by spring 19. When plug and ring are turned to the position shown in Figure 1-, the pin-ways in the plug, ring and case, are aligned, and in this position the key may be removed, whereupon the driver pins being thrust downwardly by coil springs 25 in the case will assume the locked position shown in Figure 5.
It will be understood that the di'lierent heights of the bits used in the new key may produce a change in the number of segments in each pin-way 12, and consequently the distance in each pin-way from the bottom segment to the upper edge of ring pin 20 may be changed so that the lock can only be operated by a key which will raise each ring pin 20 to the exact height which will permit driver pin 21 to clear ring 3 and which will prevent pin 20 from projecting into the driver pin opening in the case.
In the modification shown in Figure 8, the plug 26 is located nearer to the bottom of ring 27 than to the top thereof. This constr 'ction allords more room for the storing of the tumbler segments or enables the use of a smaller size of ring, desired.
Except when the lock is in the position indicated in Figure 2, the surplus segments in. ring recesses Ll are securely enclosed against removal and it is impossible for them to interfere with the operation of the lock. hen uniting pins 8 are locking the ring and plug together, these two elements form a rigid cylinder and are rotated by the key as the single plug of the ordinary lock. But the separable construction of my plug and ring provides the desirable changeable key feature described and advantageously adapts pin tumbler locks for master keying and multiple keying which embodiments of these applications of my invention are disclosed in my copending applications.
I claim: 7
1. In a changeable-key pin-tumbler look, a sectional rotatable cylinder, all the sections of which must be united to operate the lock and which must be moved relative to each other to change the lock key, and means for uniting the cylinder sections.
2. In a pin tumbler lock, a plug, an annular ring surrounding said plug, rotatable therewith and thereon, and radial pin-ways through said plug and ring, pin tumblers therein, and means independently ot'said tumblers for rigidly holding said pin-ways in alignment.
3. In a changeable key lock, a key-receiving plug, an annular ring surrounding said plug, tubular pin segments in said plug and ring, and means for changing the number of said segments in said plug by changing keys in said plug.
4t. In a pin tumbler lock, a plug, an annular ring surrounding said plug, a pin-way in said ring, a pin segment recess in said ring, a pin-way in said plug adapted to align with said recess or said pin-way, pin segments in said recess, and means for feeding said segments to said plug pin-way.
In a changeablekey pin-tumbler lock, a key-receiving plug, an annular ring surrounding said plug, a pin-way in said ring. a pin segment recess in said ring, a pin-way in said plug adapted to align with said recess or said pin-way, pin segments in said annular ring surrounding recess, and means for feeding said segments to said plug pin-way, the operation of said means being limited by a key in said plug.
6. In a changeable key look, a plug, an
said plug and rotatable therewith, a pin-way in said ring, a pin segment recess in said ring, pin segments therein, a pin-way in said plug, said plug being adapted to be moved relative to said ring to align its pin-way with the ring pinway to operate the lock and to align its pin way with said recess to change the key for the lock.
7. In a changeable key look, a case, a cylinder rotatable therein, lock operating pin tumbler segments carried in said cylinder, segments storing recesses in said cylinder, and means for shifting said segments from their lock operating position in said cylin der to said recesses or vice versa. 5
8. In a changeable key look, a case, a cylinder rotatable therein, lock operating pin tumbler segments carried in said cylinder, and extra segments stored in said cylinder,- the number of lock operating segments being changeable at will.
9. In a changeable key lock, a rotatable plug, lock operating pin tumbler segments contained therein, a pin tumbler segment reservoir adjacent to said plug, and means for locking said plug and reservorir together during normal operation of the lock.
10. In a changeable key look, a rotatable plug, a ring rotatable thereon, a pin-way in said plug, a segment receiving recess in said ring, said pin and plug being adapted to be angularly rotated to align said pin-way and recess, and automatic means for locking said plug and ring against relative rotation when said pin-way and recess are disaligned.
11. In a pin rotatable therein, ring, key manipulated pins for locking saic case, ring and plug together and a manually controlled element for engaging said case or said plug to lock said ring against movement relative to said case or said plug, respectively.
12. In a pin tumbler look, a case, a ring rotatable therein, a plug rotatable in said ring, and a normally inoperative uniting pin in said ring which may be projected into said case or said plug by the holder of an authorized key to lock said ring against movementv relative to said case or plug, respectively.
a plug rotatable in said 13. In a pin tumbler look, a case, a ring rotatable therein, a plug rotatable in said ring, an element in said ring for engaging said ring and said case or said ring an said plug, manually controlled means for causing engagement of said element and said case 1n a predetermlned position, and automatic means for causing engagement of tumbler look, a case, a ring said element and said plug when said plug is moved from said i let. In a pin tumbler lock, acase, a ring rotatable therein, a plug rotatable in said ring, a bar slidabla in, said case in contact with said ring, a uniting pin in said ring, a pin receiving recess in said bar, a pin receiving depression in said plug, means tending to thrust said pin into said bar recess when said bar is slid to align said recess with said pin, and a cam element for forcing said pin out ofsaid bar recess upon relative rotation of said ring and case.
15. In a changeable-key pin-tumbler look, a rotatable plug having a pin segment recess, the capacity of which is determined by the lock key, a segment reservoir adjacent to said plug, and a plug engagement element. adapted to prevent rotation of said plug unless said recess is filled to its capacity as determined by the lock key.
16. In a changeable key look, a key-re-' ceiving plug, an annular ring surrounding said plug and rotatable therewith to operate the lock, pin segments normally in sai plug and ring, and means for changing the number of said segments normally in said plug by changing keys in said plug.
17. In a changeable key look, a key receiving plug, an annular ring surrounding said plug and rotatable therewith to operate the lock, said plug and ring having aligned pin-ways, pin segments normally in said pin-Ways, and means for changing the number of said segments normally in said pinways by changing keys in said plug.
18. In a changeable key look, a case, a hollow cylinder rotatable in said case, a key plug rotatable in said cylinder, aligned pinways in said case, cylinder and plug, pin tumbler segments in said pin-ways, ant means for changing the number of segments key in said plug.
19. In a changeable key lock, a key receiving plug, an annular ring which-surrounds said plug and must rotate therewith to operate the lock, pin segments in said plug and ring, and means for changing the number of said segments in said plug by changing keys in said plug.
20. In a changeable key pin tumbler lock, a sectional rotatable cylinder, all the sections of which must be united to operate the lock and which must be moved relative to each other to change the lock key, means for uniting the cylinder sections, and means for moving the cylinder sections relative to each other when said first-mentioned means is not functioning.
In testimony whereof I hereunto afiiX my signature this 22nd day of October, 1921.
JULES A. FBEMON).
l in one of said pin-ways by changing the