US 1568765 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jan. 5 1926.
L. ORTEGO HELICOPTER Filed Feb. 16 1925 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 v\ N N1 3 Syvum/Wo@ [ea reyo.
Jan. 5 1926.
L. ORTEGO v HELicoPTER Filed Feb. 16, 1925 4 sheets-sheet .2
@woe/Mbo@ Lea 071270.
Jan. 5,1926. 1,568,765 i l L. oR'rEGo HELICOPTER y Filed Feb. 16 1925 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 NVENTOR.
L 60 rey a.
16x/gi g 5' l ATTORNEY'.
Jan. 5,1926. I l 1,566,765l
L. ORTEGO 4 HELICOPTER Filed Feb. 16 1925 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 hated .hais-,Ilm f UNIT-ED? `:.19 enrico; or Louisiana.
f apprit-men maren-davis, im( smalle. assi. j i.. 'Y
1 Tovall whom Be it known that I, Lno Omoo, a citizenv of the United States, residing at Alexandria.,
and especially to improvements m helic9p.'
ters. v 4
One of the objects of the 'invention is to provide a simple andv ellicient means vfor sustaining and controlling the iight ofv an aeroplane.4 H v A further object consists in providing a helicopter with longitudinally movable-and adjustable means whereby the vertical thrust of the propellers may be utilized for moving the machine forwardly or rearwardly. Another purpose of the invention comprehends the positioning of the stabilizing and guiding rudders at the front-of "the machine and the ilots seat adjacent the rear thereof. Ad 'tionall vsuitable means are con# nected to the si es of the fuselage 4for preventing the same from rotating with the main wings when the machine `1s in flight. Referring to the drawings wherein is set forth an embodiment of the. invention: i0- Figure 1 is a side elevational view of the helicopter.
Figure 2 i parts in section.
Figure 3- is a longitudinal sectional view ofthe rear portion of the machine. a'
Figure 4 is a longitudinal sectional view of the front-portion of the machine. v
Figure 5 isan enlarged sectional detailed vieu.' of the aerofoils.
Figure 6I is a sectional view taken substantiallyalong the lines 6-6 of Figure 1. Figure 7 is` an enlarged sectional view taken substantially along the lines '7--7 of Figure 3. j
Referring to the drawings in'which like numerals indicate like lparts in the several views, 10 denotes the body or fuselage of a flying machine, preferably' of streamfline 0 shape The body 10 -is composed -of spaced longrons 11 connected together' by Athe vertical struts 12 and the gu'ywiresl?) as shown in Fi 'attached to 'the "transverse eparsv14 in anyis a plan view of Figurel with' driving means, for rotating the gum 4..l The longrons 11 suitable-manner, such as by the bolts'15,
whilethe spars are covered with. a suitable v waterproof fabric 16.,- A frame sup rtr able light metalo j from-the fuselage at a point adjacent the ,center of4 gravity of the machine, and is secured to the. sockets v18 and brackets 19 carried by the longrons l11 as shown in'y Figure 3.- A motor 20 of anyl suitable type m a radiator 21 .aremounted in the fuseage near the' center of balance of. the m'a- 'eh1ne. The fusela l is further provided tower17of any suit' or wood projects upwardly 'i with a cockpit or pilots seat 22 and a pas` d songer seat 23, preferabl v positioned to' the rear of. the engine, an a longitudinall movable passengefs seat 24 arranged in ad vance of the engine vso as to equallyv distribute the weight of the machine.
A 'ring 25, made 'ef any mutable' light metal, 1s `secured to the frame support 16 by the`bolts-26, and has its upper end curved inwardly and downwardly-as at 27 to.- form with a complementarycurved ptltion 28 of the turret 29, a raoeway for the and are detac ably.' connected tothe ,turret Y lbearings 30, thus, permitting the turret to be freely.
25 by the bolts Stay wires 34', connected to eachof the blades, tend to maintain the,
latter invproper position whenthemachine I is in flight.
VA vertical shaft 37, 'whichextends through Y thev support 17, is geared at its lower end atits opposite end to'the engine 20,*and-has a bevel'gear 384 in mesh with correspond- 'sha 41 and`42, which shafts are cannected tof the Propellers 35 and 36, respectively.
The shafts are suitably su in the turret 29 by a bracket 43 pre erabl made of light metal such as aluminum. v
extremities of the shafts 41 and 42 terminate e outer in beveled gears 44, 'which mesh'with cor?` respondingly formed A each of the propeller s afts- 46. y I t will be observed that as the`drive shaft 37 rotates in the'. direction of the arrow, as indicated in vFigure 5; the propeller shafts 41, and 42 45 'carried by win me intppnsitg Montags aus.
