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Publication numberUS1565557 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateDec 15, 1925
Filing dateDec 8, 1921
Priority dateDec 8, 1921
Publication numberUS 1565557 A, US 1565557A, US-A-1565557, US1565557 A, US1565557A
InventorsJules A Fremon
Original AssigneeJules A Fremon
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Pin-tumbler lock
US 1565557 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

J. A. FREMON PIN TUMBLER LOCK Deo'l 8,

- Dec. 15.1925

Patented Dec. 15, 1925i.

UNITE-D Arlzs rari-:Nr ori-*ien YJunrs A. FREM'ON, orf'riEEPER, Mrsso'nm.

Iliv-'fiminineV Ilocxf.

ofA the type disclosed in my copending ap,-

u plications Serial Numbers 510,830 and 514i,-

245, andoonsists in a construction vof such locks Vwhich adapts them for operation by a series of keys, all of which must be usedin the proper order to operate the lock. l. The main object ofmy invention is to provide a pin tumbler lock, each tumbler of which may consist of a plurality of segments adapted to be consecutively raised to different heights by different keys to part at different points, and thereby permit successive rotation of respective portions of the lock which are normally held in locked position by .engagement therewith by the pin tumblers e An additional object of my invention is to provide a vchangeable key construction for such a lock wherein any one of the multiple keys used in the locks operati-on may be changed by the possessor thereof, so that the original key cannot be successfully usedI and sothat other keys of the series required for ther locks o-perationvwill not beafl'ected.I A further object-of .my invention is to provide an adjustable feature whereby the lock may be set torbe operated completely by any desired one of the series-fof keys iitted thereto. n

In the accompanying drawings, which illustra-te my linventiomfw Figure 1 is ajvertica'l longitudinal -section through my improved lock with one of 'the multiple keys inserted. e Figures 2.13.0 6 lnclusiveare vertical. lem-se sections taken on the il e ot Fig Application filed rDecent-loer 8, 1921; Serialglib. 520,949'.-

ure' 1,bu't showing' the elements of the lock indifferent operating positions, asher'ei'nf after described.'

'Figures 7 a'nd 8 are details of two ofy the lock members.

igures 9 and 10 r are sections similartoi Figures 2 to 6, buti'llustrating a modification of my lock which renders the 'ke'y'sv changeable'.

y,The lock' case 1 is cylindrical upper and lower' rectangular projections 2' a'ndv 3,1 respectively. Rotatabl'ev within case 1 is an annular ring L Rota'tabl'e Within ring .4'is an annular ringy 5. and' rotatable withinjects into arecess lllinrinjg 4, thus tem'- porarily lockingri-ng's- 4 and' against relative rotation. TheV head of pin 13 projects into .a recess v1 5 in ring -1, thus temporarily withdrawing the point-'of the pin within the inner periphery'of the ringV so that it does notinterfere with rotation of plug 6.3

Ringe is similarlyprovi'ded with pins 16 and 17 and case 1 with a recess 18 for the point yof vpin 16 and aurecess 19 for the head' of. pin 17.l .Each ofthe above-mentioned pins, is preferably provided with a- ,coil spring tending. to thrust the pin in the direcv tion Awhich its head faces. (SeeFigs. '7 and' 8). VThuspins 12v andv 16 tend to move in- `wardly ,and pins -13 and 17 tend to Vmove outwardly..

Each .of therecesseslfor the heads' of pins 12, 13, 16 and 17` has one edge inclined as' shown which serves. to cam the pin out `of :the rei-fessure; .auch .relative rotation-cf the ringi is a. cylindricalplug'6. The rear endv two members, with which the head engages, as will torce the inclined edge against the pin head. Plug 6 and ring 5 are provided with recesses 2O and 21, respectively, adapted to receive the points of pins 13 and 17, rerespectivcly, when aligned therewith.

Plug 6, ring 4 and ring 5 are provided with studs 30, 31 and 32, respectively, and ring 4, ring 5 and case 1 are provided with respective slots 33, 34 and 35 extending substantially halt-way around the respective inner peripheries ot' the rings and case and serving with studs 30, 31 and 32 to permanently limit theA relative rotation of the adjacent members which carry them.

Projections 2 and 3 in case 1 are each provided with a series ot recessesfor driver pins 22. I have shown tive ot such recesses in each projection, but this number is immaterial and as the drivers in each recess A when the same is inserted in the lock and to be thrust iu'ardly by springs 23 and which press on the case drivers. The key A is held against movement transversely of the plug by the usual rib A and a corresponding recess in the plug.

