US 1572126 A
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1,572,126 E. BOTHNER ELECTROMAGNETIG 'COMPRESSOR Filed oct.' s, 1923 2 Sheets-sheet 1 Feb. 9, 1926.
M T .N E v m n Emil Bof/mei,
MQ), .HTTR/Vfy Wl T/VESS Feb) 9, 1926.
E. BOTHNER ELECTROMAGNTCOMPRESSOR Filed Oct. 5, 1923 `2 Sheets-Sheet 2 /v VEN To@ www Wu" ter with the respectivi apertures. and admit ylilateirctll tiel). 9, i926. ,i
errno STATES EMIL BOTHNER, or FLORAL PARK, NEW YORK.
Application filed.l Gctober 3, 1923. Serial No. 666,227.
)"o n!! icm/u. 'it Imay conce/m.
lc it known that l.' llnu. llora-Nun. a citizen ot the (crnran Republic. residing at Floral larlc. in the. county of Nassau and State ot New York, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in lllectromagnetic Compressors, ot' whichthe following is a specilication.
the object oll this invention is to provide improvements in electro-pneumatic gas compressors. in the details ot construction, and in the operation thereof.
Another object is to provide a reciprocatory piston. which at the .same time comprises an electroniagnet, the respectively opposite ends of which are operative tobe alternately att acted and repelled with mutual respect to adjacent relatively lined magnets.
A further object is to. provide in such an apparatus a magnet, fixed with respect to the reciproeatory piston, an-d provided with inlet and outlet ports. the alternate opening` ot which is controlled by suitable springpressed valves. v Y
Still another object is to proyide, in coml binat-ion with the reeiprocatory piston. 'a commutat-or carried thereby. a.V member adapted to reciprocate in phase vet no t in unison with said piston, a pluralityot contacts movable with said member and with respect to said commutator. to permit an electric current. to change the polarity ot the` piston ends with respect to relatively `stationary magnets positioned adpicent thereto,
' fwhereby the current propels the piston first in one direction and then in the other.
.fnd a' still tnrthcrfobject is to provide in such a construction a small boro within each end portion of the; piston and leadingr towards the reciprocatory member. a stationary partition between the piston and the said member and'lhaving apertures with which the said bores alternately register. said apertures being positioned longitudinally beyond the limit of movement ot the said inen'lber. whereby air compressed by the piston within the surrounding cylinder escapes through the bores alternately as they regis ai;` iiressure bchilid and operative, to reciprocate the. said member, which thereby carries the contacts into cti-operation with such segments ot the.commutator as will el'- lect a reversal ot the magnetism ol the pis ton, and its resulting'movement.
'With these and other objects in View, the
present invention comprises .further novel details ot construction hereinafter fullv brought out in the followii'lg description when read in conjunction with tlv accompanying drawings` in which Fig. 1 is a top plan view ot a pair of compressors coupled i'n tandem. so as to complete a magnetic circuit upon the exterior ot each unit, `and with `the compressed air channels connected in parallel: Fig. 2 is a vertical. longitudinal section through one ot the independent compresser units: Fig. 3 is a` section on the line of Fig. 2: Fig. 4 is ay section on the line 4.-4 of Fig. 3: and Fig. 5 is a section on the line 5 5 ot Fig. 2f
Referring to Fig. Q ot' the di'awingrsone embodiment of the invention comprises a cylindrical member 1. provided at its opposite ends with radially extending flanges 2 a'nd 3, to -the former ot which is removably secured an annular ring 4. while, to the latter is secured a similar ring'li. each of said rings having a centrally positioned aperture defined by a conical surface (i. within and closely fitted ladjacent: to which vis a similarly shaped valve-plate 7 ot a member having a reduced end portion 5% extending a relatively slight distance within the neighboring portion of the cylinder 1, and directlyagainst the latter in such manner as to prevent transverse vibration ol said plate within its own plane. Said plate is provided upon its outer surface with an integral axially lextending reduced portion t). lsurrounding which is a pole l() supporting the helix l1 of an eleetromagnet, the core ot which is the reduced portion 0' ol .the valve-plate T, which forms one ot the poles.