` pulling action on the leading ed ing one of the ropellers to impart a pushin action to e wings and the other pro Wr to im art a-pullingforce thereto.4
`le oneA o the propeller shafts revolves in a clockwise direction, andthe other in an U endl wlth an annular portion 67 arranged to anti-clockwise direction, they both exert a wings so as to prevent the mac e fr om skidding to one side.l Suitable supporting brackets 47, connected -to ,the wing spare 48, as shownin Fi re 2, act as journals for the shafts 41an` 46. The brackets 47 are preferably providedwith ball bearings so as to reduce to a minimum the vibration of the shafts when-the machine is in motion.
` The wings 32 and 33`are of such a size as to cover 'over 300 square feet of lifting surface, and are so cambered that the angle Y of incidence will be such as to normally cause the machine to ascend vertically upward when the win s are rotated. Furthermore, the surface o the wings are arranged so as to supply the necessary sustaining force for maintaining the machine buoyed in the air either when the wings are rotating or the machine is gliding.
When the machine is at rest, the turret 29 engages the rollers 49,' carried by the ring 25. It will be observed that these rollers are suiciently spaced from the curved portion 28 of the turret to permit the latter to asd eend and engage the ball bearings 30 when the blades arel rotated. A fuel tank 50, carried by the framesupport 17communicates with the engine through a supply pipe The'helicopter is steered laterally bya F vertical rudder 52 movably connected to the :forward end or nose of the ship by a bracket 53 and a hinge 54 as' shown in Figure 4. A foot lever 55, pivoted to the bottom of the pilots cockpit, 1s operatively connected to the vertical rudder 52 by any suitable means such as the cables 56, shown in Figure 2. Horizontal rudders or elevators y 57 positioned on each side of the vertical rudder 52 are connected by the cables 58 to the hand control 59, and tend to stabilize or balance the ship once the desired height is reached. This rudder also may be used to vary the speed of the machine by changing the angle of incidence of the aerofoils 32 and 33, thus causing the ship to travel either slower or the fuselage. Additionally, a movable strut 65 is loosely connected to the rudders 61 and 62 so as to maintain them in proper spaced relation with respect to each other. The rudders 61 and62 are arranged to be swung of the v means fit in a correspondingl formed socket in the bracket 68, attache to the floor board 69, as showninFigure 3. Manifestly, when the lever 59 is moved longitudinally it will cause the horizontal rudder 57 to be swun aboutits anis, but will not materially a fect. the side rudders 60 and 61. On the otherhand, when the lever 59 is moved laterally, it will swing the cables 66 in the same direction, which in turn will actuate the side rudders 60 and 61.
The passenger seat 24 is arran ed to bc longitudinally slidable in the fuse age so as to change the axisof the machine and vary the ange of incidence of the main planes. Accor mgly, the seat 24 is movably connected to side rails by means of a transverse bar 71 which bar has attached thereto a depending bracket 71', arranged to frictionally engage the ball bearings 72, carried by the up er surface of the side rails 70. A foot rest 3, attached to the seat 24, is positioned a suicient distance from the fioor 74 to permit the seat 24 to be moved without anger of the passengers feet engaging the floor. The seat 24 is connected preferably by a cable 75 to a rotatable drum 76 keyed to.
a horizontal portion 77 of the operating arm 78, which arm is journalled to the strut 79 by the bolts 80 in the manner as shown in igure 7. A ring 81, secured to the strut 79 by the brackets 82 and bolts 83, has a series of annularly spaced openings 84 arrangedto receive the inner end of a movable plunger handle 85 carried by the arm 78.
-A spring 86, confined between a lug 87 and the adjacent wall of the arm 78 tends to normally force the handle 85 inwardly into engagement with one of the holes 84. It will be seen that by reason of this construction, the seat 24 may be moved either fore or aft by rotating the handle 85, and may be maintained in any desired fixed position by means of the locking engagement of the handle 85 with the openings 84 inthe ring 81. When the seat 24 is not occupied by a passenger any suitable weighted means may be carried by it, such as a sand bag or the like.