Assume key A to be the tirst ot' the series of multiple keys which operate the lock and inserted in plug 6. The two (or more) pin tumbler segmentf` and 26 in plug 6 are raised so that their outer ends are flush with the outer periphery of plug 6. Rotation ot' key A to the right as Lfar as possible will move the plug to the position shown in Figure 3 which will align recess 2() with the point ot pin 13 and will align a recess 27 with the head of pin 12. The spring on pin 12 will in'nnediately thrust the pin inwardly so that its head enters recess 27 in plug 6 and disengages ring 4, thus ceasing to function to prevent relative rotation of the two rings. a

Key A is now withdrawn and the next key B of the series may be inserted, as shown in Figure 4, whereby the outer end of tumber segments and 28 are raised to the outer periphery ot ring' 5. Righthand rotation of key B will now cam pin 13 inwardly out ot the recess in ring 4 and into recess 20 in plug 6 and rotate the plug and ring 4 as a unit to the position shown in Figure 5.

The third key C is now inserted (Figure and raises the pin tumblers so that the outer end of tumbler segments 28 and 29 are raised flush with the outer periphery of ring 4 which leaves ring 4 free to 10- tate in case 1. Such rotation cams pin 17 into ring 4 thus locking the two rings together. As plug 6 and ring 5 have been previously united by inward movement oi' pin 13 it is obvious that the plug and both rings will rotate as a unit within the case to throw the lock bolt to unlocked position.

l/Vhen the lock is to be locked it will be necessary to use each key in the reverse order in which they were used in the unlocking operation.

It is to be understood that the pin tuinblers serve to hold the lock members against any movement except when certain keys are inserted and the function of the uniting pins is to prevent simultaneous movement of the plug and rings prior to the Vsuccessive rotation of the members as described.

Wrhile I have shown two rings between the plug' and the case, one could be used without changing the construction of the lock and only two keys would be required to operate the lock. @t course, the rings may be increased in number to any desired extent,

in Figures S) and .10, I have illustrated a construction which requires two keys to be used in succession to operate the lock and either ot these keys may be changed by the possessor thereof for another key having a different bit arrangement. in these figures, the case 40 and plug 41 are like case 1 and plug 6 above described, except that case 4l) is provided with a longitudinal recess which receives a sliding bar 42, similar to that shown in my copending application. Serial Number 514,245, which normally provides a continuous portion ot the interior perishery ot the case upon which slides the head. of uniting pin 43 in ring 44. Bar 42 may be retracted manually however, so as to align a recess therein with the path ot movement of pin 43, which recess will receive the head. of the pin and permit retract-ion o't' the point of the pin from ring 45 when key X is turned to the left.

Ring 45 may then be rotated further to the let't until its stud 46 reaches the end ot slot 47 in ring 44 when the ring pin-way will be aligned with a pin segment reservoir 48 in ring 44 and key X may be withdrawn and aY different key inserted, the difference in the height of the bits being accommodated by a lesser or greater number of pin segments remaining in ring 44.

Plug` 41, ring' 49 and ring 45- are then turned to the right and when stud 46 reaches the righthand end of slot 47, it will positively engage ring 44 when the inclined edge of the bar recess in case 40 will cam pin 43 back into the normal position shown in Figure 9.

Ring 49 has `a A'pin segment reservoir 54V and a lslot 53 and ringv45` has a bar 55fco-rresponding to--the'similar elements 48, 47'* and ring 49 When the new key is in the auf lock.

'lVhen the lock is tobe operated in the' ordinary manner, the kabove described keychanging-elemmts do not function.v Then, a stud l on ring 44 yand a slot 55 in case 40 function as do stud 32 and slot 35 in the preferred form previously described'. Similarly ring 49 and ring 45 are provided, respectively, With a stud 56 -and a slot 57. lVhen the iii-'st operating key has rotated plug 4l and ring 49 to-` the right as yfar as stud 30 and slot 34 permit, it is Withdrawn and a second operating keyinsertcd, which raises the` pin `tumblers so that they may part at the outer periphery of ring 44 and permit -further rotation of both rings and the plug to the ilim-it provided by stud 5l in slot 50;, Wliiich will unlock the lock. These partial rotations by different keys must be r `fersed'l to return thel lock to locked position.

In thisy kmodiication,y the lower pin-Way in the plugs and ringsisnot continued. into ring 44 and' the lower pin-tu'mbl-ers cannot be positioned in the upper pin-Way so as to rendervinoperative the key changing velements. f

'In this construction, the totali rotation `of the plugi-s li-mitedto less than a full revolution by studs 51 and 52 and their slots but such limited rotation is ample to provide for the use of two multiple keys and their tumbler segment changing elements.

I contemplate the usual changes vin the details ofV my device as Will occur tovth-cse skilled in the art and other modifications of my inventionvas come Within the scopeof the followingv claims.