The portion 9 is further reduced at 12 and surroundedby a washer 13, adjacentto which are 'formed the end portions of a preferably laminated yoke 14. operative to magnetically connect. said electro-magnet with a second and similar magnet lwithin a neighboring compressor unit, the laminations ot saidyoke being removably maintziinedin operative position by any suitable means such as a nut l5.
The oppositely positioned valve-i'ilates, extensions. etc., are exact-ly similar, wherefore they have been similarly numbered, while each ol" the electro-magnets is preferably.
covered to prevent injury to the coils or an accun'iulation ol' Yforeign particles thereupon by means of a cylindrical closure .1.6: Each ot the valve-plates 7 is provided With a'.
transversely extending bore or port 17,' outlet'of which is regulated by a valve I8 carmed by a stemlSl extending slidably within in axially positioned bore 2O in a plug 2l removably secured within the bore 17,.while a suitable coil-spring 22 surrounds said stem between the valve and the plug to maintain said valve 1n normally closed position against its seat.` 4'lhe bore 20 of thc plug 1s enlarged at 23 to receive asot-sciew 24 or the like, which, being within the path of the longitudinal movement of ,the valve-stem, regulates the movement of the latter and thercbyjthe' effective area'of the inlet port. The position of the plug 24 being predetermined, it isset by means of a lock-screw' Q5, while the enlarged portion of said bore said is maintaired removably in operative is adapted to be closed by a removably positioned plug 26, to prevent dust and dirt from' entering. said bore'.
Exit from said outlet bore 17 is by Way or a radially extending bore 28 within the rino' 4, and into which leads a'pipe 29. The
bores 39, each" of which is -adapted to be closed by means of a valve 31 carried by a stem 32 in turn encircled by la spring 33,'
and co-operating with a plug 34, having an' annular ange 35 resting upon an annular shoulder 36 within the bore' 30;' Said plu xe position by means of a. plu 30, hollowe'd at 38 to receive the free en portion of the valvestem and surrounding coil-spring'. Air or other gas assing from within the compressor throng the exhaust ports or boresOpass through laterally disposed apertures 39 intoa common radially extending bore 40, in' alignment with which is a bore 41 within the ring 4, and into which lastnamed bore is secured a pipe 42.
Mounted to reciprocate within the cylinder ,1, which latter by the way is of non-magnetic material, is a dumb-beil-shaped memberof v magnetioimetal, comprisin oppositely positioned heads 43 lconnected y a centrally rering4 48 only. The memberl intermediate. .of its ends is provided witha radially extending integral housing 50, comprising n'- .allel oppositely positioned side walls connected at their opposite end portions and adapted to .be close by means cfa remove- ,brushes 58` normally' pressed'outwardly by valve-plate 7 is furthermore pierced by one or preferably two transversely extending arranged in alignment with the'other ports I. ble cover 51` of insulating. material, saidf Vwalls and rcover inclosing a; chamber con-` nected with thel bore of thev member 1 by? means of a radiallyextending longitudinally elongated passageway 52. yNl Lying wi thin the member l is a lixedly poi sitioned partition 53, centrally apertured at ,54, while between said partition and the ad- /jacent wall of "the surrounding'member is a reciprocutory member 55, having a central Vaperture 56, in which is secured the inner portion of a-block 57 of linsulating material,
linto which 1s moulded cylindrical metallic housings 57?, in which are slidably mounted a 8 means of a sprin .59 into engagement with the surface of t e cylindrical membefllvli and the annular metallic members'47, 48fand'.