The running ear structure com rises a pair of substantially V-shaped brac ets 86 connected b the bolts 87 to thc underside of t e fuselage adjacent the real' end thereof. Each of the brackets 86 is formed with a bearing 88 in which is journalled an axle 89 which carries the wheels 90. A skid or bum er 91 is pivoted to a bracket 92, which brac et is secured to the underside of the forward ortion of the fuselage by the bola 9a Te sind 91 is maintained iii y ground, preferu ly by a sprin 94 connected to ope end thereof and the uselage, so as to reduceI the 'arring of the machine when itisbeinglan ed. l 'The operation of the helicopter is as fol-` ows:v i v Assuming 'the ship tobe on the ground, the turret 29 will rest against the rollers 49 carried by the ring 25.* Upon the .engine being start-ed the propellers and 36 are driven through the instrumentality of the vertical shaft `37, geared to the horizontal shafts 41` and 42. The rotation of the propellers 35 and 36 imparts a push and pull action on the wings 32 and 33, which causes the turret at first to rise .from its engagement with the rollers 49 and contact with the ball bearings 30, and then to freely rotate about the ring 25. It will be observed that the propellers 35 and 36 are positioned closer to the outer edges of the wings l32 than they are to the turret. or wing tower 25, so that the blast from the propellers will strike the side vertical rudders and 61 and vthus cause the machine to easily ascend from the ground. As the .main planes revolve on their axis, lthe air` .is forced directly downward, causing the machine to ascend. The necessary sustentation which buoys the plane in the air being supplied by the wide lifting surface of the aerofoils 32 and 33. The fusilage 10 is maintained stationar relative to the main planes during the ight of the ship by .means of the .side vertical rudders 60 and Gl, which rudders may be adjusted by moving the control lever v59 either tothe right or left as may be desired. The lateral stability of the ship is controlled by the op.- eration of the horizontal rudders 57 which tend to balance the machine once the desired height is attained. These horizontal rudders may also be utilized to raise or lower the axis of the fuselage which in turn changes the angle of incidence of the main wings causing the ship to travel at a faster or lower speed. When the machine has attained the desired altitude, it may be propelled forward by the pilot moving the passenger seat 24 towards the nose of the ship which lowers the forward end of the fuselage and vchanges the angle of incidence of the main wings. Upon the seat 24 heilig returned to its noi'inal position, the machine will again tend to ascend, while on the other hand, should it ever be desired that the machine be moved backward, it can be effected by moving the seat 24 rearwardly so as to lower the tail of the ship, which in turn would incline the main wings 32 and 33 and. cause the machine to be I moved tothe rear.
While the main win or aerofoils'32 and l. 33 are shown of canti ever construction, it
-lyieldable contact' 'with :the
1,665,7er's is obvious that these lwings may .bef laddi-l tioiiall; supported by any suitable'f'orin or rigid racing extending from the turret 29 'and `connected to the outer ends of the Win .y A
beiuiiderstood that the form of gg v -It vis to the invention herewith shown and described is merely illustrative, and in yno restrictive, and such changes and modifications as fall within the purview o one skilled in the art may be made without departing from the spirit of the invention and the scope of the appended claims.
1. A flying machine of the class described comprising a fuselage having a pilots seat in the rear thereof, a supporting frame extendin upwardly from the fuselage, reinovab e wings journalled to the support, propellers carried b said wings, means for driving said rope lers, a vertical rudder at the forward) end of the fuselaY e for controlling the lateral' stability o the machine, a member longitudinally movable in said fuselage for varying the itch of the machine, and vertical side rud ers adjacent the forward end of the fuselage for maintaining the latter stationary relative to the wings when the machine 'is in flight. y y
2. A flying machine of the class described comprising a fuselage having a frame support` extending upwardly therefrom, a pilots seat ositioned to the rear of said support an a passengers seat in front thereof,rotatable wings journalled to said support, driving pro ellers carried by said wings, a vertical rudder connected to the front of the fusela e for controlling the lateral stability of t e machine, horizontal rudders ad'acent said vertical rudders for" balancing t e machine, vertical side rudders connected to the fuselage for preventing the lll port extending upwardly therefrom, an-en- A gine mounted in the fuselage, revoliible wings journalled to said support, driving propellers carried .by the wings and operatively connected to said engine, said fuselage having a )ilots-seat in the rear thereof and stabilizing rudders connected to its forward end, a longitudinally movable passenger seat in the fuselage in front of the support for varying the pitch of the machine, rudders connected to the sides of the fuselage for preventing the latter from rotating with the wings when the machine is in flight, controlled means near the pilots seat operatively connected to the. rudders,
and controlled means for the passenger seat for selectively operating the same.
4. A flying machine of the class described com rising a fuselage having a support exten ing upwardly therefrom, an engine mounted in the fuselage, two pair of opposed cambered wings revolubly mounted on said sup ort, one pair of said wings havin a pus ling propeller connected to the leadlng edge of one wing, and a pulling propeller connected to the leading edge o the other wing, means o eratively connecting said en` gine with sai propellers for rotating said wings, means maintaining the fuselage stationary relative to the wings during the flight of the machine, means at the forward end of the fuselage for stabilizing the machine, and means longitudinally movable in the fuselage for varying the pitch of the machine.