I claim: y

1'. In a. multiple key lock, a case, a member rotatable therein, means denitely limiting the rotation of said member in said case, a plug rotatable in said member, means deii'-I nitely limitingtlie rotationol said'plug in said member, pin tumblers for locking said mem-ber t'o'said case and'jforV locking said plug to said' member, and adapted'to be actu.- ated by a key to releasesaidplug from. said member andv then to be actuated by a second key yto releasey said member fremsaid case, and a: lock bolt operated by rotation of' said member.

2. In a multiplel key lock, aease, a member rotatabletherein, an arcuate slot in saidcase,

a stud ons-aidmember extending `into'sai-.d slot, a plug rotatable-in said member, an arcuate slotrinksaidmembe-r, astudon saiifd plug extendinginto said member (slot, `pin tumblers normally preventing.rotative move'- ment of saidmem-b'er and plug but adaptedto be key-actuated [to prevent theirs@ functioning forbothcase and member and yplug and 'member simultaneously, and uniting. pins respectively locking said. case and member togetherand said plug and member together and adaptedy to disunite their re1- spectiye elements upon rotation o'fvthezla-tter.

3. In .a .multiple key lock, a rotatable plug, a rotatable member surrounding the same and limiting its rotation.a second member surrounding said first-mentioned member and limitingits rotation, means for uniting said members andr adaptedto disunite ythe same when said plug is rotated to the limit provided by-said rotatable member.

4.111 a multiple key lock, a-rotatable plug, a rotatable member surroundingvtlic same and limiting its "rotation, a. second rotatable member surrounding said lirstmentioned member and limiting its rotation', a case surrounding .said second rotatable member and limiting its rotation, means vfor uniting said members, means for uniting said second member and said case, said means 9 being adapted to disunite the respective parts mentioned when saidplug is rotated to the limit provi-ded by said first-mentioned rotatable member, and said plug and irstimentioned member are subsequently rotated to the limit provided kby'saidy case, respectively. v

"5. In a. multiple key lock, a plurality of successively rotatable members, eachrotated by the insertion of an individual key, a cam on each of said members, and a llock bolt adapted'to be engaged by any predetermined one of said cams. Y 1 y 6.' Ina 'multiple-key lock, a plurality of successively rotatable members, each rotated by the insertion of anindividua-l key, a cam on each of said members, a lock bolt, `and a shoe slidable on saidbolt to be adjusted to engage anyone of said cams.

7. In a lock, a plugmember, van annular ring surrounding said plug, a member enclosing said ring, radial recesses in said plug and enclosing member, .and a pinsl-idably mounted in said ring and' adapted to enter either one of said. recesses to unite said ring with said plug or to free said ring therefromv respectively. f

A8. In a lock, a plug member, an kannular ring surroundingsaid plug, a member enclosing said ring, radial recesses in said plug and enclosing member, pins slidably mounted in said ring/ andy adaptedto lenter said recesses in said Vplug member and enclosing mem- -ber,.respcctively,. to unite said ring to said pliugmember or to sadenclosng uurrnber or to enter recesses in said enclosing member and plug member, respectively, to free said ring from said other members.

9. In a lock, a plug member, an annular ring surrounding said plug, a member enclosing said ring, radial recesses in said plug and enclosing member, ins slidably mounted in said ring and respectively adapted to extend alternately in opposite directions from the peripheries of said ring to unite the latter to one of said members or to free said ring from the other of said members.

l0. In a lock, a'plug member, an annular ring surrounding said plug, a member enclosing said ring, radial recesses in said plug and enclosing member, a pin slidably mounted in said ring and adapted to enter either one of said recesses to unite said ring with said plug or to free said ring therefrom, respectively, and means for thrustingI said pin into one of said recesses when aligned therewith, and means for thrusting said pin into the other of said recesses when moved from such alignment.

11. In a lock, a plug member, an annular ring surrounding said plug, a member enclosing said ring, radial recesses in said plug and enclosing member, pins slidably mounted in said ring and adapted to enter said recesses in said plug member and enclosing member, respectively, to unite said ring to said plug member or to said enclosing member' or to enter recesses in said enclosing member and plug member, respectively, to free said ring from said other members, means for thrusting one of said pins into a. recess in said plug when aligned therewith, and means for thrusting the other of said pins out of recess in said enclosing member upon subsequent rotation of the plug and said ring. i

12. Ina lock, a plug, an annular ring surrounding said plug, a member enclosing said ring, a pin slidable radially through said ring and longer thanthe thickness of the latter, and radial recesses in said plug and enclosing member adapted to receive opposite ends of saidr pin respectively when aligned therewith.

13. In a lock, a plug, an annular ring surrounding said plug, a member enclosing said ring, a pin slidable radially through said ring and longer than the thickness of the latter, radial recesses in said plug and enclosing member adapted to receive opposite ends of said pin respectively when aligned therewith, means for thrusting said pin into one of said recesses when aligned therewith, and means for withdrawing said pin from that recess when the ring is rotated relatively to that recess.

14. In a multiple key lock, a plug, a case, a plurality of radial pin-ways in said plug and case in the same transverse plane, pin tumbler Segments insaid pin-ways normally locking said plug to said case and adapted to be raised in one of said pin-ways by one key to permit partial rotation of said plugV and to be raised in the other of said pinways by another key to permit further rotation of said plug.

15. In a multiple key lock, a plug, a case, a plurality of radial pin-ways in said plug and case in the same transverse plane but extending in opposite directions, pin tumbler segments in said pin-ways normally locking said plug to said case and adapted to be raised in one of said pin-ways by one key to permit one-half a revolution of said plug and to be raised by another key in the other pin-way to permit further rotation of said plug.

16. In a multiple key lock, a case, a ring rotatable therein, a plugI rotatable in said ring, pin tumblers locking said plug and ring against rotation in said case, said tumblers being adapted to be parted between said plug and ring by a key to permit rotation of said plug in said ring, means limiting such rotation, said tumblers being adapted to be parted between said ring and case by another key to permitV further rotation of said plug with said ring.

17. In a changeable key pin tumbler lock,

a case, a plug, annular' members therebetween, a pin-way through said members, ease and plug, a series of pin tumbler segments in said pin-way which adapt the pin tumblers formed thereby to be parted at various points in their length to permit different keys of a-series to function in succession to complete operation ofe the lock, and means whereby one of said keys may be changed without affecting the movement of said pin tumblers when engaged by another key of said series.

18. In a pin tumbler lock, tumblers adapted to be repeatedly raised by successive keys used in a predetermined order to unlock the lock and adapted to be repeatedly raised by the same keys in reversed order to lock the lock.

19. In a pin tumbler lock, tumblers adapted to be raised by successive keys used in a predetermined order to unlock the lock, and means requiring the use of the same keys in the reverse order to lock the lock.

20. In a changeable key pin tumbler lock, a case, a plug, annular members therebetween, a pin-Way through said members, case and plug, a series of pin tumbler segments in said pin-way which adapt the pin tumblers formed thereby to be parted at various points in their length to permit-different keys of a series to function in succession to complete operation of the lock, and means whereby any one or Vmore of said keys may be changed without affecting the movement of said pin tumblers when engaged by another key of ,Said Series,

21,'In a pin tumbler lock, means whereby a plurality of keys must be used n succession to completely operate said look, and means for changing one ofsad keys Withoutr affecting the operation of the other of .said

cession to Completely operate the look, and 10 means for 'changing the lengths of said tumblers so that any one key of the series may be changed Without affecting the operation of the other key or keys of the series.`

In testimony whereof I hereunto alX my 15 signature this 1st day of December, 1021.

JULES A. FREMON.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2807158 *Dec 14, 1954Sep 24, 1957Ellison Best FrankMultiple shear line lock with breech lock assembly means
US3194034 *Nov 5, 1962Jul 13, 1965Milton LeiserCylinder lock
US3385086 *Feb 17, 1966May 28, 1968Independent Lock CoKey operated switch mechanism
US3473355 *Sep 19, 1967Oct 21, 1969Saito ToshizumiTwo-key lock
US3595043 *Feb 10, 1969Jul 27, 1971Williams Daniel AKeylock mechanism
US4351171 *Jul 1, 1980Sep 28, 1982China National Light Industrial Products Import Export Corporation, Shantung BranchSequential locking two key lock
US4669288 *Feb 5, 1986Jun 2, 1987Paul Journee S.A.Lock comprising preassembled elements
US4850210 *Sep 21, 1987Jul 25, 1989Richard S. AdlerLock adjustable to operate with different keys
US5325690 *Jul 24, 1989Jul 5, 1994Richard S. AdlerLock adjustable to operate with different keys
US5921121 *Apr 18, 1997Jul 13, 1999Tang; Xu FaiAdjustable key-type spring pin lock cylinder
US7340929 *Mar 21, 2005Mar 11, 2008Efthemois ChristopoulosAxially rotative rekeyable lock
DE3503570A1 *Feb 2, 1985Aug 29, 1985Bauer Kaba AgCodierbarer schlosszylinder
WO1991001425A1 *Jul 24, 1989Feb 7, 1991Richard Steven AdlerLock adjustable to operate with different keys
WO2010085205A1 *Jan 19, 2010Jul 29, 2010Bernt AdolfssonLock and binary key therefor
Classifications
U.S. Classification70/339, 70/358, 70/493, 70/382, 70/375, 70/DIG.500
International ClassificationE05B27/06, E05B27/00
Cooperative ClassificationY10S70/05, E05B27/005
European ClassificationE05B27/00K