49, which together comprise a commutator., 'Each ofthe housings 57is electricall co" nected with a housing in which upwa'r ly' rected brushes 60 are positioned, these lett brushes slidably engaging metallic vvconta plates 61 and 61", carried upon the underst face Aof the cover 51, while connected with.. each of said lates -andextending throughsaid cover are indin'g-posts 62 and 62". The opposite end portions' of the space be-g. tween the partition 53 and the adjacent wall of ,the non-magnetic member 1 are filled by 9o Asuitable blocks 63, adjacent to which the par- -tition 53 uis providedwith 'restricted aper# tures' 64.l The reciprocatory member 4344 is then provided with an angular bore ex- 'tending inwardly from each of the outer 10@ faces of the head portions 43 inwardly and vthence radially into a circumferential groove 65,which grooves are so positioned that one of `them registers with one of the restricted bores 66 in the partition 53, when thel reciprocatory member isin each of its extreme opposite positions of movement. It -Will also4 be noted that the oppositely directedu aligned openings of the bore 64 mayif desired llO 17, and co-axial with the Valves 18,"though this is not an essential requirement to the satisfactory operation of the device. Referring to Fig'. 1,'a'pair of compressor units hereinbefore described in detail is con- ``nected up by means ofthe laminated yokes` 1 4, while the other pipes 29 arc connected y together by means of a pipe 67 ateach of the adjacent ends o'f' the said units, While-V said hust-named.v pipes -are connected t0-'i120 gethoiyto a pipe (i8, from which a pipe'lill may conduct the compressed nir .or`otli'er-- gas towards or into vany predetermined loc tion, machinery, or refrigerating system," 'f which this improved unit is 'particularly adapted.
VWhen employing this compressor for refrigeration purposes, the gases which may be compressed number among others ain-Lf?" monia, sulphur-dioxide, carbon-dioxide, pro-y 13.0
pane, etc., where the compressor is employed merely .to compress air to the pipes 42 directly from the atmosphere, but where the coi'npressors comprise a part of the refrigerating, system or the like, the pipes 42 are connected between adjacent ends ot a pair ot' compressors by means of a pipe 70, said pipe 70 being connected by a pipe 71, which in turn is connected by otl a pipe 7i?, into the retrigerating circuit.
ln the operation ot this device. and reterring partiinilarlyto lFig. 2, it is aslsumed that the windings o t the respective solenoids or electro-magnets are connected to the respective plus (-l-) and minus sides .of a direct source. ot electric power. l`With the member 4S in the position illustrated, the electric current energizes the winding 1l and core J in such manner that the head becomes positively magnetized, or, for sake of convenience, will be referred to as a northpole. The current continuing on through the helix 45 magnetizes the head 43 of the reciprocatory member adjacent to the head 70 negatively, or as a south-pole, and the opposite head of said member positively, or as a north-pole. The current continuing on energizes the head 7 positively as a northpole.
With this arrangement, the unlike poles and the like poles, as usual, repel, so that the reciprocatory member is thrust toward the lett-hand side of the device (as in Fig. 2). 'lhe gas adjacent to the head surface 8 is compressed-and expelled. through the outlet port 17, past the valve 18, and through the i es mgmt et the member 43 is substantially completed, a slight residual gas pressure passes through the adjacent angular bore 64: and
creates a slight putt of gas through the peripheral groove 65, and outlet aperture 66 in the` partition 53, thus-creating a pressure to the left side of the member 55, which instantly forces said last-named member towards the right-hand side of the device.
rthe brushes 58 being carried with the member 55 out of contact with the commutator members 47 and 48, and into contact with the commutator members 48 and 4,9, the, polarity of each ot'the end portions of the reciprocatory member 44 is changed respectively from south to north and from north to south, so that by reason of the stationary magnets7 polarity remaining the saine, the reciprocatory member is oscillated again into the position illustrated in Fig. 2, i
and substantially at the completion of its motion, the member 55 is impelled by air pressure as hereinbefore described into the lett-hand position also shown in Fig. 2.
'This cycle of operation,.continning, the rcciprocatory member maintains a. continual oscillatory motion, which emits compressed gases, tiist through one and then the other 29, 67 and 69. However, as the moveof the pipes 70, causing a substantially continuous flow ot compressed gas through the pipes 7l and 72. As hereinbet'ore referred to, each of these compressor units may be employed singly, `but it yoked together in tandem as shown 1n Fig. l, the continuity of the flow of gases will be obviously more nearly even, the resulting pressure, ot the gas within the pipe' 72.w1ll be accordingly rounding said metallic portion and a'daptedV to be connected in an electric circuit, an electro-magnet adjacent to each ot' the opposite ends of said casingand also adapted .to be connected in an electric circuit, a reciprocatory commutator operative whereby themagnetism otV said member and one of the end magnets draws the former in one direction, and then whereby the magnetism of said member and the other end magnet draws said member in the opposite. direction, and valves controlling the passage of ,fluid trom said easing alternately to vthe opposite sides of said commutator, whereby residual fluid pressure when said first member. approaches the end of a stroke reciprocates said commutator into its respective magnet-controlling positions.v
2. A pump, comprising a casing, a reciprocatory piston having ay portion formed of magnetic metal, a winding 'surrounding said metallic portion, commutator sections connected with the ends ot said winding whereby the latter is connected in an electriceircuit, an electro-magnet adjacent to eac-h of the opposite ends ot said casing and also adapted to be connected in an electric circuit, a. sliding contact mechanism to automatically reverse the liow of an electric current through the piston winding and to thereby reverse the polarity of said piston, intake and exhaust valves operative to insure a unidirectional tlow ot fluid Ythrmigh said casing, and valves operative to permit a portion of the compressed fluid within said casing to pass alternately to the opposite sides of said mechanism t-o recijn-ocate the contacts thereof.
3. A pump` comprising a. ciprocatory electro-metallic portion within said casing, a relatively stationary electromagnet adjacent to each of the opposite ends of said casing, a winding surrounding said casing, a re.-
v piston, commutator sections carried by said piston and connected with said winding, a' reciprocatory member Within said' casing, brush contacts carried by said member, and pneuniatically actuated control valves for shifting the position of said memberas said piston ceases .movement in one direction, whereby a current passing through said contacts and sections reverses the polarity oftake and outlet valves -at each end of said casing to insure ai' unidirectional How of fluid through thevcasing, and a fluid pas-- sage-way at each end of said piston leading -to spaces adjacent-to said member, whereby as the motion ofthe piston ceases in one direction the residual pressure betweenvthe piston and the outlet valve is permitted to shift the position of said member so that a current passingtlirough said contacts and sections reverses thepolarity of said piston and operates to move said piston in the opposte direction.
15. A pump,vcomprising a casing, a reeiprocatory electro-metallic portion Within said casing, a relatively stationary electromagnet adjacentn to each of the opposite ends of said casing, a Winding surrounding said piston, commutator sections carried b said piston and'connected with said win ing, a reciprocatory member within said casing,'brush contacts carried by said member, intake'and outlet valves at cach end of said casing to insure/a unidirectional'flow of iuid through the casing, a iuid passage- Way at each end"of said piston leading to spaces adjacent to said member, whereby as the motion of the piston ceases 1n one direction` the residual pressure between the piston and the outlet valve is permitted to shift the position of said member so that a current passing through said contacts and. sections reverses the polarity of said piston and operates to move said piston in the op posite direction, contact means carried by.-.55
and operative to lead an electric curren into said casing, and sliding contacts carried by said member and co--operating with said last-named means to conduct current to the said commutator sections.
6. A pump, comprising a pair of casings, an electro-magnet in each of the. ends of each casing, electro-magnetic yckes con- 'necting'tlie corresponding magnets of said casings together, a reciprocatory piston in each casing, pneumatically actuated means to reverse the polarity of ,each of said pistons, .intake and exhaust .valves connected with eachv of the spaces between the respective pistons and the casing, ends, conduits connecting the several intake valves together, and conduits connecting the several erhaust valves togetherwhereby the movement of said pistons supplement each other to provideV a unidirectional flow of fluid in a ctrunk line conduit. 1
In testimony whereof I have affixed my signature.