5. A dying machine of the class described comprising a fuselage having a frame support extending upwardly therefrom, a ring secured to the upper end of the support, a revoluble turret movably connected to said ring, aerofoils secured to said turret, propellers attached to the leading edges of the i aerofoils, an engine mounted in said fuselage, means operativelyI connecting the engine to said propeller or rotatin the aerofoils, a pilots seat in the rear o the fuselage, stabilizing rudders connected to the forward end of the fuselage, and means movably connected to the sides'of the fuselage for preventing the same from rotating with the aerofoils.
6. A flying machine of the class described comprising a fuselage having a frame support extending upwardly therefrom, a ring secured to the upper end of the support, a revoluble turret movably connected to said ring, aerofoils secured to said turret, propellers attached to the leading edges of the aerofoils, an engine mounted in said fuselage, means operatively connecting the engine to said propeller for rotating the aero- 4foils, a pilots seat in the rear of the fuselage, stabilizing rudders connected to the forward end of the fuselage, means movably connected to the sides of the fuselage for preventing the same from rotating with the aerofoils, and a seat longitudinally slidable in the fuselage for varying the angle of incidence of the machine.
7. A flying machine of the class described comprising a fuselage having a frame support extending upwardly therefrom, a ring secured to the upper end of the support, a revoluble turret movably connected to said ring, aerofoils securedv to said turret, propellers attached to the leading ledges of-the aerofoils, an engine mounted in said fuselage, means operatively connecting the engine to said propeller for rotatin the aerofoils, a pilots seat in the rear of' the fuselage, stabilizingr rudders connected to the forward end of thc fuselage, means movably connected to the sides of the fuselage for preventing the/same from rotating with the aerofoils, a seat longitudinally slidable in the fuselage for varying the angle of incidence of the machine, and means for maintaining the seat in predetermined position.
8. A lyingmachme of the class described comprising a fusela e having a pilots seat and a longitudine ly movable passenger seat, a support extending upwardly from the fuselage, an engine mounted in the fuselage, a turret movably connected to the u per end of the support, wings secured to said turret, driving propellers carried by said wings, means operatively connecting the propellers to the engine for rotating the wings, stabilizing rudders attached to one end of the machine, means for preventing the fuselage from rotating with the wings, means o erable from the pilots seat and connecte to the movable passenger seat for locking the passengers seat in any desired position.
9. In a helicopter, the combination of a fuselage having a support projecting u wardly therefrom, aerofoils rotatab y mounted on said support, means for driving said aerofoils, a pilots seat in the rear of the support, a movable passen ers seat in front of the sup ort, stabilizing rudders connected to the ront end of the fuselage and operable from the pilots seat, means on the sides of the fuselage for preventing the same from rotating with the aerofoils, a drum mounted in the pilots seat and operatively connected to the movable seat, and means associated with said drum for Ymaintaining the movable seat in a predetermined position.
10. In a helicopter, the combination of a fuselage having a support projecting u wardly therefrom, aerofoils rotatabliy mounted on said support, means for driving said aerofoils, a pilots seat in'the rear of the support, a movable passengers seat in front of the sup ort, stabilizing rudders connected to the ront end of the fuselage and operable from the pilots seat, means on the sides of the fuselage for preventing the same from rotating with the aerofoils, a drum mounted in the pilots seat and operatively connected to the movable seat, a ring having a series of-.spaced openings connected to the fuselage adjacent said drum, and means attached to the drum and adapted to engage the openings in said ring for maintaining the movable seat in a fixed position.
l1. In a helicopter, the combination of a fuselage having a frame support extending upwardly therefrom, wings removably mounted on said su port, means for rotating said wings, said selage having a pilots sengers seatr in front thereof, a control stick'in said pilots seat, a vertical rudder connected to the forward end of the fuselage for controlling, the lateral direction of themachine, side rudders attached -to the fuselage for preventing the machine from rotating with the wings, said rudders bein operatively connected to the control stic andadapted to beindependently actuated thereby, a horizontal rudder connected to the front end of the fuselage, a foot control in the ilots seat operatively connected to the horizontal rudder, and means comprising the passengers seat for changing the direction of flight of the machine.
12. In a helicopter, thev combination of a fuselage having a frame support extending. upwardly therefrom, wings removably mounted in said support, means for rotating said wings, said fuselage having a pilots seat in the rear of the support andy apassen ers seat in front thereof, a control stic in said pilots seat, a vertical rudder connected to the forward end of the fuselage for controlling the lateral direction of the machine, side rudders attached to the fusev lage for preventing the machine from rotatable means comprising the passengers seat V for changing the direction of Hight of the machine, said last mentioned means being operable from the pilots seat.l
In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand.